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Full text of "The Indian tribes of the upper Mississippi Valley and region of the Great Lakes : as described by Nicolas Perrot, French commandant in the Northwest; Bacquevile de la Potherie, French royal commissioner to Canada; Morrell Marston, American Army officer; and Thomas Forsyth, United States agent at Fort Armstrong ; translated, edited, annotated, and with bibliography and index"

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as described by Nicolas Perrot, French comman- 
dant in the Northwest; Bacqueville de la Poth- 
erie, French royal commissioner to Canada; 
Morrell Marston, American army officer; 
and Thomas Forsyth, United States 
agent at Fort Armstrong 

Translated, edited, annotated, and with bibliography 
and index by 

With portraits, map, facsimiles, and vitws 








QUEVILLE DE LA POTHERIE (continued) . . .13 


Letter of Major Marston to Reverend Doctor Morse . 139 
An account of the Manners and Customs of the Sauk and 

Fox Nations of Indians Tradition; by Thomas Forsyth . 183 

APPENDIX A - Biographical sketch of Nicolas Perrot; condensed 

from the notes of Father Tailhan .... 249 

APPENDIX B Notes on Indian social organization, mental and 

moral traits, religious beliefs, etc. . . . .257 

APPENDIX C Various letters, etc., describing the character and 
present condition of the Sioux, Potawatomi, and Winnebago 
tribes ....... 284 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...... 301 


Location of tribes . . . . . 355 

Addition to annotations /._> . . . 356 

Additions to bibliography . . . , . 357 

INDEX . . . . . . . . 359 

-i K 


VIEW OF FORT ARMSTRONG . . . . Frontispiece 

WAA-PA-LAA (Fox) . . . . . .143 

KEOKUCK (Sauk) . . . . . . 159 


PECHECHO (Potawattomi) ..... 289 

O-CHEK-KA (Winnebago) ..... 295 


ples who are allies of New France. By 
Claude Charles Le Roy, Bacqueville 
de la Potherie [from his Histoire 
de I'Amerique septentrionale (Paris, 
I 753)> tome ii and iv]. 

Continued and Completed from volume I 

Chapter XVI 

Some time afterward, three men were seen, running 
in great haste, and uttering the cries for the dead. As 
they approached the fort, they were heard to say that all 
the Miamis were dead; that the Iroquois had defeated 
them at Chigagon, to which place they had been sum- 
moned [by] some Frenchmen; and that those who were 
left intended to take revenge on the latter. They were 
brought into the fort, and pipes were given them to 
smoke ; and gradually they regained their senses. After 
they had eaten a good meal, and had painted themselves 
with vermilion, they were questioned in regard to all 
the details of this news; now see in what manner the 
youngest of them spoke in addressing Perrot. 

"When thou didst make a present this autumn to 
Apichagan, the chief of the Miamis, he himself set out 
the next day to notify all the Miamis and our people of 
what thou hadst told him ; and he made them consent to 
follow thee, after he had secured the promise of all the 
men. Two Frenchmen had sent presents to the Miamis, 
to tell them that Onontio wished them to settle at Che- 
kagou. Apichagan opposed this, and said that his peo- 
ple had already been slain at the river of Saint Joseph, 
when Monsieur de la Salle made them settle there. 
The Frenchmen have been the cause of the death of 
those whom thou lovest as thy own children; whom 
thou didst not induce to come to thy house, and whom 
thou didst warn only not to trouble themselves carrying 


arms against those among whom thou wast going; and 
whom thou didst tell that if they went to Chigagon they 
would be eaten by the Iroquois. At that time he pre- 
vented his people from believing the Frenchmen, to 
whom he sent deputies a second time, to tell them not to 
look for the Miamis. The Frenchmen again sent some 
of their men, who declared to Apichagan on the part of 
Onontio that he would be abandoned if he did not obey 
Onontio's voice, which of course disquieted the chief. 
He said, nevertheless, 'Follow Metaminens ; if my peo- 
ple do not put their trust in him, they will seek death. 
Follow him; it is he who gives us life and who has pre- 
vented our families from being involved in the same 
ruin with those who have been at Chigagon.' When the 
Miamis reached that place the Frenchmen told them to 
go hunting there; and our people began to regret that 
they had not followed Metaminens. They dispersed in 
all directions to carry on their hunting, and [then] re- 
turned to the fort which the Frenchmen had built, to 
ascertain what they required. Some families who could 
not reach the fort as the others did were surprised by an 
army of Iroquois; and in this encounter a chief of the 
Miamis was captured who, in his death-song, asked his 
enemies to spare his life, assuring them that if they 
would grant it, he would deliver up his own village to 
them ; so they released him. 

"Some hunters, belonging to those families who had 
not gone to Chigagon, on their way back to their cabins 
saw from afar a large encampment; they concluded that 
their people had been defeated, and fled to the fort to 
carry the news of this. The Miamis who were there con- 
sulted together whether they should resist an assault or 
take to flight. A Sokoki who was among them told them 
not to trust the French, who were friends of the Iro- 


quois. The Miamis believed him, and fled in all direc- 
tions. The Iroquois came to that place, under the guid- 
ance of that Miami chief who had promised to betray 
his village to them. They found there only four French- 
men who came from the Islinois, whom they did not 
molest, the Miamis having deserted -and even the com- 
mander of the French, who had been afraid to remain 
there. The Iroquois followed at the heels of the people 
of the village, and captured in general all the women 
and children, except one woman, and some men who 
abandoned their families." 

The Ayoes came to the fort of the French [i.e., Per- 
rot's], on their return from hunting beaver, and, not 
finding the commandant, who had gone to the Nadoiiais- 
sioux, they sent a chief to entreat him to go to the fort. 
Four Islinois met him on the way, who (although they 
were enemies of the Ayoes) came to ask him to send back 
four of their children, whom some Frenchmen held cap- 
tive. The Ayoes had the peculiar trait that, far from 
doing ill to their enemies, they entertained them, and, 
weeping over them, entreated the Islinois to let them 
enjoy the advantages which they could look for from the 
French, without being molested by their tribesmen ; and 
these Islinois were sent back to the Frenchmen, who 
were expecting the Nadouaissioux. When the latter, 
who also were at war with the Islinois, perceived these 
envoys, they tried to fling themselves on the Islinois ca- 
noes in order to seize them; but the Frenchmen who 
were conducting them kept at a distance from the shore 
of the river, so as to avoid such a blunder. The other 
Frenchmen who were there for trade hastened toward 
their comrades; the affair was, however, settled, and 
four Nadouaissioux took the Islinois upon their shoul- 
ders and carried them to the land, informing them that 


they spared them out of consideration for the French- 
men, to whom they were indebted for life. The defeat 
of the Miamis at Chigagon was an event to be keenly 
felt by all the peoples of those quarters ; and messengers 
were sent to the bay to ascertain the particulars of it, 
and to get some news of the colony. The Freshmen re- 
ported that what had been said about it was true, and 
that a hundred savages -Miamis, Maskoutechs, Pou- 
teoiiatemis, and Outagamis-had pursued the Iroquois, 
hatchet in hand, with so much fury that they had slain a 
hundred of the enemy, recaptured half of their own 
people, and put to rout the Iroquois, who even would 
have been destroyed if the victors had continued to pur- 
sue them. The messengers said that the Miamis were 
at the bay, and that they had very badly treated Father 
Alloiiet, a Jesuit, who had prompted their going to Chi- 
gagon, as they imputed to him the loss of their people. 

Monsieur the Marquis de Denonville, who was at that 
time the governor-general, desired to avenge these peo- 
ple, in order to remove the opinion that they entertained 
that we had the design of sacrificing them to the Iro- 
quois. He sent orders to the French commandant who 
was among the Outaoiiaks to call all the tribes together 
and get them to join his army which was at Niagara, to 
the end that all might go against the Tsonnontouans. 

The commandant of the west was also ordered to en- 
list the tribes who were in his district, mainly the 
Miamis. That officer, having put his affairs in order, 
made known to some Frenchmen whom he left to guard 
his fort the conduct that they were to observe during his 
absence, and proceeded to the [Miami] village that was 
down the Missisipi, in order to induce them to take up 
arms against the Iroquois; he traveled sixty leagues on 
the plains, without other guide than the fires and the 


clouds of smoke that he saw. When he arrived among 
the Miamis he offered to them the club in behalf of 
Onontio, with several presents, and said to them: "The 
cries of your dead have been heard by your father On- 
ontio, who, desiring to take pity on you, has resolved to 
sacrifice his young men in order to destroy the man-eater 
who has devoured you. He sends you his club, and tells 
you to smite unweariedly him who has snatched away 
your children. They pitch their tents outside of his ket- 
tle, crying to you, * Avenge us! avenge us!' He must 
disgorge and vomit by force your flesh which is in his 
stomach, which he will not be able to digest -Onontio 
will not allow him leisure for that. If your children have 
been his dogs and slaves, his women must in their turn 
become ours." All the Miamis accepted the club, 1 
and assured him that, since their father intended to as- 
sist them, they all would die for his interests. 

This Frenchman, returning to his fort, perceived on 
the way so much smoke that he believed it was [made 
by] an army of our allies who were marching against 
the Nadoiiaissioux, who might while passing carry away 
his men; and that constrained him to travel by longer 
stages. Fortunately he met a Maskoutech chief, who, 
not having found him at the fort, had come to meet him, 
in order to inform him that the Outagamis, the Kika- 

1 "Every tribe in America used clubs, but after the adoption of more effec- 
tual weapons, as the bow and lance, clubs became in many cases merely a part 
of the costume, or were relegated to ceremonial, domestic, and special functions. 
There was great variety in the forms of this weapon or instrument. Most 
clubs were designed for warfare." The Siouan tribes, and some of the Plains 
tribes, used the club with a fixed stone head ; the northern Sioux, the Sauk, Fox, 
and some other Algonquian tribes, a musket-shaped club ; while a flat, curved 
club with a knobbed head (French, casse-tete) was used by some Sioux, and 
by the Chippewa, Menominee, and other timber Algonquians. "Clubs of this 
type are often set with spikes, lance-heads, knife-blades, or the like, and the 
elk-horn with sharpened prongs belongs to this class." WALTER HOUGH, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians. 


bous, the Maskoutechs, and all the peoples of the bay 
were to meet together in order to come and plunder his 
warehouses, in order to obtain [fire] arms and munitions 
for destroying the Nadoiiaissioux; and that they had 
resolved to break into the fort and kill all the French- 
men, if the latter made the least objection to this. This 
news obliged him to go thither immediately. Three 
spies had left the place on the very day of his arrival, 
who had used the pretext of trading some beaver-skins; 
they reported at their camp that they had seen only six 
Frenchmen, and, the commandant not being there, that 
would be enough to persuade them to undertake the 
execution of their scheme. On the next day, two others 
of them came, who played the same part. The French 
had taken the precaution to place guns, all loaded, at 
the doors of the cabins. When the savages tried to enter 
any cabin, our men discovered the secret of making them 
find there men who had changed their garments to dif- 
ferent ones. The savages asked, while speaking of one 
thing or another, how many Frenchmen were in the 
fort; and the reply was, that they numbered forty, and 
that we were expecting every moment those of our men 
who were on the other side of the river hunting buffalo. 
All those loaded guns gave them something to think 
about, and they were told that all these weapons were 
always ready in case people came to molest the French ; 
and likewise that, as the latter were on a highway, they 
always kept vigilant watch, knowing that the savages 
were very reckless. They were told to bring to the fort 
a chief from each tribe, because the French had some- 
thing to communicate to them; and that if any greater 
number of them came near the fort, the guns would be 
fired at them. Six chiefs of those tribes came, whose 
bows and arrows were taken away from them at the 


gate. They were taken into the cabin of the command- 
ant, who gave them [tobacco] to smoke, and regaled 
them. When they saw all those loaded guns, they asked 
him if he were afraid of his children ; he answered them 
that he did not trouble himself much at such things, and 
that he was a man who could kill others. They replied 
to him, "It seems that thou art angry at us." The com- 
mandant answered: "I am not angry, although I have 
reason to be. The Spirit has informed me of your in- 
tention; you intend to plunder my goods and put me 
into the kettle, in order to advance against the Nadoii- 
aissioux. He has told me to keep on my guard, and that 
he will assist me if you affront me." Then they stood 
stock-still and acknowledged to him that it was true; 
but they said that he was a very indulgent father to 
them, and that they were going to break up all the plans 
of their young men. Perrot had them sleep in the fort 
that night. The next day, early in the morning, their 
army was seen, part of whom came to cry out that they 
wished to trade. The commandant, who had only fif- 
teen men, seized these chiefs, and told them that he was 
going to have their heads broken if they did not make 
their warriors retire; and at the same time the bastions 
were manned. One of those chiefs climbed above the gate 
of the fort, and cried, "Go no farther, young men; you 
are dead; the spirits have warned Metaminens of your 
resolution." Some of them tried to advance, and he said 
to them, "If I go to you, I will break your heads;" and 
they all retreated. The lack of provisions harassed 
them, and the French took pity on them ; they had at the 
time only provisions which were beginning to smell, but 
gave these to the savages, who divided the food among 
themselves. The commandant made them a present of 
two guns, two kettles, and some tobacco, in order to 


close to them, he said, the gate by which they were going 
to enter the Nadouaissioux country, contending that they 
should thereafter turn their weapons against the Iro- 
quois, and that they should avail themselves of Onontio's 
bow to shoot at his enemy, and of his club to lay violent 
hands on the Iroquois families. They represented to 
him that they would suffer greatly before they could 
reach the Iroquois country, as they had no gunpowder 
for hunting; and they entreated him to give them some 
in exchange for the few beaver-skins that were left in 
their hands. For this purpose the chiefs of each tribe 
were permitted to enter the fort, one after another. All 
being quite pacified, the French undertook to call to- 
gether as many of the tribes as they could, to join the 
French army which was going against the Iroquois. The 
Pouteouatemis, the Malhominis, and the Puans willing- 
ly offered their aid. The Outagamis, the Kikabous, and 
the Maskoutechs, who were not accustomed to travel in 
canoes, united with the Miamis, who were to proceed to 
the strait which separates Lake Herier [i.e., Erie] from 
the Lake of the Hurons, where there was a French fort, 
in which they were to find supplies for going to Niagara. 
The Outagamis and the Maskoutechs, having held 
their war-feast, went in quest of another small village 
of the same tribe which was on their route; they wished 
to invite its warriors to join their party. At the time 
some Loups and Sokokis were there, intimate friends of 
the Iroquois; they dissuaded the people from this enter- 
prise. They said that Onontio intended to put them into 
the kettle of the Iroquois, under pretext of avenging the 
deaths of the Miamis; that three thousand Frenchmen 
would indeed be at Niagara, but that there was reason 
to fear that all of them would unite together with the 
Iroquois, and that, having unanimously sworn the ruin 


of the allies, they would unquestionably come to carry 
away the wives and children of the latter in all their vil- 
lages. Those peoples blindly believed all that was said 
to them, and refused to expose themselves in a situation 
which seemed to them very dubious. The French 
pressed forward in their journey, and arrived at Michili- 
makinak, where they found the Outaouaks, who had been 
unwilling to follow those who inhabited that quarter 
[i.e., the Sauteurs] ; and of our men only a small num- 
ber remained there, for the guard of the entrances [to 
the fort]. 

The Outaoiiaks received the Pouteouatemis in mili- 
tary fashion ; they assembled together behind a slope on 
which they made a camp. The fleet of the Pouteouate- 
mis making its appearance at an eighth of a league from 
land, the Outaoiiaks -naked, and having no other orna- 
ments than their bows and arrows -marched abreast, 
and formed a sort of battalion. At a certain distance 
from the water they suddenly began to defile, uttering 
cries from time to time. The Pouteouatemis, on their 
part, set themselves in battle array, in order to make 
their landing. When the rear of the Outaouaks was 
opposite the Pouteouatemis, whose ranks were close to 
one another, they paddled more slowly. When they 
were at a gunshot from the land, the Frenchmen who 
were joined with the Outaouaks first fired a volley at 
them, without balls ; the Outaouaks followed them with 
loud shouts of "Sassakoue!" and the Pouteouatemis 
uttered theirs. Then on both sides they reloaded their 
arms, and a second volley was fired. Finally, when the 
landing must be made, the Outaouaks rushed into the 
water, clubs in their hands; the Pouteouatemis at once 
darted ahead in their canoes, and came rushing on the 
others, carrying their clubs. Then no further order was 


maintained ; all was pell-mell, and the Outaouaks lifted 
up their canoes, which they bore to the land. Such was 
this reception, which on a very serious occasion would 
have cost much bloodshed. The Outaouaks conducted 
the chiefs into their cabins, where the guests were re- 

Although they gave them a friendly welcome, the 
Outaouaks did not at first know what measures to take 
in order to turn aside these newcomers from their enter- 
prise, to the end of excusing themselves from joining 
the latter. They entreated the guests to wait a few days, 
so that all might embark together. Meanwhile a canoe 
arrived, which brought instructions from Monsieur de 
Denonville for the march, and for the junction of the 
French army with that of the allies. This canoe had 
descried some Englishmen, who were coming to Mi- 
chilimakinak in order to get possession of the com- 
merce ; they had imagined that the French were indis- 
crete enough to abandon during this time the most 
advantageous post of the entire trade. 

Three hundred Frenchmen, commanded by an officer, 
went out to meet them. The Hurons, when informed 
of this proceeding, without seeming to take notice of it, 
went to join the English, with the intention of aiding 
them; the Outaouaks remained neutral. The Chief 
Nansouakoiiet alone took sides with the French, with 
thirty of his men. The Hurons, fearing that the Outa- 
ouaks, who were much more numerous than they in the 
village, would lay violent hands on their families, did 
not dare to fight as they had resolved ; so that the French 
seized the English and their goods, and brought them to 
Michilimakinak. They had brought a large quantity of 
brandy, persuaded that this was the strongest attraction 
for gaining the regard of the savages -who drank a 


great deal of it, with which the greater number became 
intoxicated so deeply, that several of them died. There 
was reason to fear that the rest of the brandy would be 
distributed to the Pouteouatemis ; [in that case] there 
would have been a disorderly scene, which would have 
prevented the departure of all those savages, who 
longed for nothing more than to signalize themselves 
against the Iroquois. One of the Frenchmen who had 
brought them then said to them : "This is the time when 
you must show that you are courageous; you have lis- 
tened implicitly to the voice of your father Onontio, 
who exhorts you to the war with the Iroquois, who wish 
to destroy you. Thus far you have not distinguished 
yourselves from the other tribes, who have made you 
believe whatever they have wished, and who have re- 
garded you as much inferior to themselves. Now it is 
necessary that you make yourselves known, and the oc- 
casion is favorable for that. The Outaouaks are only 
seeking to delay matters, which will prevent them from 
seeing the destruction of the Iroquois. We are taking 
part in your glory, and we would be sorry if you were 
not witnesses of the battle which will be fought against 
the Tsonnontouans. You are fighting men; you can 
give the lie to your allies who are not so courageous as 
you ; and be sure that Onontio will know very well how 
to recognize your valor. It is partly us Frenchmen, 
partly men of the Pouteouatemis and from the bay, and 
others of your own number, who urge you not to drink 
brandy; it fetters the strength of the man, and renders 
him spiritless and incapable of action. The English- 
man is the father of the Iroquois. This liquor is per- 
haps poisoned; moreover, you have just seen how many 
Outaouaks are dead from [drinking] it." 
The chiefs were well pleased with this discourse, and 


inspired among their young men great aversion for the 
brandy. The Outaouaks, however, deferred their de- 
parture, and imperceptibly beguiled those peoples. They 
assembled them together without the knowledge of the 
Jesuit fathers and the French commandant. They pre- 
sented to them a keg of brandy holding twenty-five 
quarts [pots], and said to them: "We all are brothers, 
who ought to form only one body, and possess but one 
and the same spirit. The French invite us to go to war 
against the Iroquois; they wish to use us in order to 
make us their slaves. After we have aided in destroying 
the enemy, the French will do with us what they do 
with their cattle, which they put to the plow and make 
them cultivate the land. Let us leave them to act alone ; 
they will not succeed in defeating the Iroquois; this is 
the means for being always our own masters. Here is 
a keg of brandy, to persuade you regarding these propo- 
sitions, which we hope that you will carry out." 

The warriors rose, with great composure, without 
replying, having left to the Outaouaks the keg of bran- 
dy; and they went to find two others of the principal 
Frenchmen who had accompanied them, whom they 
informed of all that had occurred. The latter went to 
address them the next morning before light, and en- 
couraged them to persist in their good sentiments. The 
Outaouaks continually returned to the charge; they 
again sent the keg of brandy to the Pouteouatemis, who 
were longing to drink from it -for one can say that it is 
the most delicious beverage with which they can be 
regaled -nevertheless, they did not dare to taste it. They 
went to find those Frenchmen, and related to them this 
new occurrence. The Frenchmen, annoyed at all these 
solicitations by the Outaouaks, entered the Pouteou- 
atenii cabin in which the brandy was ; and the savage 


therein asked them what they wished the savages to do 
with it. The Frenchmen answered, while breaking 
open the keg with a hatchet, "Look here; this is what 
you ought to do with it. You must do the same with the 
Iroquois when you are in the fight; you must beat them 
with your clubs, you must slay them without sparing 
[even] the infants in the cradle. Put pitch on your ca- 
noes this morning; we are embarking, and we wait for 
no one." The Outaouaks, seeing that the canoes were 
ready, asked for a day's time in order to join the expe- 
dition; but our people took no notice of them. The 
fleet of the Pouteouatemis therefore set out, in good 
order, always having scouts out, who protected the ad- 
vance. [From this point (top of page 205) to the top of 
page 209, is briefly told the campaign against the Iro- 
quois, which is more fully related by Perrot in the 
Memoir e. - ED.] 

The French voyageurs who had been among the allies 
came to Montreal in order to purchase there new mer- 
chandise; and at the same time the news came that the 
church of the [Jesuit] missionaries at the bay, and a part 
of their buildings, had been burned. There were some 
Frenchmen who met great losses in this fire ; Sieur Per- 
rot lost in it more than forty thousand francs' worth of 

The auxiliary troops, returning to their own country, 
made the report of their campaign; and they imparted 
a great idea of the valor of Onontio, who had forced the 
Iroquois themselves to set fire to their villages at the first 
news of his arrival. The Loups and Sokokis, who had 
given so bad an impression about the French to certain 
peoples, adroitly retreated from these warriors, in order 
not to be themselves treated like the Iroquois ; they went 
by way of a small river which empties into the Missi- 


sipi, and [thus] reached their native country. All those 
who had taken sides with them repented of having done 
so. One hundred Miamis set out with the deliberate 
intention of making amends for the fault that they had 
committed in not having taken part in the general 
march ; they were sure that they would at least find, in 
a certain hunting-ground, some party of Iroquois weak- 
ened with hunger and misfortunes. They proceeded to 
the road going to Niagara, where they found the French 
garrison dead from hunger, except seven or eight per- 
sons ; this mischance hindered them from going farther. 
They guarded this fort during the winter, until the sur- 
viving Frenchmen had been withdrawn from it. 

Thirteen Maskoutechs, impatient to find out whether 
what the Loups and Sokokis had said to them also 
against the French were true, set out during the general 
march in order to obtain information as to the truth of 
that report; and they met three Miami slaves who, in 
the rout of the Iroquois, had made their escape. The 
Maskoutechs, returning with these women, found two 
Frenchmen who were coming from the Islinois, laden 
with beaver-skins ; they slew these men, and burned their 
bodies, in order to hide their murder; they also killed 
the Miamis and burned them and carried away their 
scalps. 2 When they arrived at their own village, they 

2 The practice of scalping was not common to all the American tribes. 
"The custom was not general, and in most regions where found was not even 
ancient. The trophy did not include any part of the skull or even the whole 
scalp. The operation was not fatal. The scalp was not always evidence of the 
killing of an enemy, but was sometimes taken from a victim who was allowed 
to live. It was not always taken by the same warrior who had killed or 
wounded the victim. It was not always preserved by the victor. The war- 
rior's honors were not measured by the number of his scalps. The scalp dance 
was performed, and the scalps carried therein, not by the men, but by the 
women." In earlier times, throughout most of America the trophy was the 
head itself. "The spread of the scalping practice over a great part of central 
and western United States was a direct result of the encouragement in the 


uttered three cries for the dead, such as are usually 
made when they carry back [news of] some advantage 
gained over the enemy. They gave to their chiefs these 
three scalps, which they said were those of Iroquois, 
and two guns, which they did not acknowledge to be 
those of the Frenchmen. Those chiefs sent these things 
to the Miamis, who, in acknowledgment, gave them sev- 
eral presents. Other Frenchmen who came back from 
the Islinois recognized the guns of their comrades, and 
not having any news of the latter, accused the Miamis 
of having murdered them. The latter defended them- 
selves, saying that the Maskoutechs had made them a 
present of the guns, with three Iroquois scalps. Then 
the Frenchmen made them profuse apologies for the 
suspicion that they had felt that the Miamis had caused 
the deaths of those two Frenchmen ; and they supposed 
that their friends had fallen into the power of the Iro- 
quois, whom the Maskoutechs had met on their way. 

Monsieur the Marquis de Denonville, who had hu- 
miliated the most haughty and redoubtable tribe in all 
America, had no thought save to render happy the peo- 
ple whose government the king had entrusted to him; 
he was certain that the [Indian] trade could not be bet- 
ter maintained than by sending back to the Outaouaks 
all the voyageurs who had left [there] their property in 
order to go to Tsonnontouan. He also despatched forty 
Frenchmen to the Nadoiiaissioux, the most remote .tribe, 
who could not carry on trade with us as easily as could 
the other tribes ; the Outagamis had boasted of excluding 
them from access to us. These last-mentioned French- 
men, on their arrival at Michillimakinak, learned that 

shape of scalp bounties offered by the colonial and more recent governments, 
even down to within the last fifty years, the scalp itself being superior to the 
head as a trophy by reason of its lighter weight and greater adaptability to 
display and ornamentation." JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


the Hurons had defeated a party of forty Iroquois, the 
greater number of whom they had captured, but had 
spared their lives. All the peoples of that region were 
greatly alarmed at an attack which the Outagamis had 
made on the Sauteurs. The former people, having 
learned that the French were at the Bay of Puans, sent 
three deputies to Monsieur du Luth, 3 a captain of the 
troops, to entreat him to come among them. He an- 
swered them that he would not concern himself about 
them, or settle their quarrels with the Sauteurs; that the 
French were going to pass through their river, and that 
they had three hundred loaded guns to fire at them if 
they tried to place the least obstacle in his way. They 
tried to justify themselves, by saying that their allies, 
jealous of them, had mdde every effort to render them 
odious to the French nation. They said that it was true 
that some war-party of their young men, going to fight 
against the Nadoiiaissioux, had encountered on the 
enemy's territory some Sauteurs, from whom they had 
taken three girls and a young man ; that when the people 
of the bay asked them for these captives they had not 
been able to refuse them, because the chiefs were wait- 
ing for the Frenchman in order to send back the captives 
to him. That commandant told them that he would not 
make known his opinions to them, since they had so often 
deceived him; and he continued his journey toward the 
Nadoiiaissioux. A little while afterward he saw a ca- 
noe with five men, who came paddling as hard as they 
could. They were the chiefs of the Outagamis, who 

3 Daniel Greysolon du Luth (Lhut) was especially prominent among North- 
western explorers. An officer in the army of France, he came to Canada about 
1676; two years later, he conducted a French expedition into the Sioux country. 
He spent nearly ten years in explorations (mainly beyond Lake Superior) and 
fur-trading; he was for a time commandant of the Northwest. In 1689, he 
had returned to the St. Lawrence; he died in 1710. The city of Duluth, Minn., 
was named for him. - ED. 


came alongside of his boat with expressions so full of 
grief that he could not forbear from going to their vil- 
lage ; the reply that he had made to the three deputies 
had caused so great consternation that they were incon- 
solable at it. It was to their interest to stand well in the 
opinion of the French, from whom they were receiving 
all possible assistance ; and because they could only ex- 
pect, as soon as the [French] trade with them had 
ceased, to become the objects of opprobrium and the vic- 
tims of their neighbors. The commandant entered the 
cabin of the chief, who had a deer placed in the kettle; 
when it boiled, the kettle and some of the raw meat were 
placed before him, to regale all the Frenchmen. The 
commandant disdained to taste it, because this meat, he 
said, did not suit him, and when the Outagamis became 
reasonable he would have some of it. They understood 
very well the meaning of this compliment. They im- 
mediately brought in the three girls and the young Sau- 
teur. The chief began to speak, saying: "See how the 
Outagami can be reasonable, and be minded as he is 
therein. He spits out the meat which he had intended 
to eat, for he has remembered that thou hadst forbidden 
it to him ; and while it is between his teeth he spits it 
out, and entreats thee to send it back to the place where 
he seized it." The Frenchman told him that they had 
done well in preserving the captives; that he remem- 
bered the club that had been given to them in behalf of 
their father Onontio, and that in giving it he had told 
them that hereafter they should use it only against the 
Iroquois. He told them that they themselves had as- 
sured him that they would join the Frenchmen at De- 
troit; but that now they were using the club on his own 
body, and maltreating the families of the Sauteurs who 
had gone with the French to war. He warned them 


to be no longer foolish and wild ; and said that he would 
once more settle this business. He told them to remain 
quiet, and said that the Sauteurs would obey him, since 
they had not killed any one, and were restoring the 
people of the Outagamis. He directed the latter to hunt 
beavers, and told them that, if they wished to be pro- 
tected by Onontio, they must apply themselves to mak- 
ing war against the Iroquois only. Some Frenchmen 
were left with them to maintain the trade, and the rest 

The Pouteouatemis cut across the country, to reach 
more quickly a portage * which lies between a river 
that goes down to the bay, and that of Ouiskonch, which 
falls into the Missisipi (about the forty-third degree of 
latitude), in order to receive there these Frenchmen. 
When the latter were twelve leagues from the portage, 
they were stopped by the ice-floes. The Pouteouatemis, 
impatient to find out what had happened to them, came 
to meet them, and found them in a series of ice-floes 
from which they had great difficulty in extricating them- 
selves ; and immediately those savages sent to their vil- 
lage to call out two hundred men, for the purpose of 
carrying all the merchandise over to the shore of the 
Ouiskonch River, which was no longer covered with ice. 
The French then went to the Nadoiiaissioux country, 
ascending the Missisipi. The Sauteurs were notified 
that the French had taken away their daughters from 
the hands of the Outagamis; and four of them came to 
the bay, where the girls were, to get them, and displayed 
to the Frenchmen all possible gratitude; they had reason 

4 Alluding to the noted Fox-Wisconsin portage, long famous in the early 
history of exploration and trade in the Northwest; there, in the rainy season, the 
waters of those two great rivers flowed into each other, and the comparatively 
easy "carry" between them made those streams the natural (and the only prac- 
ticable) route of travel between Green Bay and the Mississippi. At that 
point of transfer has arisen the modem city of Portage. ED. 


to be highly pleased. But a very sad misfortune again 
befell them ; this was, that when they had almost reached 
home some Outagamis who were prowling about at- 
tacked them, without knowing who they were. Terror 
overcame them, and caused them to abandon the three 
girls. The Outagamis did not dare to conduct the girls 
to the Sauteurs, for fear of being devoured; and, un- 
willing to expose them, alone, to losing their way in the 
woods, they carried the girls home with them, consider- 
ing them as free. 

As soon as the Nadoiiaissioux saw that the rivers were 
navigable they went down to the post of the Frenchmen, 
and carried back the commandant to their village, where 
he was received with pomp, after their fashion. He was 
carried on a robe of beaver-skins, accompanied by a great 
retinue of people who carried each a calumet, singing 
the songs of alliance and of the calumet. He was carried 
about the village, and led into the cabin of the chief. 
As those peoples have the knack of weeping and of 
laughing when they choose, several of them immediate- 
ly came to weep over his head, with the same tenderness 
which the Ayoes showed to him at the first time when he 
went among them. 5 However, these tears do not ener- 
vate their spirits, and they are very good warriors; they 
even have the reputation of being the bravest in all those 
regions. They are at war with all the tribes, excepting 

5 Note Cadillac's remarks concerning the Sioux, in his "Relation of Mis- 
silimakinak," section v: "Indeed, it seldom happens that a Sioux is taken alive; 
because, as soon as they see that they can no longer resist, they kill themselves, 
considering that they are not worthy to live when once bound, vanquished, and 
made slaves. It is rather surprising that people so brave and warlike as these 
should nevertheless be able to shed tears at will, and so abundantly that it 
can hardly be imagined. I think that it could not be believed without being 
seen; for they are sometimes observed to laugh, sing, and amuse themselves, 
when, at the same time, one would say that their eyes are like gutters filled by 
a heavy shower; and, as soon as they have wept, they again become as joyful 
as before, whether their joy be real or false." ED. 


the Sauteurs and the Ayoes; and even these last named 
very often have disputes with them. Hardly does the 
day begin when the Nadouaissioux bathe in their river, 
and they even do the same with their children in swad- 
dling-clothes ; their reason is, that thus they gradually 
accustom themselves to be in readiness at the least alarm. 
They are of tall stature, and their women are extremely 
ugly; they regard the latter as slaves. The men are, 
moreover, jealous and very susceptible to suspicions; 
from this arise many quarrels, and the greater part of 
the time they get into general fights among themselves, 
which are not quieted until after much bloodshed. They 
are very adroit in [managing] their canoes; they fight 
even to the death when they are surrounded by their 
enemies, and when they have an opportunity to make 
their escape they are very agile. Their country is a 
labyrinth of marshes, which in summer protects them 
from molestation by their enemies; if one [journeying] 
by canoe is entangled in it, he cannot find his way; to go 
to their village, one must be a Nadouaissioux, or have 
long experience in that country, in order to reach his 
destination. The Hurons have reason to remember an 
exceedingly pleasant adventure which befell a hundred 
of their warriors, who had gone to wage war on those 
people. These Hurons, being embarrassed in a marsh, 
were discovered; they saw the Nadouaissioux, who sur- 
rounded them, and hid themselves as best they could in 
the rushes, leaving only their heads above the water, so 
that they could breathe. The Nadouaissioux, not know- 
ing what had become of them, stretched beaver-nets on 
the strips of land which separated their marshes, and to 
these attached little bells. The Hurons, imagining that 
the night-time would be very favorable for extricating 
themselves from this situation, found themselves en- 


tangled among all these nets. The Nadoiiaissioux, who 
were in ambush, heard the sound of the bells and at- 
tacked the Hurons, of whom none could save himself 
except one, whom they sent back to his own country to 
carry the news of the affair. They are very lustful. 
They live on wild oats, which is very abundant in their 
marshes. Their country has also the utmost abundance 
of beavers. The Kristinaux, who also are accustomed 
to navigation, and their other enemies often compel 
them to take refuge in places where they have no other 
food than acorns, roots, and the bark of trees. 

One of their chiefs, seeing that very few French were 
left in the fort (which is near them) when all the tribes 
marched against the Iroquois, raised a party of one hun- 
dred warriors in order to plunder the fort. This French- 
man displayed, on his return, the anger that he felt be- 
cause they had acted so badly during his absence. The 
[other] chiefs had not been concerned in that plan, and 
came very near killing that chief; he was regarded, at 
least after that, with great contempt. When the renewal 
of the alliance was made the Frenchmen went back to 
their fort. There was one of them who complained, on 
going away, that a box of merchandise had been stolen 
from him; it was quite difficult to ascertain who had 
committed this theft, and recourse was had to a very odd 
stratagem. The commandant told one of his men to 
pretend to get some water in a cup in which he had put 
some brandy. As it was evident that there was no 
[other] means of recovering the box, they were threat- 
ened with the burning and drying up the waters in their 
marshes ; and to strengthen the effect of these menaces, 
that brandy was set on fire. They were so terrified that 
they imagined that everything was going to destruction ; 
the merchandise was recovered, and then the French 


returned to their fort. The Outagamis who had changed 
their village [site] established themselves on the Mis- 
sisipi after they separated (at the portages of the River 
Ouiskonch) from the Frenchmen, who had taken the 
route to the Nadoiiaissioux. 

The chief came to find the French commandant, in 
order to ask him to negotiate a peace with the Nadoiiais- 
sioux. Some of the latter tribe came to trade their 
peltries at the French fort, where they saw this chief, 
whom they recognized as an Outagami. The Nadoii- 
aissioux seemed surprised at this encounter; and at the 
same time they formed the idea (but without showing 
it) that the French were forming some evil plot against 
their tribe. The commandant reassured them, and, pre- 
senting to them the calumet, said that this was the chief 
of the Outagamis, whom the French regarded as their 
brother ever since his tribe had been discovered; and 
that this chief ought not to be an object of suspicion, 
since he had even come to propose peace with them 
through the mediation of the French. "Smoke," said 
this Frenchman, "my calumet ; it is the breast with which 
Onontio suckles his children." The Nadoiiaissioux 
asked him to have this chief smoke, and he did so ; but, 
although the calumet is the symbol of union and recon- 
ciliation, the Outagami did not fail to experience em- 
barrassment in this situation. He afterward declared 
that he did not feel very safe at that time. When he had 
smoked, the Nadoiiaissioux did the same ; but they would 
not come to any decision, because, as they were not 
chiefs, they must notify their captains of this matter. 
They nevertheless expressed to him their regret that his 
tribe had been so easily influenced by the solicitations of 
the Sauteurs, who had corrupted them with presents, 
and who had caused the rupture of the peace which they 


had concluded. This negotiation could not be finished 
on account of the speedy departure of the French, who 
had orders to return to the colony. Just as they set out, 
the chiefs of the Nadoiiaissioux arrived, and brought 
the calumet of peace- which would have been concluded 
if our Frenchmen at their departure had dared to en- 
trust to them the chief of the Outagamis. The Outa- 
gamis had always kept the three Sauteur girls of whom 
I have already spoken. Their dread of losing entirely 
the good graces of the French -who were greatly dis- 
pleased at the hostilities which that tribe had committed 
against the Sauteurs- obliged them to forestall the lat- 
ter by the relation which they made of all the circum- 
stances attending the sojourn [among them] of the Sau- 
teurs' daughters. It was evident that they were not to 
blame, and they were charged to convey the girls back 
to their own people. 

The Iroquois, having been extremely harassed at 
Tsonnontouan by Monsieur the Marquis de Denonville, 
entreated the English to negotiate peace for them with 
him ; and it was for the interest of that nation that no one 
should disturb the tranquillity of their neighbors. As 
peace still prevailed throughout Europe, the English 
did not dare to declare themselves in favor of the Iro- 
quois; they felt, however, very deeply the manner in 
which the French treated those savages, without daring 
to take their part or support them. The French com- 
mander, who had in view only the tranquillity of his 
allies and of the peoples under his government, informed 
the English that he would willingly grant peace to the 
Iroquois on condition that his allies [also] should be 
included in it. He despatched his orders in every di- 
rection to the end that the club should be hung up, and 
that all the war-parties that might be raised against the 


Iroquois should be halted. Besides this, presents were 
sent to all the tribes, as a pledge of the good-will which 
the French displayed toward them in a condition of 
affairs which so greatly concerned their interests. The 
Outaouaks were so incensed against the Iroquois that 
they took no notice of these orders, and carried on war 
against them more than ever. The Islinois were more 
discreet, for as soon as they received the orders of Onon- 
tio they tied up the hatchet; and as they were not will- 
ing to remain thus in inaction they marched, to the num- 
ber of twelve hundred warriors, against the Ozages and 
the Accances 15 (who are in the lower Missisipi coun- 
try) , and carried away captive the people of a village 
there. The neighboring peoples, having been apprised 
of this raid, united together and attacked the Islinois 
with such spirit that the latter were compelled to retreat 
with loss. This repulse was very detrimental to them in 
the course of time. The Outaouaks, who had followed 
their own caprice without consulting the French com- 
mandants who were at Michilimakinak, brought back 
some captives ; and at night the cries for the dead were 
heard abroad. The next day the smoke in their camp 
was seen at the island of Michilimakinak; and they sent 
a canoe to inform the village of the blow that they had 
just struck. The Jesuit fathers hastened thither, in 

16 The Osage are a Siouan tribe, one of the Dhegiha group, and are very 
closely related to the Kansa. According to their traditions, these tribes in 
their migration westward, "divided at the mouth of Osage River, the Osage 
moving up that stream and the Omaha and Ponca crossing Missouri River and 
proceeding northward, while the Kansa ascended the Missouri on the south 
side to Kansas River." Handbook Amer. Indians. 

Dorsey in his "Migrations of the Siouan Tribes" (Amer. Naturalist, vol. xx, 
211-222) says that the entire Dhegiha group lived together (before their 
separation above noted), near the Ohio River, and were called "Arkansa" by 
the Illinois tribes. "Accances" of our text is the same as Akansa, Akansea, 
Kanza, etc., of the early writers, especially Marquette ; but these refer to the 
Quapaw, another tribe of the above group. They, with the Osage and Kansa, 
are now on reservations in (the former) Indian Territory. ED. 


order to try to secure for the slaves exemption from the 
volley of blows with clubs to which the captives were 
usually treated on their arrival; but all their solicita- 
tions could not move the Outaouaks, and even served 
only to exasperate them. The canoes, which were close 
together, made their appearance; there was only one 
man paddling in each, while all the warriors responded 
to the songs of the slaves, 1<J who stood upright, each hav- 

16 "It may be doubted whether slavery, though so widespread as to have 
been almost universal, existed anywhere among very primitive peoples, since 
society must reach a certain state of organization before it can find lodgment. 
It appears, however, among peoples whose status is far below that of civili- 
zation." The region of the northwest coast "formed the stronghold of the 
institution. As we pass to the eastward the practice of slavery becomes modi- 
fied, and finally its place is taken by a very different custom. . . Investi- 
gation of slavery among the tribes of the great plains and the Atlantic slope 
is difficult Scattered through early histories are references to the subject, but 
such accounts are usually devoid of details, and the context often proves them 
to be based on erroneous conceptions. . . The early French and Spanish 
histories, it is true, abound in allusions to Indian slaves, even specifying the 
tribes from which they were taken; but the terms 'slave' and 'prisoner* were 
used interchangeably in almost every such instance. . . With the exception of 
the area above mentioned [the N.W. coast], traces of true slavery are wanting 
throughout the region north of Mexico. In its place is found another institu- 
tion that has been often mistaken for it. Among the North American Indians 
a state of periodic intertribal warfare seems to have existed. . . In con- 
sequence of such warfare tribes dwindled through the loss of men, women, and 
children killed or taken captive. Natural increase was not sufficient to make 
good such losses; for, while Indian women were prolific, the loss of children 
by disease, especially in early infancy, was very great. Hence arose the 
institution of adoption. Men, women, and children, especially the two latter 
classes, were everywhere considered the chief spoils of war. When men 
enough had been tortured and killed to glut the savage passions of the con- 
querors, the rest of the captives were adopted, after certain preliminaries, into 
the several gentes, each newly adopted member taking the place of a lost 
husband, wife, son, or daughter, and being invested with the latter's rights, 
privileges, and duties. It was indeed a common practice, too, for small parties 
to go out for the avowed purpose of taking a captive to be adopted in the place 
of a deceased member of the family. John Tanner, a white boy thus captured 
and adopted by the Chippewa, wrote a narrative of his Indian life that is a 
mine of valuable and interesting information. Adoption also occasionally 
took place on a large scale, as when the Tuscarora were formally adopted as 
kindred by the Seneca, and thus secured a place in the Iroquois League; or 
when, after the Pequot War, part of the surviving Pequot were incorporated 
into the Narraganset tribe by some form of adoption, and part into the Mo- 


ing a wand in his hand. There were special marks on 
each, to indicate those who had captured him. Grad- 
ually they approached the shore, with measured ad- 
vance. When they were near the land the chief of the 
party rose in his canoe and harangued all the old men, 
who were waiting for the warriors at the edge of the 
water in order to receive them ; and having made a re- 
cital to them of his campaign he told them that he placed 
in their hands the captives whom he had taken. An old 
man on the shore responded, and congratulated them in 

began." Under certain conditions, the practice of adopting prisoners of war 
might gradually be transformed into slavery, and it is possible that slave- 
holding tribes may have substituted adoption ; the latter seems to have pre- 
vailed wherever slavery did not exist. Those who were actually slaves had 
no social status in the tribe, whether they had been captured in war or pur- 
chased; but "the adopted person was in every respect the peer of his fellow- 
tribesmen," and had the same opportunity for advancement or office that would 
have belonged to the person in whose place he was adopted unless he were a 
poor hunter or a coward, in which case he was despised and ill-treated. "It 
was the usual custom to depose the coward from man's estate, and, in native 
metaphor, to 'make a woman' of him. Such persons associated ever after with 
the women, and aided them in their tasks." Female captives might become the 
legal wives of men in their captors' tribe ; but such women were probably often 
the objects of jealousy in the husband's other wives. White captives were often 
adopted into Indian tribes, but after the beginning of the border wars were 
most often held for ransom, or sometimes sold in European settlements for a 
cash payment. "The practice of redeeming captives was favored by the mis- 
sionaries and settlers with a view to mitigating the hardships of Indian war- 
fare. The spread of Indian slavery among the tribes of the central region was 
in part due to the efforts of the French missionaries to induce their red allies 
to substitute a mild condition of servitude for their accustomed practice of 
indiscriminate massacre, torture, and cannibalism (see Dunn's Indiana; 1905)." 
White captives were always ready to escape, and were welcomed back by their 
friends, "whereas in the case of the Indian, adoption severed all former 
social and tribal ties. The adopted Indian warrior was forever debarred from 
returning to his own people, by whom he would not have been received. His 
fate was thenceforth inextricably interwoven with that of his new kinsmen." 
Runaway negroes early came into the possession of the southern tribes, and 
thus were slaves ; but they often married the Indians and were otherwise treated 
like members of the tribe. Europeans made a practice of enslaving or selling 
into slavery captive Indians, many of whom were shipped to the West Indies. 
"In the early days of the colonies the enslavement of Indians by settlers seems 
to have been general." H. W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


most complaisant terms. Finally the warriors stepped 
ashore, all naked, abandoning to pillage, according to 
their custom, all their booty. An old man came, at the 
head of nine men, to conduct the captives to a place at 
one side ; there were five old men and four youths. The 
women and the children immediately ranged themselves 
in rows, very much as is done when some soldier is 
flogged through the lines. The young captives, who 
were very agile, quickly passed through; but the old 
men were so hardly used that they bled profusely. The 
former were awarded to masters, who spared their lives ; 
but the old men were condemned to the flames. They 
were placed on the Manilion, which is the place where 
the captives are burned, until the chiefs had decided 
to which tribe they should be handed over. The Jesuit 
fathers and the commandants were greatly embarrassed, 
in so delicate a situation ; for they feared that the five 
Iroquois tribes would complain of the little care which 
the French took of their people at the very time when 
there was discussion of a general peace. They sent a 
large collar of porcelain to redeem the captives; the 
Outaouaks insolently replied that they would be masters 
of their own actions, without depending on any one 
whatsoever. Sieur Perrot, who was at Michilimakinak 
with the three Sauteur girls, had a strong ascendency 
over the minds of those peoples ; and he was called upon 
to make in person the demand for the captives. He went 
to the cabin of their council of war, with a collar, ac- 
companied by those persons who had presented the first 
one. He passed in front of the Manilion, on which the 
prisoners, who awaited their fate, were singing; he made 
them sit down, and told them to cease their songs. Some 
Outaouaks roughly ordered them to continue ; but Per- 
rot replied to these that he intended that the captives 


should be silent, and he actually silenced their guards, 
telling the slaves that soon he would be the master of 
their bodies. He entered the council, where he found 
all the old men, who had already pronounced sentence; 
one was to be burned at the Bay of Puans, the second at 
the Saut, and the three others at Michilimakinak. Per- 
rot was not disconcerted by that; he hung his porcelain 
collar to a pole when he entered, and addressed them 
nearly in this manner: 

"I come to cut the cords on the dogs ; I am not willing 
that they should be eaten. I have pity on them, since 
my father Onontio takes pity on them, and even has com- 
manded me to do so. You Outaouaks are like bears who 
have been tamed ; when one gives them a little freedom, 
they will no longer recognize those who have reared 
them. You no longer remember the protection of Onon- 
tio, without which you would not possess any country; 
I am maintaining you in it, and you are living in peace. 
When he asks from you a few tokens of obedience, you 
wish to lord it over him, and to eat the flesh of those 
people, whom he will not abandon to you. Take care 
lest you are unable to swallow them, and lest Onontio 
snatch them by force from between your teeth. I speak 
to you as a brother; and I think that I am taking pity on 
your children when I cut the bonds of your captives." 

This discourse did not seem very compelling for ob- 
taining a favor of this sort; nevertheless, it had all the 
success that one could desire. Indeed, one of the chiefs 
began to speak, and said: "See, it is the master of the 
land who speaks; his canoe is always full of captives 
whom he sets free, and how can we refuse him?" They 
sent word immediately to bring the captives, to whom 
they granted life in open council. 

The liberty which these five old men came to enjoy 


was a result of chance, or rather of caprice. One must 
be very politic in order to manage those peoples, who so 
easily stray from their duty; they should not be flattered 
much, and likewise should not be reduced to despair. 
They are managed only by solid and convincing argu- 
ments, which must be gently placed before them, but 
without sparing those people when they are in the 
wrong; but it is necessary to keep them up with hopes, 
making them understand that they will be rewarded 
when they have deserved it. 

As all the tribes were to send deputies to Montreal, to 
be present at the general peace, the Outaouaks thought 
it opportune to send to Monsieur de Denonville two of 
those liberated captives, to the end that so authentic an 
example of their generosity might shine in the general 
council. They desired that Perrot should let the cap- 
tives be seen beforehand in their own country, in order 
thus to induce the Five Nations to commit no further 
act of hostility against them, but to be very cautious to 
use this means without the order of the general. He 
told them that he did not know of any open door among 
the Iroquois except that indicated by the ordinary road, 
which was the only one by which he could enter; and 
that ever since he had had access to the cabin of Onon- 
tio, and had warmed himself at his fire, he would go, if 
Onontio wished to open the door of the Iroquois, to 
carry his message to all of his villages if he should com- 
mand him to do so. The Outaouaks were pleased with 
these arguments ; they recommended to him the interests 
of their tribe, and entreated him to be their spokesman 
in the general council. They gave him Petite Racine 
[i.e., "Little Root"], one of their chiefs, who had orders 
only to make a report of all the deliberations ; and they 
assured him that, if unfortunately he were killed on the 


journey through the Iroquois country, they would 
avenge his death, and that they would never consent to a 
peace until they had first sacrificed to his spirit many of 
the Iroquois families. This was in truth the most con- 
vincing proof of the esteem which they felt for him. 
But the affairs of the colony entirely changed their as- 
pect; if the most powerful states are sometimes subject 
to revolutions, we say that distant countries, [even] the 
most stable, are also exposed to cruel catastrophes. In- 
deed Canada, which had never been so flourishing, sud- 
denly found itself, so to speak, the prey of its enemies. 
All the tribes who heard the French name mentioned 
wished only for means of forming alliance with our na- 
tion; and those who were already known to us found 
that it was very agreeable to be under our protection. 
On the other hand, its enemies found themselves hu- 
miliated in the sight of an infinite number of peoples. 
Even the English, affected by the disaster to their 
friends, in some sort implored the good graces of him 
who had chastised the latter. Nothing, therefore, was 
more glorious for the Marquis de Denonville, but noth- 
ing was more touching than the occasion when he beheld 
utter desolation in the center of his government. It was 
then that the Iroquois came suddenly to the island of 
Montreal, to the number of fifteen hundred warriors; 
they put to the sword all that they encountered in the 
space of seven leagues. 17 They rendered themselves 

17 This refers to the sudden raid made by the Iroquois against the island 
of Montreal in 1689; on Aug. 25 of that year 1,500 of those savages surprised 
the village of Lachine, near Montreal, and slew or took captive all its inhabi- 
tants; and thence they ravaged the entire island with fire and sword. This 
fearful disaster caused terror in all the French settlements, and made many of 
the friendly tribes waver in their allegiance to France; but in the same year 
Count de Frontenac was sent to Canada for a second term as governor, and 
his able rule soon restored peace and safety. This Iroquois raid was doubtless 
caused by resentment on the part of the Five Nations at Denonville's punitive 
expedition into their country in 1687, and still more by his treacherous seizure 


masters of the open country by using the cover of the 
woods; and no person could set foot on the land along 
the river who was not captured or killed. They spread 
themselves on every side with the same rapidity as does 
a torrent. Nothing could resist the fury of those bar- 
barians, no matter what action was taken to furnish aid 
to those whom our people saw carried away [into cap- 
tivity], or to resist the various parties of the enemy. The 
French were compelled to shut themselves at once with- 
in two wretched little forts ; and if the Flemings had not 
warned them to be very careful to remain close to the 
forts it may be said that the enemy would have made an 
end of them with the same facility that they did of all 
the settlements that they ravaged. The open counry was 
laid waste; the ground was everywhere covered with 
corpses, and the Iroquois carried away six-score captives, 
most of whom were burned ; but these are misfortunes 
which ought not to cause the least damage to the glory 
of a general. It is not surprising that the savages came 
to make incursions and raids into so vast a region. The 
skill of these peoples is, to avoid combats in open coun- 
try, because they do not know how to offer battle or make 
evolutions therein; their manner of conducting battles 
is altogether different from that of Europe. The for- 
ests are the most secure retreats, in which they fight ad- 
vantageously; for it is agreed that these fifteen hundred 
warriors would have cut to pieces more than six thousand 
men, if the latter should advance into the mountainous 
country where the savages were. There are no troops 
of the sort that are in Europe who could succeed in such 
an enterprise, not only in equal but even in far superior 

of a number of their chiefs, whom he sent to work on the galleys in France an 
act which violated the law of nations even the most primitive, and was both 
dastardly and cruel. ED. 


Chapter XVII 

La Petite Racine ["Little Root"], who had come [to 
Montreal] on behalf of his tribe to be a witness of all 
that should take place in the general peace council, 
found an altogether extraordinary change in the con- 
dition of affairs; he traded the peltries that he had 
brought down, and promptly returned home. Monsieur 
Denonville despatched with him a canoe, by which he 
sent his orders to Monsieur de la Durantaye, comman- 
dant at Michilimakinak. This chief, on his return, 
caused universal alarm. The Outaouaks informed all 
the tribes of the devastation that had been inflicted upon 
the French, and entreated all the chiefs to come to 
Michilimakinak, that they might consult together upon 
the measures that ought to be taken regarding the 
wretched condition into which they were going to be 
plunged. They resolved in their general council to 
send to Tsonnontouan some deputies, with two of those 
Iroquois old men whom they had set free, in order to 
assure the Iroquois that they would have no further con- 
nection with the French, and that they desired to main- 
tain with the Iroquois a close alliance. 

The Hurons feigned not to join in the revolt of the 
Outaouaks; the policy of those peoples is so shrewd 
that it is difficult to penetrate its secrets. When they 
undertake any enterprise of importance against a nation 
whom they fear, especially against the French, they seem 
to form two parties -one conspiring for and the other 
opposing it; if the former succeed in their projects, the 
latter approve and sustain what has been done; if their 
designs are thwarted, they retire to the other side. Ac- 
cordingly, they always attain their objects. But such 
was not the case in this emergency; they were so terrified 


by La Petite Racine's report that neither the Jesuits nor 
the commandant could pacify those people - who re- 
proached them, with the most atrocious insults, saying 
that the French had abused them. Matters reached so 
pitiable a condition that Monsieur de la Durantaye had 
need of all his experience and good management to keep 
his fort and maintain the interests of the colony -an 
undertaking that any other man would have abandoned ; 
for the savages are fickle, take umbrage at everything, 
are time-serving, and are seldom friends except as ca- 
price and self-interest induce them to act as such; it is 
necessary to take them on their weak side, and to profit 
by certain moments when one can penetrate their de- 

Soon afterward, Monsieur the Marquis de Dcnon- 
ville was recalled to court, his majesty having appointed 
him sub-governor to Monsieur the Duke of Bourgogne 
[i.e., Burgundy]. Monsieur the Count de Frontenac 
succeeded him, and arrived in Canada at the end of 
October, 1689. Monsieur de la Durantaye, who had 
remained at Michilimakinak, despatched a canoe to the 
new governor, to acquaint him with all the movements 
of the Outaouaks, and, as he held only a temporary com- 
mand in the post which he was occupying, Monsieur de 
Frontenac sent Monsieur de Louvigni to relieve him. 
That governor was of opinion, at the outset, that it was 
desirable to make known his arrival to all the tribes; 
Perrot was the man whom he selected for that purpose; 
he ordered him, at the same time, to make every effort to 
pacify the troubles that the Outaouaks might have occa- 
sioned in those regions. He was accordingly despatched 
with Monsieur de Louvigni, who cut to pieces, at fifty 
leagues from Montreal, a party of sixty Iroquois; three 
of these he sent as prisoners to Monsieur de Frontenac, 


and another he took with him. He also carried away 
many scalps, in order to show them to the Outaouaks, in 
the hope of bringing about a reconciliation with them; 
but those peoples had already secured the start of him, 
lest they should draw upon themselves the indignation 
of the Iroquois. On the route the French learned, 
through the Missisakis, that La Petite Racine had gone 
as ambassador to the Iroquois with two chiefs; that 
nothing had been heard about them since, except that 
it was said that one of them was yet to depart. This news 
induced Monsieur de Louvigni to send Perrot with two 
canoes to Michilimakinak, to inform the French of his 
arrival. As soon as he came in sight of the place, he 
displayed the white flag, and his men uttered loud shouts 
of "Vive le Roi!" The French judged, by that, that 
some good news had come from Montreal. The Outa- 
ouaks ran to the edge of the shore, not in the least under- 
standing all these outcries ; as they were thoroughly per- 
suaded that our affairs were in very bad condition, they 
were so politic as to say that they would receive in war- 
like fashion the French who were on the way. They 
were warned that our usages were different from theirs; 
we were unwilling that they should swarm into our ca- 
noes to pillage them, as is their custom in regard to 
nations who come back victorious from any military ex- 
pedition, abandoning whatever is in their canoes; we 
preferred that they should be content with receiving 
presents. Warning was sent to Monsieur de Louvigni 
that he would be received in military array, with all the 
Frenchmen whom he was bringing; all sorts of precau- 
tions were taken lest we should be duped by those peo- 
ples, who were capable of laying violent hands on us 
when we were least expecting such action. The canoes 
came into view, at their head the one in which was the 


Iroquois slave; according to custom, he was made to 
sing, all the time standing upright. The Nepiciriniens 
who had accompanied the Frenchmen responded with 
them, keeping time, by loud shouts of "Sassakoue!" fol- 
lowed by volleys of musketry. A hundred Frenchmen 
of Michilimakinak were stationed, under arms, on the 
water's edge at the foot of their village ; they had only 
powder in their guns, but had taken the precaution to 
place bullets in their mouths. The fleet, which pro- 
ceeded in regular array, as if it were going to make a 
descent on an enemy's country, gradually came near. 
When the canoes neared the village of the Outaouaks, 18 
they halted, and the Iroquois was made to sing; a volley 
of musket-shots, to which the Outaouaks responded, ac- 
companied his song. The fleet crossed, in nearly a 
straight line, to the French village, but did not at once 
come to land. The Outaouaks hastened, all in battle 
array, to the landing-place, while the men in the canoes 
replied to the prisoner's songs with loud yells and firing 
of guns, as also did the French of Michilimakinak. At 
last, when it was necessary to go on shore, Monsieur de 
Louvigni had his men load their guns with ball, and 
disembark with weapons ready; the Outaouaks stood at 
a little distance on the shore, without making any further 

The Hurons-who, although they have been at all 
times very unreliable, had seemed greatly attached to 
our interests amid the general conspiracy of the Outa- 
ouaks -demanded the slave, in order to have him 
burned; 19 the other tribes were jealous of that prefer- 

18 The French post of Michilimackinac then stood on the mainland, at the 
site of the present St. Ignace. There were three separate villages, those of 
the French, Hurons, and Ottawas. A detailed map, showing these, is found in 
La Hontan's Voyages (ed. 1741, Amsterdam, tome i, 156) ; this is reproduced 
in Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. xvi, 136.- ED. 

19 "The treatment accorded captives was governed by those limited ethical 


ence. The Huron chiefs, who were very politic, after 
many deliberations warned their people not to put him 
in the kettle; their object in this was to render them- 

concepts which went hand in hand with clan, gentile, and other consanguine a 1 
organizations of Indian society. From the members of his own consanguineal 
group, or what was considered such, certain ethical duties were exacted of an 
Indian which could not be neglected without destroying the fabric of society or 
outlawing the transgressor. Toward other clans, gentes, or bands of the same 
tribe his actions were also governed by well recognized customs and usages 
which had grown up during ages of intercourse; but with remote bands or 
tribes good relations were assured only by some formal peace-making cere- 
mony. A peace of this kind was very tenuous, however, especially where there 
had been a long-standing feud, and might be broken in an instant. Toward 
a person belonging to some tribe with which there was neither war nor peace, 
the attitude was governed largely by the interest of the moment. . . If the 
stranger belonged to a clan or gens represented in the tribe he was among, the 
members of that clan or gens usually greeted him as a brother and extended 
their protection over him. Another defense for the stranger was what with 
civilized people is one of the best guaranties against war the fear of dis- 
turbing or deflecting trade. . . If nothing were to be had from the stranger, 
he might be entirely ignored. And, finally, the existence of a higher ethical 
feeling toward strangers, even when there was apparently no self-interest to 
be served in hospitality, is often in evidence. . . At the same time the 
attitude assumed toward a person thrown among Indians too far from his own 
people to be protected by any ulterior hopes or fears on the part of his captors 
was usually that of master to slave. . . The majority of captives, however, 
were those taken in war. These were considered to have forfeited their lives and 
to have been actually dead as to their previous existence. It was often thought 
that the captive's supernatural helper had been destroyed or made to submit 
to that of the captor, though where not put to death with torture to satisfy the 
victor's desire for revenge and to give the captive an opportunity to show his 
fortitude, he might in a way be reborn by undergoing a form of adoption. 
It is learned from the numerous accounts of white persons who had been taken 
by Indians that the principal hardships they endured were due to the rapid 
movements of their captors in order to escape pursuers, and the continual 
threats to which they were subjected," threats which were, however, seldom 
carried out; and a certain amount of consideration was often shown toward 
captive women and children. "It is worthy of remark that the honor of a 
white woman was almost always respected by her captors among the tribes 
east of the Mississippi; but west of that limit, on the plains, in the Columbia 
River region, and in the southwest, the contrary was often the case." The 
disposal of the captives taken by war-parties varied in many ways. Running 
the gauntlet, dancing for the entertainment of their captors, tortures of various 
kinds, and often burning at the stake (sometimes accompanied by cannibalism), 
were among the methods of their reception in the enemy's country; but the 
majority were regarded and treated as slaves by their captors, being sometimes 


selves acceptable to the Iroquois, in case peace should 
be made with that people, by the distinguished service 
which they would have rendered to one of their chiefs by 
saving him from the fire ; but we very plainly saw their 
design. The Outaouaks, who were greatly offended, 
could not refrain from saying that it would be necessary 
to eat him. That Iroquois was surprised that a mere 
handful of Hurons, whom his own people had enslaved, 
should have prevailed on an occasion of such impor- 

The father who was missionary to the Hurons, fore- 
seeing that this affair might have results which would 
be prejudicial to his cares for their instruction, demand- 
ed permission to go to their village that he might con- 
strain them to find some way by which the resentment 
of the French might be appeased. He told them that 
the latter peremptorily ordered them to put the Iro- 
quois in the kettle and that, if they did not do so, the 
French must come to take him away from them and 
place him in their own fort. Some Outaouaks who hap- 
pened to be present at the council said that the French 
were right. The Hurons then saw themselves con- 
strained to beg the father to tell the French, on their 
behalf, that they asked for a little delay, in order that 
they might bind him to the stake. They did this, and 
began to burn his fingers; but the slave displayed so 
great lack of courage, by the tears that he shed, that they 
judged him unworthy to die a warrior's death, and de- 
spatched him with their weapons. 

The chiefs of all the nations at Michilimakinak were 

sold to other tribes, and sometimes ransomed (especially when whites). Often 
a captive was adopted to take the place of some person who had died, and 
thus was liberated from slavery. Most women and children were preserved 
and adopted ; and the Iroquois adopted entire bands or even tribes in order to 
recruit their own population. JOHN R. SWANTON, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 
[Cf. vol. i, footnote 134. ED.] 


summoned to meet at the house of the Jesuit fathers; 
and before each one was placed a present of guns, am- 
munition, and tobacco. Our envoy represented to them 
their short-sightedness in abandoning the interests of 
the French nation to embrace those of the Iroquois, 
whose only desire was for such a rupture. They were 
told that Onontio, who had every reason to abandon 
them, was nevertheless touched with compassion for his 
children, whom he desired to bring back to himself ; and 
that he had sent the band of Frenchmen who had just 
arrived among them, striving to restore to the right path 
their minds, which had gone astray. That those houses 
burned on Montreal Island by the Iroquois, and the few 
corpses that they had seen in the unexpected invasion 
which the latter had made there, ought not to have such 
an effect on their minds as to persuade them that all was 
lost in the colony; that the Iroquois would not derive 
much profit from a blow which would far more redound 
to their shame than to the glory of true warriors, since 
they had come at that very time to ask for peace. That 
the French nation was more numerous than they im- 
agined; that they must look upon it as a great river 
which never ran dry, and whose course could not be 
checked by any barrier. That they ought to regard the 
five Iroquois nations as five cabins of muskrats in a 
marsh which the French would soon drain off, and then 
burn them there; that they could be satisfied that the 
hundred women and children who had been treacher- 
ously carried away would be replaced by many soldiers, 
whom the great Onontio, the king of France, would send 
to avenge them. That since our Onontio of Canada, the 
Count de Frontenac, had arrived at Quebec, he had 
made the English feel the strength of his arms, by the 
various war-parties that he had sent into their country; 


that even the Nepiciriniens who had recently come up to 
Michilimakinak with Monsieur de Louvigni had given 
us no little aid in putting five large English villages to 
fire and sword; that Onontio was powerful enough to 
destroy the Iroquois, the English, and their allies. Fi- 
nally, if any one of these tribes undertook to declare 
themselves in favor of the Iroquois, he gave them liberty 
to do so, but he would not consent that those who wielded 
the war-club to maintain their own interests should here- 
after dwell upon his lands; that, if they preferred to be 
Iroquois, we would become their enemies; and that it 
would be seen, without any further explanations, who 
should remain master of the country. 

The chief of the Cinagos, rising in the council, spoke 
in these terms: "My brother the Outaouak, vomit 
forth thy hateful feelings and all thy plots. Return to 
thy father, who stretches out his arms, and who is, more- 
over, not unable to protect thee." Nothing more was 
needed to overturn all the schemes of the malcontents. 
The chiefs of each nation protested that they would 
undertake no action against the will of their father. But, 
whatever assurance they gave of their fidelity, most of 
them, seeing their designs foiled, sought to thwart us by 
other subterfuges. They did not dare, it is true, to carry 
out their resolution - either because they were unwill- 
ing to risk a combat with the French, who were only 
waiting for a final decision; or because they did not 
know how they could transport their families to the Iro- 
quois country- but all their desire was for the time when 
they could open the way for a large troop from that 
nation who could carry them away. They decided, 
however, in a secret conclave that they would send to 
the Iroquois the same deputies on whom they had pre- 
viously agreed; and that, if their departure should un- 


fortunately be discovered, the old men should disown 
them. This mystery was not kept so hidden that we did 
not receive warning of it. A Sauteur came to warn 
Perrot of their intention; one of their deputies entering 
his cabin a little later, he reproached him for it. But, as 
the savage is by nature an enemy of deceit, this man 
could not long disguise his sentiments ; and he admitted 
that his brother was at the head of that embassy. Mon- 
sieur de Louvigni did not hesitate to call together all the 
chiefs, whom he sharply rebuked for their faithlessness. 
The Outaouaks thought that they could exculpate them- 
selves by casting all the blame upon the man who was to 
go away. Messengers were sent for him, and never did 
a man seem more ashamed than he when he saw that he 
must appear before the council; he entered the place 
with the utmost mortification in his face. His brother 
said to him: "Our chiefs are throwing the stone at 
thee, and they say that they know nothing about thy de- 
parture for the Iroquois." Perrot took up the word, 
saying: "My brother, how is this? I thought that thou 
wast the supporter of the French who are at Michili- 
makinak. When the attack was made at Tsonnontouan, 
all the Outaouaks gave way ; thou alone, with two others, 
didst second the French. At all times thou hast kept 
nothing for thyself; when thou hadst anything thou 
gavest it to the French, whom thou didst love as thine 
own brothers; yet now thou wouldst, against the wishes 
of thy tribe, betray us. Onontio, who remembers thee, 
has told me to reward thee ; I do not think that thou art 
capable of opposing his wishes." He gave the man a 
brasse of tobacco and a shirt, and continued : "See what 
he has given me to show thee that he remembers thee. 
Although thou hast done wrong, I will give thee some- 
thing to smoke, so that thou mayest vomit up or swallow 


whatever thou hast intended to do against him ; and thy 
body, which is soiled by treason, shall be made clean by 
this shirt, which will make it white." That chief was so 
overcome with sorrow that it was a long time before he 
could speak; he recovered himself somewhat, and, ad- 
dressing the old men, with an air full of pride and con- 
tempt, said to them: "Employ me in future, old men, 
when you undertake to plot anything against my father - 
he who remembers me, and against whom I have taken 
sides. I belong wholly to him ; and never will I take 
part against the French." Then turning toward Perrot, 
he said to him: "I will not lie to thee. When thou 
didst arrive, I went near thee, intending to embrace 
thee; but thou didst regard me unkindly. I thought 
that thou hadst abandoned me, because I had been to the 
Iroquois with La Petite Racine. When thou didst speak 
to the tribes, I withdrew, in order to divert them from 
the design that we all had of giving ourselves to the Iro- 
quois. They did not dare to oppose thee; but at night 
they held a council in a cabin (from which they turned 
out all the women and children), to which I was sum- 
moned. They deputed me to return to the Iroquois, and 
I believed that thou hadst a grudge against me; those 
reasons constrained me to yield to what they demanded 
from me." 

Those peoples could no longer maintain their evil de- 
sign ; the explanations that had just been made checked 
its progress; but they always kept up a very surly feel- 
ing against the French nation, and, although they saw 
that they were unable to compass their object, they did 
not fail again to stir up opposition against us, in order 
to annoy us. The jealousy that they felt because we 
made presents of a few gold-trimmed jackets to some 
Hurons, who had appeared to be our friends in this af- 


fair, inspired in them a new stratagem. They knew that 
the Miamis, our allies, were at war with the Iroquois; 
and they resolved to attack the former, who did not mis- 
trust their design, that they might force the Miamis 
themselves to make peace with the Iroquois. The Sau- 
teur who had already ascertained that the Outaouaks 
had intended to send deputies to the Iroquois also 
learned that two canoes were to go to break heads among 
the Miamis ; but we again broke up their plans, and pre- 
vented this act. 

The Outagamis and the Maskoutechs, wishing to sec- 
ond the Outaouaks at the time when they took sides with 
the Iroquois -who had sent them a large collar, in order 
to thank them for having restored to them five chiefs 
whom they had captured when on a hostile expedition 
against the Islinois- resolved, to do the Iroquois a plea- 
sure, to massacre all the French who were coming down 
from the country of the Nadouaissioux. They per- 
suaded themselves that they would, by such a massacre, 
attract to themselves the friendship of that haughty 
nation, who had appeared greatly pleased when the 
Outagamis had sent back to them five slaves of their na- 
tion, whom the Miamis had given to them to eat. 

The arrival of the French at Michilimakinak was 
heard of at La Baye. The chief of the Puans, a man of 
sense, who greatly loved our nation, resolved to thwart 
the plot to kill our people. He went to find the Outa- 
gamis, and made them believe that Onontio had sent La 
Petit Bled d'Inde [i.e., Perrot] with three hundred Iro- 
quois from the Sault, as many more Abenaquis, 20 all the 

20 Abnaki (a term derived from Algonkin words meaning "east-land," or 
"morning-land"), "a name used by the English and French to designate an 
Algonquian confederacy centering in the present state of Maine, and by the 
Algonquian tribes to include all those of their own stock resident on the Atlantic 
seaboard, more particularly the 'Abnaki' in the north and the Delawares in the 
south. . . In later times, after the main body of the Abnaki had removed 


Nepiciriniens, and six hundred Frenchmen, to revenge 
himself for their evil project. The Outagamis precipi- 
tately quitted their ambuscade, and went back to their 
village. This chief, who was afraid that they would 
learn of his ruse, went to meet Perrot at the entrance of 
the bay; the latter promised to keep his secret, and pre- 
sented to him a gold-trimmed jacket. A contrary wind 
compelled them to halt there for a time, and Perrot had 
an opportunity to become acquainted with all that had 
occurred at the bay. The Outagamis had taken thither 
their hatchets, which were dulled and broken, and had 
compelled a Jesuit brother to repair them; their chief 
held a naked sword, ready to kill him, while he worked. 
The brother tried to represent to them their folly, but 
was so maltreated that he had to take to his bed. The 
chief then prepared ambuscades, in order to await the 
French who were to return from the country of the 
Nadouaissioux. All the peoples of the bay had, it is 
true, good reason to complain, because our people had 
gone to carry to their enemies all kinds of munitions of 
war; and one could not be astonished that we had so 
much difficulty in managing all those people. Perrot 
sent back the Puan chief to the Outagamis, to tell them 
on his behalf that he had learned of their design against 
his young men, and would punish them for it; and, to 
let them know that he was not disturbed by all their 
threats, that he had sent back all his men, except fifty 
Frenchmen; that he had three hundred musket-shots to 
fire, and enough ammunition with which to receive 
them ; that if he should by chance encounter any one of 
their tribe, he could not answer for the consequences; 

to Canada, the name was applied more especially to the Penobscot tribe." 
The Sokoki were one of the tribes in this confederacy. In 1903 the Abnaki of 
Canada (which include remnants of other New England tribes) numbered 
395 ; and the Penobscot of Maine say that their present population is between 
300 and 400. JAMES MOONEY and CYRUS THOMAS, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


and that it would be useless for them to ask him to land 
at their village. 

The Puan chief returned to the bay, where he ex- 
aggerated still further what Perrot had said to him. 
The Renard chief visited him expressly to ascertain the 
truth of the matter, and dared not wait for Perrot. He 
departed with eighty of his warriors to march against 
the Nadouaissioux, after he had given orders to the 
people of his village to assure Perrot in his behalf that 
he loved him, and to take great pains to entertain him 
well. He proceeded to the post of the Frenchmen who 
were sojourning in the country of the Nadouaissioux; 
as they were afraid of him, they gave him presents -a 
gun, a shirt, a kettle, and various munitions of war; and 
he told them that Le Petit Bled d'Inde had resolved to 
recall them to the bay. This news, which was not very 
agreeable to them, induced them to quit that establish- 
ment; and they retired to a place eighty leagues farther 
inland, where they engaged the Nadouaissioux to go 
hunting, and to return to them in the winter. The 
Outagamis profited by this opportunity to attack the 
Nadouaissioux, of whom they slew many, and took sev- 
eral captives. The alarm was immediately given among 
the villages; the warriors fell upon them, and likewise 
slew many of the Outagamis, and took some captives. 
The chief fought on the retreat with extraordinary cour- 
age, and would have lost many more of his people if he 
himself had not made so firm a stand at the head of his 

Chapter XVIII 

The Miamis, who had heard the report that Perrot 
would soon arrive at the bay, set out to visit him, to the 
number of forty, loaded with beaver-skins ; when they 


came near the house of the Jesuits, 21 canoes were sent to 
them that they might cross a little stream. The chief 
sent his young warriors to erect some cabins ; when these 
had been made, they all resorted thither, in order to con- 
sult about the interview that they expected to hold with 
Sieur Perrot. An accident happened to a Saki who was 
at the time in his cabin ; while he was sitting in the floor, 
a kettle which hung over the fire fell over him, and part 
of his body was burned, as he wore only an old raccoon- 
skin. He uttered a yell, with contortions that made 
those who were present laugh, despite the compassion 
which they could not help feeling for him. A French- 
man said to him, jestingly, that a man as courageous as 
he was ought not to fear the fire; that it was the proper 
thing for a warrior such as he to sing; but that, to show 
him that he felt grieved at the accident, he would lay 
over the scalded part a plaster, consisting of a brasse of 
tobacco. The Saki replied that such an act showed good 
sense; and that the tobacco had entirely healed him. 
The Miamis sent to beg Perrot to visit them in their 
cabins, that he might point out to them a place where 
he desired them to assemble. The place of rendezvous 
was at the house of the Jesuits, to which they brought 
one hundred and sixty beaver-skins, which they piled in 
two heaps. The Miami chief, standing by one of them, 

21 In this connection may be mentioned a most interesting relic owned by 
the Roman Catholic diocese of Green Bay, and deposited in the State Historical 
Museum at Madison, Wis. It is an ostensorium or monstrance of silver, fifteen 
inches high, of elaborate workmanship. Around the rim of its oval base is an 
inscription in French, somewhat rudely cut on the metal, which translated 
reads: "This monstrance [French, soleil, referring to its shape] was given by 
Mr. Nicolas Perrot to the mission of St. Francois Xavier at the Bay of Puants 
[i.e., Green Bay], 1686." This is, so far, the oldest relic existing of French 
occupancy in Wisconsin, For description and illustration of this ostensorium, 
see Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. viii, 199-206; and Jesuit Relations, vol. Ixvi, 347. 
The Jesuit Mission was located a little above the mouth of Fox River, at the 
present Depere. ED. 


spoke after this fashion : "My father, I come to tell thee 
that thy dead men and mine are in the same grave ; and 
that the Maskou techs have killed us, and have made us 
eat our own flesh. My three sisters, who were made 
prisoners in the year of the battle with the Tsonnontou- 
ans, seeing that the Iroquois were routed by Onontio 
[footnote, 'The Marquis de Denonville'], escaped 
from their hands. Some Maskoutechs, whom they en- 
countered at the river of Chikagon, found on their way 
two Frenchmen who were returning from the Islinois, 
and assassinated them. Their dread that the women 
would make known this murder led the assassins to break 
their heads; but they carried away the scalps, which 
they have given us to eat, saying that they were those of 
some Iroquois. The Spirit has punished those assassins 
by a malady which has caused them and all their chil- 
dren to die; at last one of them confessed his crime 
when he was dying. Those beaver-skins which thou 
seest on the other side tell thee that we have no will but 
thine ; that, if thou tellest us to weep in silence, we will 
not make any move [against the Maskoutechs]." 

Perrot made them several presents, and spoke to them 
in nearly the following words : "My brothers, I delight 
in your speech, and war is odious when you fight against 
the Maskoutech; he is brave, and will slay your young 
men. I do not doubt that you could destroy him, for 
you are more numerous and more warlike than he; but 
desperation will drive him to extremity, and he has 
arrows and war-clubs, which he can handle with skill. 
Besides, the war-fire has been lighted against the Iro- 
quois, and will be extinguished only when he ceases to 
exist. War was declared on your account when he 
swept away your families at Chikagon ; those dead per- 
sons are seen no longer, for they are covered by those of 


the Frenchmen whom the Iroquois have betrayed 
through the agency of the Englishman -who was our 
ally, and upon whom we have undertaken to avenge our- 
selves for his treacherous conduct. We have also for an 
enemy the Loup, who is his son. Accordingly, we shall 
not be able to assist you if you undertake war against the 

After he had delivered this speech to them he also 
made two heaps of merchandise ; and, displaying these, 
continued thus: "I place a mat under your dead and 
ours, that they may sleep in peace; and this other pres- 
ent is to cover them with a piece of bark, in order that 
bad weather and rain may not disturb them. Onontio, 
to whom I will make known this assassination, will con- 
sider and decide what is best to do." The Miamis, then, 
had reason to be satisfied ; since they begged him to lo- 
cate his establishment upon the Missisipi, near Ouisken- 
sing [Wisconsin], so that they could trade with him for 
their peltries. The chief made him a present of a piece 
of ore which came from a very rich lead mine, which he 
had found on the bank of a stream which empties into 
the Missisipi; 22 and Perrot promised them that he 

22 This was probably the Galena River. It is not probable that the In- 
dians of early days worked these mines along the upper Mississippi that now 
yield so great a supply of lead ; but after they learned from the French the 
use of firearms they began to place much value on this metal, and probably 
obtained supplies of it in some crude fashion from outcropping ores. From 
them the French early learned the location of lead deposits, and during the 
eighteenth century worked mines here and there along the Mississippi, often 
employing Indians to do the work under their direction. The most noted of 
these mine-owners was Julien Dubuque, who obtained from the Sacs and 
Foxes (1788) permission to work mines on their lands, and from the Spanish 
authorities (1796) the grant of a large tract of land on the west side of the 
Mississippi, by means of which he acquired great wealth. See Thwaites's 
"Notes on Early Lead Mining," in Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. xiii, 271-292, and 
succeeding articles by O. G. Libby on "Lead and Shot Trade in early Wis- 
consin History." Cf. Meeker's "Early History of the Lead Region," /</., vol. 
vi, 271-296. 


would within twenty days establish a post below the 
Ouiskonche [Wisconsin] River. The chief then re- 
turned to his village. 

All the Saki chiefs and the Pouteouatemis assembled 
near the Jesuit house. Perrot gave them presents of 
guns, tobacco, and ammunition, and encouraged them to 
deal harder blows than ever at the Iroquois, to whom no 
one was a friend; and he told them how utterly knavish 
the Iroquois were. He said that the allies should dis- 
trust their artful words and their fine collars, which 
were only so many baits to lure them into their nets ; and 
that, if they should unfortunately fall into those snares, 
Onontio could not any longer draw them out. He told 
them that they had cause to be glad that they had con- 
tinued in their fidelity notwithstanding all the foolish 
proceedings of the Outaouaks, who had tried to induce 
the allies to espouse their interests instead of his. He re- 
peated to them the details of all that he had said to the 
tribes on Lake Huron ; and also made them understand 
that, if they undertook to declare themselves in favor of 
the Iroquois, they could go to live among them, since 
we would not suffer them to remain upon our lands. 
They protested that they would never stray from their 
duty ; and that, although the Outaouaks had always been 
their friends, they were resolved to perish rather than 
to abandon the cause of the French. 

When Perrot had reached a small Puan village which 
was near the Outagamis, the chief of the Maskoutechs 
and two of his lieutenants arrived there. They entered 
Perrot's cabin, excusing themselves for not having 
brought any present by which they could talk to him, as 
their village was upon his route ; the chief entreated him 
to sojourn there, as he had something of importance to 
communicate to him. Although we were greatly of- 


fended with both them and the Outagamis, who had 
sworn the ruin of the French who were among the 
Nadouaissioux, Perrot promised to stop at their village 
in order to forget the resentment that he felt toward 
them and to pardon them their error, which had been 
made only through the fault of the Renards. 

The Sakis returned by way of the Outagamis, to 
whom they reported all that had been said to them. 
Perrot encountered two Outagami chiefs, who came to 
meet him; they approached him trembling, and begged 
him, in the most submissive terms, to land, in order to 
hear them for a little while. After he had landed, they 
lit a fire, and laid on the ground a beaver robe to serve 
him as a carpet, on which he seated himself ; they were 
so beside themselves that for a time they could not speak. 
Finally one of them began to talk, saying: "The Outa- 
gamis have done wrong not to remember what thou didst 
formerly tell them. Since they became acquainted with 
thee thou hast never deceived them ; and when they do 
not see thee they let themselves be carried away by the 
solicitations of the Outaouaks and others who try to in- 
duce them to abandon the French. I have tried to pre- 
vent our people from undertaking anything against thy 
young men ; but they would not believe me, and I have 
been alone in my opinion. When they learned that thou 
wert coming, they were afraid of thee, and have begged 
me to tell thee on their behalf that they wish to see thee 
in their village, in order to reunite themselves to thy 
person -which they have not altogether abandoned, 
since if they had carried out the scheme with which the 
Outaouaks inspired them against the French, they would 
have taken care of thy children. As for me, I have taken 
no part in their conspiracy; and on that account I have 
come to meet thee, to entreat that, if thou wilt not grant 


me anything for them, thou wilt at least not refuse to 
come and listen to them, out of consideration for me." 

It was very difficult to obtain from those peoples all 
the satisfaction which we had desired. Their great dis- 
tance from us prevents us from reducing them to obe- 
dience; and the blustering manner which must be 
assumed with them was the best policy that could be 
adopted to make them fear us. Perrot, who understood 
their character, yielded the point out of consideration 
for this chief, and promised to remain with them half a 
day, in order to listen to their words. The chief went 
away to console his people ; he came back alone to meet 
Perrot, to ask him that he would land at the village. 
Another chief, seeing that the French did not leave their 
canoes, said that they were afraid. Our men answered 
that we did not fear them, and that the weapons of the 
French were able to make them repent, if they had the 
temerity to offer us any affront. The first-named chief 
was greatly incensed against this one, and said to his 
countrymen: "O Outagamis, will you always be fools? 
You will make the Frenchman embark, and he will 
abandon us. What will become of us? can we plant our 
fields if he will not allow it?" Throughout the village 
there were endless harangues, to quiet those who were 
seditious, and to induce the others to give Sieur Perrot 
a good reception. The head chief conducted him to his 
own cabin, where were present the most influential men 
of the tribe, who said to him "Welcome !" while offering 
him every token of kind feeling. Two young men en- 
tirely naked, armed as warriors, laid at his feet two pack- 
ages of beaver-skins; and, sitting down, cried out to 
him, "We submit to thy wishes, and entreat thee by this 
beaver to remember no more our foolish acts. If thou 
art not content with this atonement, strike us down ; we 


will suffer death, for we are willing to atone with our 
blood for the fault that our nation has committed." 
All these acts of submission had no other object than to 
procure ammunition and weapons for the peltries, fore- 
seeing that he would refuse these supplies to them. Per- 
rot made them understand that he had come to their vil- 
lage only to hear them; that, if they repented of their 
inconsiderate demands, he would pardon them; that, al- 
though they might escape from one hand, he would hold 
them tightly with the other; that he was holding them 
by no more than one finger, but that, if they would bestir 
themselves a little, he would take them by the arms and 
gradually bring them into a safe place where they could 
dwell in peace. 

All the chiefs begged him, one after another, to re- 
ceive them under his protection, imploring him to give 
them ammunition for their peltries so that they could 
kill game to make soup for their children. He would 
not grant them more than a small amount \apres-dine\. 
A war-chief, who carried in his hand a dagger, thought 
that Perrot's clerk had not given him enough powder, 
and spoke so fiercely to him that the clerk yielded all 
he asked. Perrot was greatly irritated against them, 
and gave orders to have everything taken back to the ca- 
noes ; but after some explanation he recognized that the 
chief had no bad intention. Those peoples are so brutal 
that persons who do not understand them suppose that 
they are always full of anger when they are speaking. 

- Chapter XIX 

Their trading being ended, the Frenchmen reem- 
barked; they did so very opportunely, for the desperate 
frame of mind in which the Outagamis found them- 
selves the next day, at tidings of the defeat of their peo- 


pie by the Nadouaissioux, would have made them forget 
the alliance which they had just renewed; in the sequel, 
they made that feeling sufficiently evident. The French 
arrived at a place a little below the village of the Mas- 
koutechs, where they encamped. The chiefs, accom- 
panied by their families, came to receive Perrot on the 
bank of their river; they entreated him to enter a cabin ; 
and by a package of beaver-skins they told him that they 
covered the dead whom their people had assassinated, 
including three Miami slaves who had escaped from the 
Iroquois. By another present, they begged that he 
would allow them to establish their village at the same 
place where the French were going to settle, saying that 
they would demonstrate to him their fidelity, and would 
trade with him for their peltries. Perrot told them that 
they had a right to settle wherever they pleased; but 
that, if he permitted them to come near the French, they 
must turn their war-clubs against the Iroquois only; 
that they must hang up the hatchet against the Nadou- 
aissioux until the fire of the Iroquois should be wholly 
extinguished. He told them that since Onontio had 
undertaken war against the Iroquois (who was [former- 
ly] his son) -on account of the Miamis who had been 
slain at Chikagon, and of the Maskoutechs themselves, 
who had lost their families -he could chastise the Na- 
douaissioux more easily than they were aware, when 
he saw that all his children were uniting their forces 
with his to destroy the common foe. On the next day 
they presented to the Frenchmen a buffalo and some In- 
dian corn, and fire, 23 which were of great assistance to 
them during the rest of their journey. He disclosed to 

23 Thus in original (feu) ; it may be a misprint for some other word, or it 
may mean a box containing smouldering tinder (for which "punk," or decaying 
wood, was often used) which would be a convenience to the French on their 
river voyage, even though they carried with them their own fire-steels. ED. 


them the project formed by all the tribes -the Miamis, 
the Outagamis, the Kikabous, and many of the Islinois. 
All these tribes were to assemble at the Missisipi, to 
march against the Nadouaissioux. The Miamis were 
to command the army; the Maskoutechs also were under 
obligation to join them, in order to avenge the assassina- 
tion of the Miami slaves. At that moment some Outa- 
gamis brought the news of the defeat of their people by 
the Nadouaissioux; and they secretly tried to induce the 
Maskoutechs to unite with them against the French, 
who had furnished weapons to their enemies. The Mas- 
koutechs were careful not to embroil themselves with 
the French ; and the difficulty which they had already 
experienced in reinstating themselves in the good graces 
of the latter hindered them from undertaking any enter- 
prise which would displease the French. These Outa- 
gamis, who had got wind of Perrot's sending to the bay 
a canoe loaded with peltries, went to inform their chief 
of it; he sent out some men to carry it away. The 
Frenchmen in the canoe, hearing at night the noise of 
paddles, and suspecting that the savages were going to 
capture them, hastily slipped among the tall reeds, 
which they traversed without being perceived. 

Perrot reembarked, with all his men, in good order; 
he encountered at the [Fox-Wisconsin] portage a canoe 
of Frenchmen who were coming from the country of 
the Nadouaissioux. He warned them not to trust the 
Maskoutechs, who would plunder them ; but his warn- 
ing was in vain. Some of that tribe, discovering them, 
bestowed upon them every kindness, entreating them to 
stop and rest themselves, on their way, at their village; 
but the Frenchmen had no sooner arrived there than 
they were pillaged. The other Frenchmen reached the 
Missisipi; Perrot sent out ten men to warn, in behalf of 


Monsieur de Frontenac, the Frenchmen who were 
among the Nadouaissioux to proceed to Michilimaki- 
nak. Perrot's establishment was located below the Ouis- 
konche, in a place very advantageously situated for 
security from attacks by the neighboring tribes. 24 The 
great chief of the Miamis, having learned that Perrot 
was there, sent to him a war-chief and ten young war- 
riors, to tell him that, as his village was four leagues 
farther down, he was anxious to sit down with Perrot at 
the latter's fire. That chief proceeded thither two days 
later, accompanied by twenty men and his women, and 
presented to the Frenchman a piece of ore from a lead 
mine. Perrot pretended not to be aware of the useful- 
ness of that mineral; he even reproached the Miami for 
a similar present by which he pretended to cover the 
death of the two Frenchmen whom the Maskoutechs had 
assassinated with the three Miami women who had es- 
caped from an Iroquois village. The chief was utterly 
astonished at such discourse, imagining that Perrot was 
ignorant of their deed; and told him that, since he knew 
of that affair, he would do whatever Perrot wished in 
the matter. The chief also assured him that, when the 
allies were assembled, he would make them turn the 
hatchet against the Iroquois; but that until they came 
to the general rendezvous it was necessary that he him- 
self should be ignorant of their design, in order that he 
might be there with his tribe and be able to raise a large 
troop against the Iroquois. The ice was now strong 
enough to support a man; and the Maskoutech chiefs 
had sent to him a warrior to inform him that the Outa- 
gamis were far advanced into the country of the Nadou- 

24 Although the exact location of this post is unknown, it probably was not 
far from the present Dubuque, Iowa where, and at Galena on the Illinois 
side, were located the lead mines often mentioned by La Potherie; and later, by 
Charlevoix, as "Perrot's mines." See Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. x, 301. - ED. 


aissioux, and prayed the Miamis to hasten to join them; 
but the latter had replied that they would do nothing 
without the Frenchman's consent. 

The Tchidiiakouingoues, the Oiiaouiartanons, the 
Pepikokis, the Mangakekis, the Poiiankikias, and the 
Kilataks, all Miami tribes, 25 coming from all directions, 
marched by long stages to reach that rendezvous. The 
first five of these tribes were the first to arrive, with their 
families, at the French post; if the Tchidiiakouingoues 
had not been at hand with a good supply of provisions, 
the other bands would have perished from hunger. 
Perrot made them many presents, to induce them to 
turn their war-club against the Iroquois, the common 
enemy. They excused themselves from a general ad- 
vance, asserting, nevertheless, that all their young men 
would go in various detachments to harass the Iroquois 
youth and carry away some of their heads. But, far 
from keeping their promise, they amused themselves for 
an entire month with hunting cattle; meanwhile, all the 
warriors who had joined the Outagamis and Maskou- 
techs were intending to march against the Nadoiiais- 
sioux, while the old men, women, and children would 
remain with the French. 

The savage's mind is difficult to understand ; he speaks 
in one way and thinks in another. If his friend's inter- 
ests accord with his own, he is ready to render him a 
service; if not, he always takes the path by which he 
can most easily attain his own ends ; and he makes all 
his courage consist in deceiving the enemy by a thousand 
artifices and knaveries. The French were warned of all 

25 For account of the Miami tribes, see vol. i, note 212; cf. note 190 also. The 
Ouiatanon were generally called Wea by the English, which name is still ap- 
plied to the present remnant of the tribe. The Piankashaw (Poiiankikias) also 
are not quite extinct; but the other tribes named in the text are no longer 
known. ED. 


the savages 7 intrigues by a Miami woman; all these 
hostile actions would have greatly injured Perrot's 
scheme that they should turn their weapons against the 
Iroquois-who, moreover, were delighted that these 
peoples should be thus divided among themselves, for 
whatever discord could be aroused among them was the 
only way by which their plans could be made to fail. 
Perrot sent for the chief of the Miamis; he made him 
believe that he had just received a letter which informed 
him that the Maskoutechs - jealous at seeing themselves 
obliged, by way of satisfaction, to join their war-club to 
that of their allies -had won over the Outagamis, and 
that they would by common consent attack the Miamis 
while on the general march against the Nadouaissioux. 
The chief, believing Perrot's statement, did not fail to 
break up the band of his warriors, and sent them the 
next day to hunt buffalo ; they also held a war- feast, at 
which they swore the ruin of the Maskoutechs. The 
Outagamis, who had displayed more steadfast courage 
than did the other allies, finding that they were advanced 
into the enemy's country, consulted the medicine-men to 
ascertain whether they were secure. Those jugglers de- 
livered their oracles, which were that the spirits had 
showed them that the Sauteurs and the Nadouaissioux 
were assembling to march against them. 26 Whether the 

2 "Mediators between the world of spirits and the world of men may be 
divided into two classes: the shamans, whose authority was entirely dependent 
on their individual ability; and priests, who acted in some measure for the 
tribe or nation, or at least for some society. 'Shaman' is explained variously 
as a Persian word meaning 'pagan,' or, with more likelihood, as the Tungus 
equivalent for 'medicine-man,' and was originally applied to the medicine- 
men or exorcists in Siberian tribes, from which it was extended to similar indi- 
viduals among the tribes of America." Often the shaman performed practically 
all religious functions, and sometimes was also a chief, thus obtaining also 
civil authority; his office was sometimes inherited, sometimes acquired by 
natural fitness; and as a preliminary to its exercise he would enter into a 
condition of trance for a certain period, or gain the proper psychic state through 


devil had really spoken to these men (as is believed in 
all Canada) , or the Outagamis were seized with fear at 
finding themselves alone, without assistance -however 
that might be, they built a fort, and sent their chiefs and 
two warriors to Perrot, begging that he would go among 
the Nadoiiaissioux to check their advance, and thus en- 
able the Outagamis, with their families, to take refuge 
in their own village. 

The Miamis would actually have engaged in battle 
with the Maskoutechs, if the Frenchman had not dis- 
suaded their chief from doing so. They received the 
Outagami chief with all possible honors ; he told them 
that their people were dead. Perrot asked him how 
many the dead were. He replied : "I do not know any- 
thing positively; but I believe that they all are dead, for 
our diviners saw the Nadouaissioux assemble together 

the sweat-bath or sometimes as the result of a narrow escape from death. 
In treating the sick or in other functions of their office, shamans were among 
many tribes supposed to be actually possessed by spirits, but among the Iro- 
quois they controlled their spirits objectively. "Hoffman enumerates three 
classes of shamans among the Chippewa, in addition to the herbalist or doctor, 
properly so considered. These were the JVdbeno', who practiced medical 
magic ; the Jes'sakki'd, who were seers and prophets deriving their power from 
the thunder god; and the Mide', who were concerned with the sacred society 
of the Mide'iuiivin, and should rather be regarded as priests. . . As dis- 
tinguished from the calling of a shaman, that of a priest was, as has been said, 
national or tribal rather than individual, and if there were considerable ritual 
his function might be more that of a leader in the ceremonies and keeper of 
the sacred myths than direct mediator between spirits and men. . . Even 
where shamanism flourished most there was a tendency for certain priestly 
functions to center around the town or tribal chief. . . Most of the tribes 
of the eastern plains contained two classes of men that may be placed in this 
category. One of these classes consisted of societies which concerned themselves 
with healing and applied definite remedies, though at the same time invoking 
superior powers, and to be admitted to which a man was obliged to pass 
through a period of instruction. The other was made up of the one or few 
men who acted as superior officers in the conduct of national rituals, and who 
transmitted their knowledge to an equally limited number of successors. Sim- 
ilar to these perhaps were the priests of the Mide'wiwin ceremony among the 
Chippewa, Menominee, and other Algonquian tribes. JOHN R. SWANTON, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians, art. "Shamans and priests." 


in order to come against us ; they are very numerous, and 
we are greatly troubled on account of our women and 
children, who are with us. The old men have sent me to 
thee, to beg thee to deliver us from the danger into 
which we have too blindly rushed ; they hope that thou 
wilt go among the Nadouaissioux to stop their advance." 
Perrot told him that they ought not to place any con- 
fidence in their jugglers, who are liars ; and that it was 
only the Spirit who could see so far. "Not at all," re- 
plied the Outagami ; "the Spirit has enabled them to see 
what they have divined, and that is sure to happen." 
The Miamis were strongly in favor of advancing. The 
Frenchman, who felt obliged by the orders that he had 
received from Monsieur de Frontenac to keep every- 
thing quiet among the allies, concluded that it would be 
best to avert an attack so fatal to the Outagamis; their 
destruction would have been very detrimental to the 
Frenchmen who happened to be in those regions, because 
the savages, who are naturally unruly, would have taken 
the opportunity to vent their resentment against them. 
He made them understand, however, that since the safety 
of a band of their tribe was concerned, he would go to 
make some attempt at ameliorating their situation. He 
encountered on the voyage five cabins of Maskoutechs, 
a village which was preparing to go to the French es- 
tablishment to trade there for ammunition. He told 
them the reason for his departure, and warned them not 
to trust themselves with the Nadouaissioux. 

Perrot finally arrived at the French fort, " where he 
learned that the Nadouaissioux were forming a large 
war-party to seek out the Outagamis or some of their 
allies. As he was then in a place under his own author- 

27 This fort may have been Perrot's supposed winter-quarters (1685-1686; 
see note 172) near Trempealeau, Wis., or else one of the forts he had built on 
Lake Pepin._ED. 


ity, he made known his arrival to the Nadouaissioux, 
whom he found, to the number of four hundred, ranging 
along the Missisipi in order to carry on some warlike 
enterprise. They would not allow his men to return to 
him, and themselves came to the fort, to which they 
flocked from all sides in order to pillage it. The com- 
mandant demanded why their young men appeared so 
frightened at the very time when he came to visit his 
brothers in order to give them life. A chief, arising, 
made the warriors retire, and ordered them to encamp. 
When their camp was made, Perrot summoned their 
leading men, and told them that he had come to inform 
them that the Miamis, the Outagamis, the Islinois, the 
Maskoutechs, and the Kikabous had formed an army of 
four thousand men to fight with them ; that they were 
to march in three parties -one along the Missisipi, an- 
other at a day's journey farther inland, but following the 
river, and a third at a similar distance from the second. 
He told them that he had stayed this torrent that was 
going to carry them away ; but finding them by chance 
in this locality, he exhorted them to return to their fam- 
ilies and hunt beavers. They replied with much haughti- 
ness that they had left home in order to seek death ; and, 
since there were men, they were going to fight against 
them, and would not have to go far to find them. They 
exchanged some peltries ; when that was done, they sent 
to ask Perrot to visit their camp, and there manifested 
to him the joy that they felt at his saying that they would 
find their enemies, entreating him to allow them to con- 
tinue their route. He tried all sorts of means to dis- 
suade them from this purpose; but they still replied 
that they had gone away to die ; that the Spirit had given 
them men to eat, at three days' journey from the French ; 
and that Perrot had invented a falsehood to them, since 


their jugglers had seen great fires far away. They even 
pointed out the places where these fires were : one was 
on this side, and at some distance inland ; another at some 
distance, and farther inland ; and a third, which they be- 
lieved to be the fire of the Outagamis. All these state- 
ments were true, for the five cabins of the Maskoutechs 
were at three days* journey from the French establish- 
ment; their village was on one side, the fort of the Outa- 
gamis opposite, and the Miamis and Islinois at a con- 
siderable distance farther. It is believed that the demon 
often speaks to the savages ; our missionaries even claim 
to have recognized him on several occasions. There was 
much truth in what the evil spirit had communicated to 
their jugglers. Other expedients must be employed to 
stop them; to gain their attention, Perrot gave them two 
kettles and some other wares, saying to them with these: 
"I desire you to live; but I am sure that you will be de- 
feated, for your devil has deceived you. What I have 
told you is true, for I really have kept back the tribes, 
who have obeyed me. But you are now intending to 
advance against them ; the road that you would take I 
close to you, my brothers, for I am not willing that it 
should be stained with blood. If you kill the Outagamis 
or their allies, you cannot do so without first striking me ; 
if they slay you, they likewise slay me; for I hold them 
under one of my arms, and you under the other. Can 
you then do them any wrong without doing it to me?" 
He was holding the same calumet which they had sung 
to him when he first made discovery of their tribe; he 
presented it to them to smoke, but they refused it. The 
insult which they thus offered was so great that he flung 
the calumet at their feet, saying to them: "It must be 
that I have accepted a calumet which dogs have sung 
to me, and that they no longer remember what they said 
to me. In singing it to me, they chose me as their chief, 


and promised me that they would never make any ad- 
vance against their enemies when I presented it to them; 
and yet today they are trying to kill me." Immediately 
a war-chief arose, and told Perrot that he was in the 
right; he then extended it toward the sun, uttering invo- 
cations, and tried to return it to Perrot's hands. The 
latter replied that he would not receive it unless they 
assured him that they would lay down their weapons. 
The chief hung it on a pole in the open place within the 
fort, turning it toward the sun ; then he assembled all the 
leading men in his tent, and obtained their consent that 
no hostile advance should be made. He then called Per- 
rot thither, .and sent for the calumet; he placed it be- 
fore him, one end in the earth and the other held upright 
by a small forked stick. He drew from his war-pouch a 
pair of moccasins, beautifully made; then he took off 
Perrot's shoes, and with his own hands put the moccasins 
on the Frenchman's feet. Finally he presented to him 
a dish of dried grapes, and three times put some of the 
fruit in Perrot's mouth. After he had eaten these, the 
chief took the calumet and said to him: "I remember 
all that these men promised to thee when they presented 
to thee this calumet; and now we listen to thee. Thou 
art depriving us of the prey that the Spirit had given 
us, and thou art giving life to our enemies. Now do for 
us what thou hast done for them, and prevent them from 
slaying us when we are dispersed to hunt for beaver, 
which we are going to do. The sun is our witness that 
we obey thee." 

Chapter XX 

Quiet was restored by the good management of Sieur 
Perrot, who returned to his establishment. He related 
to the Maskoutechs, who came to meet him, all that he 
had accomplished among the Nadouaissioux in favor of 


them and their allies ; and compelled them to settle, with 
the Kikabous, at a place two days' journey from him 
near a Miami village -in order that, if the Nadouais- 
sioux should happen to break their promise, these tribes 
might be able to resist them. They sent a band of forty 
warriors against the Iroquois, and brought back twelve 
of their scalps. 

The French discovered the mine of lead, which they 
found in great abundance ; but it was difficult to obtain 
the ore, since the mine lies between two masses of rock- 
which can, however, be cut away. The ore is almost free 
from impurities, and melts easily; it diminishes by a 
half, when placed over the fire, but, if put into a furnace, 
the slag would be only one-fourth. 

The Outaouaks, seeing that all was quiet among the 
tribes of the south, rightly judged that now they could 
easily carry fire and sword among those peoples. The 
alliance which they desired to contract with the Iroquois 
continually possessed their minds; and however great 
the ascendancy that the Jesuits had gained over them, or 
the skill with which Monsieur de Louvigni managed 
them, in order to keep them in submission to Monsieur 
de Frontenac's orders, nothing could prevail over their 
caprice. They left Michilimakinak, to the number of 
three hundred, and formed two war-parties; one was to 
join the Islinois against the Ozages and the Kangas, and 
the other was to disperse into the country of the Nadou- 
aissioux. Their course of conduct could only be very 
detrimental to the interests of the French colony, which 
would thus be prevented from receiving general aid 
from all the southern tribes against the Iroquois. When 
they had arrived at the Bay des Puans, they could not 
refrain from shouting that they found in their road a 
very precipitous place, which they did not believe they 


could scale or overturn. "There is Metaminens," they 
said, "who is going to stretch out legs of iron, and will 
compel us to retrace our steps ; but let us make an effort, 
and perhaps we shall get over them." They remembered 
that he had restrained them at Michilimakinak when 
they, after the raid of the Iroquois upon the island of 
Montreal, declared themselves against the French. Their 
fear that he would exasperate the minds of certain tribes 
in that region made them speak thus. Monsieur de 
Louvigni had taken the precaution to inform them that 
Perrot had pledged the Outagamis to our cause, and 
knew that he could accomplish a great deal in circum- 
stances of such importance. Perrot was prudent enough 
to say nothing to the Outaouaks about their enterprise; 
he only inquired from some of the war-chiefs if they had 
not some letters from Michilimakinak to give him. 
They told him that they had none, and that they were 
going to seek for the bones of their dead among the 
Nadouaissioux, hoping that he would consent to their 
project, as the Jesuit fathers and Monsieur de Louvigni 
had done. He treated them very affably, and had them 
smoke a pipe, without saying anything to them of other 
matters. Some one privately gave him the name of the 
chief who had hidden one of his letters; Perrot went to 
see this chief at night, and demanded why he had not 
given him the letter. "Dost thou not suppose," he said 
to him, "that the Spirit who has made writing will be 
angry with thee for having robbed me? Thou art going 
to war; art thou immortal?" The chief was, of course, 
somewhat surprised, imagining that the other had had 
some revelation in regard to the letter; he restored it to 
Perrot, and on the next day asked him to tell what he 
had read therein. The substance of it was, that he posi- 
tively must restrain the Outaouaks ; or, if he could not 


do that, he must render them objects of suspicion to the 
Outagamis. The chief of the Puans was extremely 
friendly to the French, to whom he offered any service 
that he could render ; he was thoroughly convinced that, 
if the Outaouaks should advance, all the other nations 
would undoubtedly follow them, and that an army of 
two thousand warriors would be formed. All the prom- 
inent men of that tribe desired to hear the speech that 
Perrot was going to deliver to them ; and it was in the 
following manner that he addressed them, holding his 
calumet in his hand, and having at his feet twelve 
brasses of tobacco: "Cinagots, Outaouaks, and you 
other warriors, I am astonished that, after having prom- 
ised me last year that you would have no other will than 
Onontio's, you should tarnish his glory by depriving 
him of the forces that I have with much labor obtained 
for him. How is this? you who are his children are 
the first to revolt against him. I come from a country 
where I have hung up a bright sun, to give light to all 
the tribes that I have seen -who now leave their fam- 
ilies in quiet, without fearing any storms, while war- 
riors are seeking to avenge the bones of their dead 
among the Iroquois; but you are trying to raise clouds 
there which will give birth to thunderbolts and light- 
nings, in order to strike them, and perhaps to destroy 
even us. I love peace in my country; I have discovered 
this land, and Onontio has given the charge of it to me ; 
and he has promised me all his young men to punish 
those who undertake to stain it with blood. You are 
my brothers ; I ask from you repose. If you are going 
to war against the Nadouaissioux, go by way of Cha- 
gouamigon, 28 on Lake Superior, where you have al- 

28 Shaugawaumikong, one of the most ancient Chippewa villages, situated 
on Long Island (formerly known as Chequamegon peninsula), in Ashland 
County, Wis. On account of the inroads of the Sioux it was at one time re- 


ready begun war with them. What will Onontio say 
when he learns of the measures that you are taking to 
deprive him of the aid that he is expecting from you, 
and from his other children, whom you are trying to 
seduce? You have forgotten that your ancestors in 
former days used earthen pots, stone hatchets and knives, 
and bows ; and you will be obliged to use them again, if 
Onontio abandons you. What will become of you if he 
becomes angry? He has undertaken war to avenge you, 
and he has maintained it against nations far stronger 
than you. Know that he is the master of peace, when he 
so wills; the Iroquois are asking it from him, and it 
would be made if he did not fear that you would be 
made its victims, and that the enemy would pour out 
upon you his vengeance, to satisfy the shades of the many 
families that he has sacrificed on your account. With 
what excuses will you defend yourselves before him 
from all the charges that will be made against you? 
Cease this hostile advance which he forbids to you. I 
do not wash the blackened countenances of your war- 
riors; I do not take away the war-club or the bow that I 
gave you on Onontio's behalf ; but I recommend to you 
to employ them against the Iroquois, and not against 
other peoples. If you transgress his orders, you may be 
sure that the Spirit who made all, who is master of life 
and of death, is for him ; and that he knows well how to 
punish your disobedience if you do not agree to my de- 
mands." He lighted his calumet, and, throwing to them 
the twelve brasses of tobacco, continued: "Let us smoke 
together ; if you wish to be children of Onontio, here is 

moved to Madeleine Island, on the site of the modern La Pointe ; and in later 
years was located on the mainland, near Bayfield. It was on Long Island 
(which stretches across the entrance of Chequamegon Bay) that the Jesuits 
established in 1655 the mission of La Pointe du Saint Esprit; it became large 
and prosperous, but was broken up in 1670 by the Sioux. JAMES MOONEY, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians. 


his calumet. I shall not fail to inform him of those who 
choose to set him at naught." 

He presented it to them, but there was one war-chief 
who refused it; the result, however, was more propitious 
than Perrot had expected. The Puans, seeing that the 
only question now at issue was to appease this man, of- 
fered to him the calumet, and made him a present of 
six kettles, with two porcelain collars. The next day, 
they made a solemn feast for the Outaouaks, and sang 
the calumet to them. At the time when these three hun- 
dred warriors set out to return to Michilimakinak, a 
young warrior, with several of his comrades, left the 
troop, in order to continue their march against the 
Nadouaissioux. The Outaouaks, who had fully decided 
to forget all their resentment, were so offended at this 
proceeding that they threw all the baggage of these men 
into the river, and dragged their canoe more than a 
hundred paces up on the land. 

Chapter XXI 

The only tribes who defended the interests of the col- 
ony in the midst of this great revolution were the Ne- 
piciriniens and the Kikabous ; they marched against the 
Iroquois, and brought back some scalps of the latter, 
which they presented to the commandants at Michilli- 
makinak. A few days later was seen the arrival of other 
canoes, who had carried away an Iroquois; he was re- 
leased before they came ashore, which was contrary to 
the laws of war -which require that a general council 
be held in order to deliberate on the death or the life of 
a prisoner. It was known that the Outaouaks were re- 
sponsible for this proceeding; they had maliciously 
informed this f reedman of several grievances which they 


had invented against the French people. He said that 
his people had fought a battle in the vicinity of Mon- 
treal, in which four hundred Frenchmen had been slain, 
and that Onontio had not dared to go outside the town. 
As this tale, mingled with insulting language, made 
evident the evil intentions of those peoples, it was 
[considered] proper to come to an understanding [with 
them] in regard to the many insolent utterances which 
were heard on every side. The more prominent chiefs 
tried to justify themselves, and in truth there were some 
of them who had taken no part in this dissension; the 
author of it was the man who seemed least opposed to 
our interests, but he nevertheless caused all these dis- 
orders. He assembled a general council, to which all 
the Nepiciriniens were summoned. They came to see 
the French, with five collars, and asked them by the 
first, to forget their error; by the second, they assured 
us that they had united themselves to the body of their 
father, never to be detached from him. By the third, 
that he would know them in the following spring, by 
the war-parties that they would send against the Iro- 
quois; by the fourth, that they submitted to Onontio; 
and by the fifth, that they renounced the English and 
their trade. 

Reply was made, by five presents, to all that they had 
said; and it was represented to them that the trade with 
the English, which they so eagerly sought to obtain, 
would deliver them into the hands of the Iroquois, 
whose only endeavor was to deceive them. 

The long stay made at Montreal by four canoes which 
had been sent thither to learn news of the colony made 
the savages suspect that [our] affairs were going ill; 
they made a feast in the village, which was attended by 
the chiefs only. A Frenchman who passed that way was 


invited to it, and the most distinguished among the 
chiefs said to him: 'Thou who meddlest in thwarting 
us, cast a spell to learn what has become of our men 
whom thy chief sent into thy country to be eaten there." 
This savage had had secret connections with the Eng- 
lish, in order to secure for them entrance into the beaver- 
trade; and he made them a present of ten packets of 
pelts, as a pledge for the promise that he had given them. 
All the allied tribes acted only by his order; he was the 
originator of all that was done among those peoples; 
and he had rendered himself so influential that what- 
ever he required was blindly followed. In his child- 
hood he had been carried away [from his home] as a 
slave. This Frenchman whom he told to play the jug- 
gler replied that "The Frenchmen were not in the habit 
of eating men; that if this man were a chief he would 
answer him, but he was a slave; and that it was not a 
dog like him with whom the Frenchman compared, he 
who bore the message of one of the greatest captains 
who had ever been heard of." This savage replied [to 
the other savages] : "You who are here behold the in- 
sults which I meet in your village from this man who 
is troubling our peace, when I am trying to maintain 
our common interest." All the guests began to show 
their discontent, and matters would perhaps have turned 
to the disadvantage of the Frenchman if he had not in- 
stantly found some expedient for rendering this very 
chief odious to them. He had been a slave of a man 
named Jason [jc. Talon] (of whom I have already 
spoken), who had been the first to go from the north to 
Three Rivers, the second government district in Can- 
ada, and who for all the services which he had rendered 
to the tribe had been chosen its head chief. At his death 
he left several children, who could not maintain that 


high position because this slave, who was freed, had by 
his ability acquired the general esteem of all those peo- 
ples. This Frenchman, I say, began to call out in the 
middle of the feast: "Where art thou, Talon? where 
art thou, B rochet?" (another head chief) ; "it was you 
two who ruled over all this country; but your slave has 
usurped your authority and is making your children his 
slaves, although they ought to be the real masters. But 
I will sacrifice everything to maintain their rights, and 
Onontio will favor us ; he will know how to restore them 
to the rank that they ought to occupy." Hardly had he 
spoken when the sons and relatives of those two chiefs 
arose, and took the Frenchman's part, uttering threats 
against this seditious man; and it lacked little of their 
reaching the utmost violence of conduct. Those young 
chiefs, remembering what their ancestors had been, 
compelled this old man to render satisfaction to the 
Frenchman ; and the fear which they also felt of being 
exposed to unpleasant results constrained them to en- 
treat the missionary fathers to adjust all these matters. 

The French themselves did not know what to think 
of the delay of those canoes ; at last they arrived, after 
a three months' wait. They reported that a battle had 
been fought at the Prairie de la Madeleine, three 
leagues from and opposite Montreal, against the Iro- 
quois and the English, in which we had gained all the 
advantage -it might be said that the enemy had suf- 
fered extreme injury. 

This news made some impression on the minds of 
the Outaouaks, but the Miamis of the Saint Joseph 
River easily forgot what they had promised to execute 
against the Iroquois ; they no longer thought of anything 
except of opening the way to the Loups, who had 
opened a commerce with the English. Those of Mara- 


mek were somewhat unsettled ; they were reminded that 
the bow and war-club of Onontio had been delivered to 
them in order to attack the Iroquois and avenge their 
own dead. The story of the battle at the Prairie, and of 
the raising of the siege of Quebec [1690] by the English 
(who had come thither with all the forces of New Eng- 
land), was related to them. "Your father," it was said 
to them, "does not cease to labor for your peace ; but you 
have always remained inactive since he undertook war 
against the Iroquois. The Spirit favors his arms; his 
enemies fear him, but he does not heed them." They 
were counseled to avail themselves of his aid while he 
was willing to favor them ; and they were told that there 
was reason to complain of their indifference while he 
was sacrificing his young men. They promised to send 
out three hundred warriors, who would not spare either 
the Loups or the English. The Maskoutechs, who had 
seemed to have our interests so strongly at heart, gave 
very unsatisfactory evidence of their fidelity; they 
amused themselves with making raids into the lands of 
the Nadouaissioux, where they carried away captive 
some Puans and some Ayoes who had made a settlement 
there, without troubling themselves whether those two 
tribes were their allies. The jealousy which they felt 
because some Frenchmen had promised to barter mer- 
chandise among the Miamis in preference to them in- 
spired them to send to that people ten large kettles, to 
warn them to distrust the Frenchmen, who were going 
to form a large band of Abenaquis and their [other] 
allies to deal a blow on the families of the Miamis after 
their men had set out on the march against the Iroquois. 
This present put an end to all their war-parties, except- 
ing only their chief, who went away with eighty war- 
riors. The Outagamis, who had been very quiet, not- 


withstanding the promise that they had given to join 
with that tribe against the common enemy, promised to 
do so when the Sakis, the Puans, and the Pouteouatemis 
should take the war-path. For this purpose an Iroquois 
scalp and a gun were given to them, and this speech was 
made to them: "Here is an Iroquois who is given to 
you to eat; this scalp is his head, and this gun is his body. 
We wish to know whether you are French or Iroquois, 
in order to send word to Onontio ; if you go to war we 
shall believe that you are French, if you do not go we 
shall declare you an enemy." 

Chapter XXII 

The great distance which lay between us and all these 
allies was a hindrance in causing them to show all the 
activity that we could have desired. The French who 
went among them, either to facilitate their trading or to 
maintain them in entire harmony, were even exposed to 
many dangers. Perrot was on the point of being burned 
by the Maskoutechs, who had received from him so 
many benefits. That tribe, insatiable for all that they 
saw, sent to ask him to come to their village, to trade for 
beaver-skins ; and a chief of the Pouteouatemis accom- 
panied him. Hardly had he reached their village, with 
six Frenchmen, when the savages seized all their mer- 
chandise ; and they displayed more inhumanity to him 
than to the meanest of their slaves. It is a rule among 
all the tribes to give to the captives the first morsels of 
what food may be eaten ; but these savages would not 
give him any food. One of their chiefs could not re- 
frain from complaining that he would not have the 
strength to endure the fire, if they did not take better 
care of him ; they intended to sacrifice him to the shades 


of many of their men who had been killed in various 
fights, and they said that Perrot was the cause of their 
death. A warrior who came to him to pronounce his 
sentence told him that they had intended to burn him in 
the village, but that part of them would not be wit- 
nesses of this execution. He said to Perrot: "Thou 
wilt set out at sunrise, and wilt be closely followed, and 
at noon thou wilt be burnt on the plain. Thou art a sor- 
cerer, who hast caused the deaths of more than fifty of 
our men, in order to pacify the shades of two Frenchmen 
whom we killed at Chikagon. If thou hadst taken re- 
venge for those two alone we would not have said any- 
thing, for blood must be paid for with blood; but thou 
art too cruel, and therefore thou art going to be the 
victim who is to be sacrificed to them." Great stead- 
fastness was necessary in so terrible an emergency. The 
Pouteouatemi chief also sang his death-song, on the eve 
of his departure, and they made him and Perrot set out 
the next morning from the village, with the other 
Frenchmen, who were lamenting their wretched fate. 
While the people in the village were amusing them- 
selves with dividing all the property of the Frenchmen, 
the latter went forward a little distance on a beaten path, 
and then they bethought themselves to take several wrong 
directions without losing sight of one another. Some 
warriors were sent after them, who could not find their 
tracks ; but the French do not know whether these men 
really could not discover them, or only pretended not to 
find them. However that may be, a Miami who had 
married a Maskoutech woman saw these warriors start, 
and immediately gave notice of it to his tribe, telling 
them that Perrot had been plundered and burned by the 
Maskoutechs. The chief of the Miamis was at that time 
at war with the Iroquois; and the Miamis were only 
waiting the moment of his arrival, in order to avenge 


this death. The tribes of the bay were also notified of 
it, and desired to seize the war-club for the chastisement 
of those peoples. Perrot arrived safely among the 
Puans, where they immediately hung up some war-ket- 
tles, as if to go in search of what had been taken from 
him, and to kill some M askou techs ; but as it was a 
question of holding together all those tribes in their de- 
sire to form a connection with the common enemy, he 
obliged them to suspend their anger, for the sake of the 
French nation. 

On all sides hostilities were begun in earnest against 
the Iroquois. The Outaouaks sent out war-parties against 
them from all quarters, and during the summer killed 
or captured more than fifty of them. The Miamis of 
Muramik [sc. Maramek] 29 carried off eight Loups, to 
whom the English had given many presents; four of 
these captives they gave to the commandant on the Saint 
Joseph River, and reserved the others for Frenchmen, 
friends of theirs who had rendered them many services. 
Monsieur de Louvigny sent thirty-eight men to go in 
quest of these, with orders to induce the Miamis to put 
them in the kettle if they could not be taken to Michilli- 
makinak; but those of Saint Joseph had carried them 
away. The tribe of Loups was entirely devoted to the 
interests of the English, who were trying to make use of 
them in order to gain entrance among our allies; and 
the Iroquois profited by this union. Too many pre- 
cautions, therefore, could not be taken to keep back the 
former from the beaver trade, and to obtain the advan- 
tage from acts of hostility against the latter. A present 
of fifty pounds of gunpowder was given to the Miamis 
of Maramek, to unite them to our interests; and they 
took the war-path to the number of two hundred -who 

29 Marameg (Maramek) was the early name of Kalamazoo River, Mich. 



separated into four bands, after having divided the 
powder among them. On the next day after their de- 
parture a solemn feast was made by order of Ouagi- 
kougaiganea, the great chief, to obtain from the Spirit 
a safe return. They erected an altar, on which they 
placed bear-skins arranged to represent an idol; they 
had smeared the heads of these with a green clay, as they 
passed in front of these skins, kneeling down before 
them ; and every one was obliged to assist at this cere- 
mony. 80 The jugglers, the medicine-men, and those 
who were called sorcerers occupied the first row, and 
held in their hands their pouches for medicines and for 
jugglery; they cast the spell, they said, upon those whose 
deaths they wished to cause, and who feigned to fall 
dead. The medicine-men placed some drugs in the 
mouths of these, and seemed to resuscitate them imme- 
diately by rudely shaking them ; the one who made the 
most grotesque appearance attracted the most admira- 

30 The term "ceremony" means, in the strict sense, "a religious per- 
formance of at least one day's duration. These ceremonies generally refer to 
one or the other of the solstices, to the germination or ripening of a crop, or 
to the most important food supply. There are ceremonies of less importance 
that are connected with the practices of medicine-men or are the property of 
cult societies. Ceremonies may be divided into those in which the whole 
tribe participates and those which are the exclusive property of a society, 
generally a secret one, or of a group of men of special rank, such as chiefs or 
medicine-men, or of an individual. Practically all ceremonies of extended dura- 
tion contain many rites in common. An examination of these rites, as they are 
successively performed, reveals the fact that they follow one another in pre- 
scribed order, as do the events or episodes of the ritual." Among some tribes 
the ritual predominates, among others it is subordinated to the drama. The 
rites are partly secret (and proprietary), and partly public (constituting the 
actual play or drama) ; there are also semi-public performances, but conducted 
by priests only. There is much symbolism connected with most of these elabo- 
rate ceremonials. "Inasmuch as ceremonies form intrinsic features and may be 
regarded as only phases of culture, their special character depends on the 
state of culture of the people by which they are performed; hence there are at 
least as many kinds of ceremonies as there are phases of culture in North 
America. . . In those tribes or in those areas extended forms abound where 
there exists a sessile population or a strong form of tribal government." 

-GEORGE A. DORSEY, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


tion. They danced to the sound of drums and gourds; 
they formed, as it were, two hostile parties, who at- 
tacked and defended in a battle. They had for weapons 
the skins of serpents and otters, which, they said, brought 
death to those on whom they cast the spell, and restored 
life to those whom they wished [to live]. The director 
of the ceremony, accompanied by two old men and two 
women at his side, walked with serious manner, going 
into all the cabins of the village to give notice that the 
ceremony was to begin soon. They practiced the impo- 
sition of hands on all persons whom they met, who, by 
way of thanks, embraced their legs. Everywhere were 
seen dances, and one heard only the howls of the dogs 
which they were killing in order to offer the sacrifices. 
The bones of those which were eaten were afterward 
burned, as in a holocaust. The persons who had been 
killed, and whom the medicine-men brought back to 
life by the spell, danced separately, while the others 
remained as if dead. Men, women, girls, and boys of 
twelve years old, fell dead or were restored to life, as 
were even the jugglers, the medicine-men, and the sor- 
cerers. Every one had offered the handsomest orna- 
ments that he could. Some persons thrust down their 
throats sticks a foot and a half long, and as large as 
one's thumb, and feigned to lie dead; then they were 
carried to the medicine-men, who brought them back to 
life and sent them away to dance. Others swallowed 
feathers of the swan or eagle, then drew these out, and 
fell down, as if dead ; and these also were resuscitated. 
In short, one recognized in their antics only diabolical 

The best thing in this festival was, that all the riches 
of the village were destined for the jugglers. The cere- 
monies lasted during five days, both day and night; at 
the latter time they were within the cabins, and by day 


in the public place -where they approached from all 
sides, marching as if in procession. It was useless to 
represent to them that all this that they were doing was 
criminal before God; they answered that this was the 
right way to secure his favor, to the end that he should 
give some enemies to be eaten by their young men, who 
would die without that if they did not observe this 
solemnity. One of their war-parties arrived at the end 
of thirty days; they had killed many Iroquois, without 
losing one of their own men, and they said to the French : 
"Believe us, our sort of ceremony has made the Spirit 
listen to us." The other bands came back some time 
afterward, with a number of prisoners, and the Loups 
whom the men of Saint Joseph had made to turn aside. 
While the Miamis were giving to Monsieur de Fron- 
tenac proofs of their fidelity, the Maskoutechs had 
openly declared hostilities against their allies the Ayoes, 
and had cut to pieces all the inhabitants of the Ayoes's 
main village. Some of them came to the Miamis and 
tried to induce Perrot to go among them, assuring him 
that they would make reparation for the pillage of his 
merchandise; but the Miamis, who knew that the Mas- 
koutechs intended to eat him, sharply asked them if they 
thought that he was a dog, whom they could drive away 
when he disturbed them, and then bring him back at 
the first caress which they offered him. The Maskou- 
techs learned that all the peoples of the bay, with the 
Miamis and several other tribes, had intended to avenge 
the injury which the former had inflicted on Perrot; and 
they sent him two deputies to ask that he would not go 
away from Maramek, where they wished to confer with 
him. Their chief came in person, with a number of 
warriors, and entered the cabin of the Miami chief, 
where a meeting was called of the more prominent men 


of the tribe, and of the Kikabous. The Maskoutechs 
had carried away some Ayoes slaves, a woman and three 
children, whom they seated before Perrot, and said to 
him: "We have borrowed thy guns; they have thun- 
dered upon a village, which they have made us eat. See 
the effect which they produced, and which we bring to 
thee," at the same time displaying these slaves. They 
placed forty beaver robes before him, and continued 
their speech thus: "We have taken from thee a gar- 
ment to dazzle the sight of our enemies and make our- 
selves feared by them, and we pay thee for it by this 
beaver; we do not pay thee for thy guns and merchan- 
dise. If thou art willing to receive us with forgiveness, 
we know where are some beavers, for we saw them on 
our road [to this place]. If we live a few years, thou 
shalt be satisfied; for we did not intend to plunder thee, 
and we have only placed thy merchandise to thy credit." 
This chief was told that in order to appease the wrath 
of Onontio it was necessary to destroy a village of Iro- 
quois ; and that they must not attack people who had not 
made war on them ; that they were easily forgetting their 
own dead [killed by the Iroquois], whom the French 
were continually avenging; that they would do well to 
send to Montreal one of their chiefs, in order to appease 
Onontio; that his fire was lighted, to receive all those 
who desired to warm themselves at it - and even the Iro- 
quois, although they were his enemies; and that they 
might be sure that we would have taken vengeance on 
their tribe, if we had not caused all the others to hang 
up their hatchets. A chief resolved to accompany that 
Frenchman [i.e., Perrot] to Montreal, in order to turn 
aside the resentment of Monsieur de Frontenac; and 
forty Miamis escorted him as far as the bay. When 
they arrived among the Outagamis, the latter dissuaded 


the Maskoutech from going farther; because they told 
him that the rule of the French was to hang thieves, 
without any pardon, and that he would for love of his 
people certainly suffer the same fate- which caused him 
to return home. 

The English, who had until then made all sorts of 
attempts to insinuate themselves among the Outaouaks, 
found the finest opportunity in the world for succeeding 
in this. As soon as they learned that the Iroquois had 
granted life to the son of a Sauteur chief, they procured 
his freedom; they had thought that, as his father was 
dead, he might succeed the latter, and that the ascend- 
ency which he possessed over the minds of his people 
would be an effectual means to facilitate to them some 
further entrance among the neighbors of the Sauteurs. 
The gratitude that this freedman felt (as they believed 
beyond doubt) for so great a benefaction must induce 
him to engage in any undertaking in favor of his libera- 
tors. Moreover, the Iroquois were planning also to 
obtain some advantage from this matter; and on both 
sides they gave the Sauteur collars and presents in order 
to persuade our allies to take sides and carry on trade 
with them. He met the Outaouaks out hunting, in the 
midst of the winter; they met together to hear the expla- 
nation of those collars, and at the same time concluded 
to keep the affair secret. They secretly sent, "under 
ground," many presents to the Sakis and to the peoples 
at the bay, to constrain them to withdraw from the war 
against the Iroquois; among those tribes many visits 
were made [by the Outaouak envoys], but they replied 
that all those solicitations were useless, and that they 
would die rather than abandon the interests of the 
French. The Sauteurs, who were beginning to realize 
that the Iroquois had spared their lives, declared them- 


selves against our allies if they intended to continue war 
against the Iroquois. Nothing could make them go 
back from their decision ; they said that they were men, 
capable of resisting whomsoever undertook to thwart 
them in what they had resolved. The commandant at 
Michillimakinak, when he heard of the friendship of 
the Sakis, sent word to them that he and his Frenchmen 
would die [for them] if they were attacked, even offer- 
ing them his fort as a refuge. The Cinago Outaouaks, 
who had declared in favor of the Sauteurs, fearing that 
the Sakis would carry far the resentment which they 
had displayed against the latter, on the one hand under- 
took to reconcile them with the Sakis, and on the other 
did everything in their power to turn them aside from 
the Iroquois War. They made presents to the Sauteurs, 
and gave them a calumet which said that their dead lay 
together among the Nadouaissioux, and that, since they 
were relatives, they ought to hang up their hatchets this 
year -but assuring them of no interference another 
year, if they wished to resume the war. 

The Outaouaks faithfully kept the secret of the collar 
which the Iroquois had given to the Sauteurs, and, in 
order not to cause suspicion in the French, they asserted 
to Monsieur de Louvigny that they had received it for 
the sake of peace, and that they had been urged to be- 
come mediators with Onontio for that end. They tried 
to persuade that officer to accept this collar himself, 
since he was commandant at Michillimakinak; but he 
excused himself, and informed them that they must go 
to present it to Onontio. They did not hesitate to send 
envoys to him, who took advantage of the departure of 
the Sakis. 

We may say that the Hurons and the Outaouaks were 
in extreme blindness about all that concerned the Iro- 


quois, whom they believed to be really their friends; for 
while they did whatever the latter wished, in order to 
give them substantial proofs of their friendship, the 
Iroquois sought, underhand, for occasions to take the 
others by surprise. After the departure of those envoys 
the Hurons captured two Iroquois, whom they sent back 
to their homes with many presents, as a pledge to their 
nation that the Outaouak people had no greater desire 
than alliance with them -at the same time congratulat- 
ing them on having spared the lives of the Sauteurs ; but 
the Iroquois did not act in so good faith. 

Dabeau, a Frenchman who had been a slave among 
them for several years, was with a band of warriors who 
went out to attack whomsoever they should encounter; 
being left alone with eight of their men and two women, 
he killed them all while they were asleep, and took the 
women to the first village of our allies that he could 
light on, when he found two Hurons hunting beavers. 
His fear of being himself slain by men who could have 
appropriated to themselves the exploit which he had 
performed constrained him to make them a present of 
the two slaves, and of the scalps which he had brought 
with him. He embarked with them for Michillimak- 
inak. The arrival of these two women threw much 
light [on the designs of the Iroquois], and the [Huron] 
people felt indignation at finding themselves thus de- 
ceived. Immediately a war-party was sent out, who laid 
violent hands on thirteen Iroquois who were coming to 
make war on them ; they killed five and captured seven 
of these, and only one escaped. As it was known that 
an agreement had been made between the Hurons and 
the Iroquois that they would on both sides spare the lives 
of captives whom they might take, our people observed 
that the Hurons were planning to act thus by these Iro- 


quois. Some Frenchmen, seeing them come ashore, 
killed two of the captives with their knives; the Hurons 
rescued the other five and took them into their village, 
and seized their weapons. General disorder arose; the 
Outaouaks remained neutral, and stepped aside to be 
spectators of the fracas. Nansouakouet, the only friend 
of the French, called his warriors together, in order to 
support the French in case fighting arose. The Hu- 
rons, who knew the generous nature of the French, in- 
capable of doing harm to those who were in their power, 
hastened to our fort, in order to find an asylum there. 
The Hurons did not push their violent acts further; the 
old men entreated the commandant not to pay attention 
to the insolence of their young men, and brought to him 
the chief of the Iroquois band, to dispose of him as he 
should think best. Although the character of the French 
is opposed to inhumanity, it was impossible to avoid 
giving a public example of it [in this case]. The con- 
tinual favors which were bestowed on the captives by 
our allies -who at heart were more our enemies than 
were even the Iroquois -only secured the continuance 
on both sides of the secret arrangements which existed 
between them; and, in order to exasperate at least the 
Iroquois, it was considered best to sacrifice this chief. 
For this purpose all the Outaouaks were invited "to 
drink the broth of this Iroquois," to express myself after 
their manner of speech. A stake was planted, to which 
he was attached by his hands and feet, leaving him only 
enough freedom to move around it; and a large fire was 
kindled near him, in which iron implements, gun- 
barrels, and frying-pans were made red-hot, while he 
sang his death-song. All being ready, a Frenchman 
began to pass a gun-barrel over his feet; an Outaouak 
seized another instrument of torture, and one after an- 


other they broiled him as far as the knees, while he con- 
tinued to sing tranquilly. But he could not refrain from 
uttering loud cries when they rubbed his thighs with 
red-hot frying-pans, and he exclaimed that the fire was 
stronger than he. At once all the crowd of savages de- 
rided him with yells, saying to him, "Thou art a war- 
chief, and afraid of fire; thou art not a man!" He was 
kept in these torments during two hours, without giving 
him any respite; the more he gave way to despair and 
struck his head against the stake, the more they flung 
jests at him. An Outaouak undertook to refine on this 
sort of torture ; he cut a gash along the captive's body, 
from the shoulder to the thigh, put gunpowder along 
the edges of the wound, and set fire to it This caused 
the captive even more intense pain than had the other 
torments, and, as he became extremely weak, they gave 
him something to drink -but not so much to quench his 
thirst as to prolong his torture. When they saw that his 
strength began to be exhausted, they cut away his scalp, 
and left it hanging behind his back; they lined a large 
dish with hot sand and red-hot coals, and covered his 
head with it; and then they unbound him, and said to 
him, "Thou art granted life." He began to run, falling 
and again rising, like a drunken man ; they made him 
go in the direction of the setting sun (the country of 
souls), shutting him out from the path to the east; and 
they allowed him to walk only so far as they were willing 
he should go. He nevertheless had still enough strength 
to fling stones at random; finally they stoned him, and 
every one carried away [a piece of] his broiled flesh. 

Those savages who were most incensed quieted down 
after the departure of the deputies who carried to Mon- 
sieur de Frontenac the Sauteur's collar; and our people 
made various attempts to ascertain its real meaning, and 


what reply the Outaouaks and the other tribes made to 
the English and the Iroquois. At Michilimakinak there 
was a Frenchman who was an intimate friend of one of 
the principal council chiefs among our allies ; he assured 
this chief of entire protection from Onontio. As man 
readily discloses his thought in the midst of joy, the 
chief, after being warmed by a little brandy, promised 
the Frenchman to meet him next day in the woods, 
where he would tell him in confidence the entire condi- 
tion of affairs; and the two went to the appointed place. 
The Outaouak assured him that the English had sent 
to the tribes four collars. By the first they sent word 
that they would establish a post on Lake Herier, where 
they would come to trade ; the second took the savages 
under their protection. By the third, the English ceased 
to remember the pillage, by the savages together with 
the French, from their warriors who were going to 
Michilimakinak; and by the fourth they promised to 
furnish their merchandise at lower prices than those 
asked by Onontio- who was avaricious and robbed them. 
As for the Iroquois, they had sent to these tribes eight 
collars. By the first, they said that they remembered the 
peace that they had made with La Petite Racine, and 
that they had not desired to break it, even though their 
brothers the Outaouaks should kill them every day; by 
the second, they buried all the dead whom their brothers 
had slain. The third hung up a sun at the strait between 
Lake Herier and Lake Huron, which should mark the 
boundaries between the two peoples, and this sun should 
give them light when they were hunting. By the fourth, 
they threw into the lake, and into the depths of the earth, 
the blood that had been shed, in order that nothing 
might be tainted with it. By the fifth, they sent "their 
own bowl," so that they might have but one dish from 


which to eat and drink. By the sixth, they promised to 
eat the "wild beasts" around them which should be com- 
mon [enemies] to both. The seventh was to make them 
"eat together of the buffalo," meaning that they would 
unite to make war on the Miamis, the Islinois, and other 
tribes. By the eighth, they were to eat "the white meat," 
meaning the flesh of the French. 

This chief told the Frenchman the replies of the 
Outaouaks, who consented to all these demands and sent 
return messages by means of collars, red-stone calu- 
mets, 31 and bales of beaver-skins; and he was secretly 
engaged to go down to Montreal and talk with Onontio, 
who would not fail to question closely the Sauteurs who 
had gone away with the Outaouak deputies. 

31 Among the Indians a favorite material for their pipes was "the red clay- 
stone called catlinite, obtained from a quarry in southwestern Minnesota, and 
so named because it was first brought to the attention of mineralogists by 
George Catlin, the noted traveler and painter of Indians. . . When freshly 
quarried it is so soft as to be readily carved with stone knives and drilled with 
primitive hand drills." The deposit of catlinite occurs in a valley near Pipe- 
stone, Minn.; the stratum of pipestone varies from ten to twenty inches in 
thickness, the fine, pure-grained stone available for the manufacture of pipes 
being, however, only three or four inches thick. The aboriginal excavations 
were quite shallow, and extended nearly a mile in length ; but since the en- 
trance of the whites into that region the Indians have carried on much more 
extensive operations, with the aid of iron implements obtained from the whites. 
"This quarry is usually referred to as the sacred pipestone quarry. According 
to statements by Catlin and others, the site was held in much superstitious 
regard by the aborigines;" and there is reason to believe that it was held and 
owned in common, and as neutral ground, by tribes elsewhere hostile to one 
another. "Since the earliest visits of the white man to the Coteau des Prairies, 
however, the site has been occupied exclusively by the Sioux, and Catlin met 
with strong opposition from them when he attempted to visit the quarry about 
1837." In 1851 these lands were relinquished to the Federal government, and 
by a treaty in 1858 the privilege of freely mining and using the red stone was 
guaranteed to the Sioux ; accordingly those people annually obtain from the 
quarry so much of the stone as they desire to use. They manufacture pipes and 
various trinkets from it, and sell much of the stone to the whites, who in turn 
manufacture and sell similar articles, using lathes in making them; in conse- 
quence, the genuine Indian products are crowded out of the market, and are 
seldom found. W. H. HOLMES, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


Chapter XXIII / 

The Miamis, continually occupied against the Iro- 
quois, levied a force of three hundred warriors. Some 
Frenchmen who were in that quarter, looking only at 
their own interests, made the savages believe that Onon- 
tio desired them to hunt beavers for one winter, to trade 
these for ammunition, in order to undertake in the fol- 
lowing spring an expedition against the common enemy ; 
but this advice did not hinder them from sending out a 
war-party, who captured and tomahawked twelve Iro- 
quois. Finding themselves pursued by a great number, 
in another encounter they killed sixteen of the enemy. 
The Sakis and their allies also displayed their fidelity 
to Onontio; and it was only the Outagamis and the 
Maskoutechs who broke all their promises. They were 
implacable against only the Nadouaissioux, whatever 
the peace which they had made together, and whatever 
the difficulty in which they had found themselves, from 
which they were only extricated through the mediation 
of the French. This passion for vengeance which domi- 
nated them could never be effaced from their minds, and 
they set out on the war-path, with all their families. 
They destroyed [a village of] eighty cabins of Nadou- 
aissioux, and cut to pieces all who offered resistance; 
and they practiced unheard-of cruelties on their cap- 
tives. In this fight they lost fifteen men, and in revenge 
for this they burned two hundred women and children. 
Six Frenchmen went among them in order to redeem 
some of these slaves, and themselves narrowly escaped 
being consigned to the flames. The Miamis were deeply 
moved by all these disturbances of the peace; and they 
feared that the Nadouaissioux, desiring to take revenge, 
would attack them on their journey. As they had not 


been at all implicated with the Maskoutechs, they en- 
gaged Perrot to go to the Nadouaissioux, to assure them 
of the sympathy felt for them by the Miamis. Perrot 
encountered a band of Nadouaissioux who were coming 
as scouts against the Maskoutechs, who told him that 
at eight leagues above he would find sixty of their men, 
who formed an advance-guard to watch lest their ene- 
mies should return to the attack. He had no sooner 
reached that place than those men approached him, all 
bathed in tears, and uttering cries which would touch 
even the most unfeeling. After they had wept about 
half an hour, they placed him on a bear-skin and carried 
him to the summit of a mountain, on which they had 
encamped; this was done at the moment when he ap- 
peared deeply affected by their disaster. He asked them 
to make his arrival known at the French fort; and a few 
days later six Nadouaissioux set out with him, to go 
thither. He passed through the village, which was en- 
tirely ruined, and where nothing could be seen except 
melancholy remains from the fury of their enemies; the 
laments of those who had escaped from their cruelty 
were heard on every side. A Frenchman was there at 
this time who called himself a great captain; he had 
persuaded the savages, while displaying many pieces of 
cloth, that he was unfolding these in order to bring 
death on those who had devoured their families -a de- 
ception which only served him to get rid of his merchan- 
dise more quickly. But when the Nadouaissioux 
learned that Perrot had arrived they came to find him at 
this village and conducted him to his fort; and he took 
advantage of so favorable an opportunity to present to 
them the calumet on behalf of the Miamis. It was in 
this manner that he delivered his message : 

"Chiefs, I weep for the death of your children, whom 


the Outagamis and the Maskoutechs have snatched 
from you, while they told lies to me; Heaven has seen 
their cruelties, and will punish them for it. This blood 
is still too fresh to undertake vengeance for it at once. 
God allows you to weep, in order to incline him toward 
you ; but he declares against you and will not aid you if 
you set out on the war-path this summer. I have heard 
that you are assembling together to seek your enemies; 
they form but one body, and are resolutely awaiting you. 
They have entrenched themselves in a strong fort; the 
Outagamis have with them the greater part of their prey, 
and will certainly massacre those captives if you make 
your appearance. I cover your dead, by placing over 
them two kettles. I do not bury them deep in the 
ground, and intend only to protect them from the bad 
weather until Onontio has heard of your loss; he will 
deliberate on what he can do for you. I will go to see 
him, and will try to obtain from him that he should 
cause the restoration of your children who are slaves 
among your enemies; it is not possible that he should 
not be moved by compassion. The Miamis, who are his 
children, obeyed him when I told them in his behalf to 
put a stop to the war which they were waging against 
you; they have heard of your affliction, and they weep 
for your calamity. See their calumet which they have 
sent you; they send you word that they disapprove the 
actions of the Maskoutechs and the Outagamis. They 
ask you to renew this alliance which exists between them 
and you ; and, if you send out war-parties to go to find 
your bones, do not make a mistake by perhaps attacking 
their families on your way." 

This discourse was followed by many bitter lamenta- 
tions ; only cries and songs of death were heard. They 
seized burning brands, with which they burned their 

ioo LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

own bodies, without making any display of pain, repeat- 
ing many times this expression of despair, Kabato! Ka- 
bato! and they scorched their flesh, with wonderful forti- 

Perrot, having allowed them time to yield to the 
natural emotions all that a just resentment could inspire 
in them, placed before them several brasses of tobacco, 
and said: "Smoke, chiefs! smoke, warriors! and smoke 
peacefully, in the expectation that I will send back to 
you some of your women and children, whom I will 
draw out from the mouths of your enemies. Place all 
your confidence in Onontio ["Monsieur de Fronte- 
nac" - La Potherie], who is the master of the land, and 
from whom you will receive all sorts of satisfaction." 
Then he gave them five or six packages of knives, and 
again spoke to them: "These knives are for skinning 
beavers, and not for lifting the scalps of men ; use them 
until you have tidings from Onontio." 

The Frenchmen who had detained them to trade for 
their peltries were obliged to come to the fort to sell 
their merchandise. He whom they had regarded as a 
great captain having arrived there, the savages went to 
find him, and told him that, since the goods which he 
had displayed to them would cause the deaths of the 
Outagamis and the Maskoutechs, they desired to sing 
to him and Perrot some "funeral calumets," in order 
that these might aid them in their enterprises. They 
said: "We have resolved not to leave our dead until 
we have carried away [the people of] a village, whom 
we intend to sacrifice to their shades. We recognize the 
Miamis as our brothers, and we are going to send depu- 
ties to make peace with them. We do not bear much 
ill-will to the Outagamis for their having carried away 
our women, for they have spared their lives, and did not 


pursue them when they ran away from them. Ten of 
the women have arrived here, who report to us that the 
Outagamis have good hearts, and that they take it ill 
that the Maskoutechs have eaten all their slaves. Here 
are three young men who have just arrived, who report 
that for one Maskoutech who was killed in the battle 
they have burned and put to death twenty of our wives 
and children; and that in their retreat their only food 
was our flesh." 

This Frenchman said that he was ready to receive the 
calumet, if Perrot was willing to accept the other. The 
Nadouaissioux assembled in the cabin of the war-chief, 
where they went through the ceremonies connected with 
calumets of war ; they made the two Frenchmen smoke 
these, and placed the ashes of the tobacco in the ground, 
invoking the [Great] Spirit, the sun, the stars, and all 
the other spirits. With difficulty Perrot refused this 
calumet, excusing himself as being only a child, who 
could not do anything without the consent of his father. 
He said that he had come to weep for their dead, and to 
bring them the calumet for the Miamis, who had had 
no share in the barbarous act of their enemies; and that 
if they would give him a calumet as a response to the 
Miamis he would carry it to them. But he could not 
declare against the Maskoutechs, who would distrust 
him because they would not fail to hear that the "funer- 
al calumets" had been sung to him. He said that he had 
very strong reason to complain of them, since he had run 
the risk of being himself burned among them; but that 
everything must be referred to Onontio. The Nadou- 
aissioux admitted that he was right, and said that they 
would hang up the war-club until they should have in- 
formed Monsieur de Frontenac of all that had occurred. 
The Outagamis would have been glad if the Frenchmen 

102 LA PQTHERIE [Vol. 

had conducted some Nadouaissioux to them to arrange 
for peace; they were much encumbered with their pris- 
oners, and they were not ignorant that their proceedings 
had been contrary to the law of nations. The Nadou- 
aissioux did not think it best to expose their deputies, 
alone [to danger], and to the number of thirty they set 
out for the Miami village; and they spent some time on 
the bank of the Missisipi, at a French post opposite the 
lead mine. Notice was given to the Miamis of the ar- 
rival of envoys from the Nadouaissioux, and forty of 
them set out to join the latter. The conference that took 
place between these two tribes was occupied with offers 
of service from one, and lamentations on the part of 
the other. The Nadouaissioux (according to their cus- 
tom) poured many tears on the heads of the Miamis, 
who made them a present of a young girl and a little 
boy whom they had rescued from the hands of the Mas- 
koutechs. They covered the dead of the Nadouaissioux 
by giving them eight kettles, assuring them of their 
friendship, and made the chiefs smoke -promising them 
that they would obtain as many as they could of their 
[captive] women and children. They held secret con- 
ferences (unknown to the French) during one night, 
and the Miamis swore the entire destruction of the Mas- 
koutechs. Our people sent word to a village of Miamis, 
established on the other side of the Missisipi, that we 
had something to communicate to them from Onontio; 
and they came, to the number of twenty-five. They 
were told that in the post where they were settled they 
were of no use for supporting Onontio in the Iroquois 
War; that they would obtain no more supplies for war 
unless they turned the war-club against the Iroquois; 
and that they ought to fear that the Nadouaissioux 
would fall upon them when that people should go to 


take vengeance for their dead upon the Maskou techs. 
They promised to locate their fires at Maramek. They 
would have done so at the Saint Joseph River, at the 
solicitation of the chief of that district; but his refusal 
to furnish them gunpowder and balls gave them too un- 
favorable an opinion of his avarice to attract them to a 
union with him. The Maskoutechs got wind of the 
meeting between the Nadouaissioux and the Miamis 
that was brought about by Perrot; and they imagined 
that this could only be the result of his remembering the 
injuries that they had done him. [Accordingly] they 
immediately swore his ruin, and flattered themselves 
that, by plundering all the property of Perrot and the 
Frenchmen who were with him, they would have the 
means for taking flight more easily to the Iroquois 
country if they had to give way under the power of the 
[other] tribes. One night they tried to take him by sur- 
prise, but some dogs -who have a very strong antipathy 
for the savages, who commonly eat them -caused them 
to be discovered; and this obliged Perrot to put himself 
in an attitude of defense. The Maskoutechs, whose at- 
tack had miscarried, retreated without making any 
further effort; and their fear lest the French and the 
Miamis might form a league with the Nadouaissioux 
against them induced them to send one of their chiefs to 
Maramek, to sound the Miamis adroitly. He there en- 
countered Perrot, with whom he had a private conver- 
sation. The savage is ordinarily politic and very pliant 
in behavior ; this man said to Perrot with a smile, "Thou 
rememberest what I did to thee ; thou art seeking to re- 
venge thyself," and told him that he was sure that the 
tribes felt much resentment against the Nadouaissioux, 
who knew well that they were surrounded on all sides 
by their enemies; but that what was causing the Mas- 

104 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

koutechs most regret was the seizure that they had made 
of all his merchandise -for which, it would appear, he 
sought an opportunity to take revenge. It was a matter 
of prudence not to exasperate this chief too much, and 
unreasonable acts often cause ruinous results; and it 
might be that, if he were told that the French would 
find means to put a stop to all the annoyances to which 
they were continually exposed, the Maskoutechs would 
come and attack the Miamis, as people who no longer 
placed bounds to their conduct with any one whatever. 
Perrot contented himself with very concisely upbraid- 
ing the Maskoutech for all his tribe's acts of perfidy, in 
regard to not only the French but the Nadouaissioux. 
Meanwhile some young Maskoutech warriors came into 
their cabin, who told this chief that he was required at 
the village, and that their men had discovered the army 
of the Nadouaissioux at the lead mine. He was very 
ready to break off the conversation, and ran precipitate- 
ly into the village, where he uttered shouts to notify his 
men, who were dispersed, that they must retreat to their 
own village in order to build a fort as quickly as pos- 

The principal chiefs of the Miamis took advantage 
of the departure of the French, who were going back to 
Montreal, and nearly all the village escorted them as 
far as the Bay of Puans. The Sakis and the Pouteou- 
atemis wished to be also of this party; and on all sides 
were heard many expressions of eagerness to go to hear 
the voice of Monsieur de Frontenac. The Frenchmen 
devoted themselves, while waiting for their embarca- 
tion, to the deliverance of the Nadouaissioux prisoners 
who were among the Outagamis. The latter had re- 
ceived as a present two Iroquois from the Miamis of 
Chikagon; and policy restrained them from burning 


these captives, because they hoped that, in case the 
Nadouaissioux came to attack their village, they could 
immediately retire with their families among the Iro- 
quois, who would protect them from their enemies. 
They were persuaded [by the French] that all the peo- 
ples of these quarters desired their complete ruin; the 
Sauteurs had been plundered, the French treated in a 
brutal manner, and all their allies insulted. They had 
intended to send to the Iroquois one of their chiefs, with 
these two liberated captives, in order to invite that na- 
tion to join them on the confines of Saint Joseph River, 
and were inclined to ask the Maskoutechs to unite with 
them -which would have enabled them to collect a body 
of nine hundred warriors, in order to attack first the 
Miamis and the Islinois. The son of the great chief of 
the Outagamis came to the bay, where he had a secret 
conversation with one of the most distinguished French- 
men. It was no sooner learned that he had resolved to 
go down to Montreal than some men of his tribe did all 
that they could to hinder him from this; but he told 
them that he was very glad to visit the French colony. 
The French departed as soon as they had sent some Na- 
douaissioux, whom they had redeemed, back to their 
own country. 

Chapter XXIV 

The Outaouaks at Michilimakinak conceived jeal- 
ousy at the arrival of these newcomers, and did what 
they could to make them return each to his own country; 
it was suspected that they were still plotting something 
against the French nation. An Outaouak was adroitly 
sounded, in order to find out [if there were] new in- 
trigues, and many presents were promised to him. He 
asked for a drink of brandy, intending to feign intoxi- 

io6 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

cation, so that he could make one of his companions talk 
who was actually in that condition; he told the latter, 
very angrily, that he would prevent the scheme of the 
Michilimakinak people from succeeding. The other 
replied that he was not able to prevent it; and there was 
much disputing on both sides. The Outaouak acknowl- 
edged, privately, that the Hurons had gone to the Iro- 
quois, with a calumet ornamented with plumes, and 
several collars, in order to carry the message of the Outa- 
ouaks; the latter asked for full union with the Iroquois, 
and desired to abandon the side of the French, in order 
to place themselves under the protection of the English. 
Our people attempted to gain further and more thor- 
ough information by means of another Outaouak, who 
was the most influential man in that tribe ; and he was 
regarded as the most faithful friend of the French. He 
said only this, that the Hurons, pretending to go to 
Sakinan in search of medicinal herbs, had really gone 
to the Iroquois country. Soon afterward it was learned 
that the Hurons were to bring some of the Iroquois with 
them to make arrangements, during the coming winter, 
for the place of rendezvous ; but they did not fail to send 
chiefs to Montreal to beguile Monsieur de Frontenac. 
The Outagamis were very undecided over the conduct 
that they should observe in regard to the Iroquois, since 
the son of their chief had gone to visit our governor; 
whatever inclination they may have felt for the Iroquois, 
they concluded to await his return. The Hurons and 
the Outaouaks practiced all their tricks, as they had 
planned. Monsieur de Frontenac gave them several 
public audiences, at which they presented to him collars 
which assured him of their unshakable attachment. They 
returned home well pleased, and kept on the defensive 
in the river of the Outaouaks, not daring even to travel 


in the daytime for fear of the Iroquois-who on the voy- 
age down the river had killed one of their men, and 
wounded a Frenchman and the Huron chief Le Baron. 
We can say that all those peoples were strangely blind 
as to their own interests. There was [among them] only 
eagerness to become attached to the Iroquois, whom they 
believed to be their friends -who, however, did not 
spare them when they could find an opportunity [to at- 
tack them] ; but when it was a question of declaring in 
our favor they did so in the most indifferent possible 

Soon after their departure from Montreal, a rumor 
circulated that six hundred Iroquois were coming to 
ravage all our coasts; Monsieur de Frontenac made a 
general review of all his troops, and detached ten or 
twelve hundred men to resist the enemy at the start. The 
Pouteouatemis, the Sakis, the Malhominis, and that son 
of the great chief of the Outagamis undertook to go out 
themselves scouting as far as Lake Frontenac. The 
zeal that they displayed in this emergency deeply 
touched the governor, and he made them many presents 
on their return; and he assured the Outagami that, al- 
though his tribe had always been hostile to us, by plun- 
dering and insulting the French, they would be num- 
bered with our allies. 

Meanwhile the fleet of the French and the allies who 
were bringing their peltries arrived at Montreal ; they 
informed us of the death of the famous Outaouak chief 
Nansoaskouet, who had been slain among the Osages. 32 

32 The Osage (a name corrupted by French traders from Wazhazhe, their 
own name) are the most important southern Siouan tribe of the western di- 
vision. Dorsey classed them "in one group with the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, 
and Quapaw, with whom they are supposed to have originally constituted a 
single body living along the lower course of the Ohio River. . . The first 
historical notice of the Osage appears to be on Marquette's autograph map of 
1673, which locates them apparently on Osage River, and there they are placed 

io8 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

He was the supporter of the French in his own country, 
and had been an opponent of the English, in spite of his 
tribe. He had gone to the Islinois the preceding 
autumn, at the solicitation of his warriors, who for a 
long time tried to deprive us of the succor which the 
tribes of the south were giving us in the Iroquois War. 
He had, I say, gone to the Islinois, to avenge the death 
of the son of Talon (who had died from sickness in the 
war which he had undertaken to wage on the Kancas 
and the Osages), and had induced all the Islinois to 
join his expedition. In the attack on a village they en- 
countered sturdy resistance; Nansoaskoiiet, who tried 
to storm it, pushed too far in advance [of his men] 
and was surrounded, and they pierced him with arrows, 
which caused his death. The Outaouaks who had come 
down in this fleet brought some presents and an Osage 
slave, by way of announcing to Monsieur de Frontenac 
the death of this great chief; he made answer to them 
that they ought first to take revenge against the Iroquois, 
who had slain his nephew (meaning Nansoaskoiiet's), 
and that he would send his warriors against the Osages 

by all subsequent writers until their removal westward in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. . . In 1714 they assisted the French in defeating the Foxes at Detroit. 
Although visits of traders were evidently quite common before 1719, the first 
official French visit appears to have been in that year by Du Tisne, who learned 
that their village on Osage River then contained 100 cabins and 200 warriors. 
The village of the Missouri was higher up. "Then, as always, the tribe was 
at war with most of the surrounding peoples." By a treaty of Nov. 10, 1808, 
the Osage ceded a large part of their lands to the United States, and still 
more by later agreements. "The limits of their present reservation were es- 
tablished by act of Congress of July 15, 1870. This consists (1906) of 
1,470,058 acres, and in addition the tribe possessed funds in the Treasury of 
the United States amounting to $8,562,690, including a school fund of $119,911, 
the whole yielding an annual income of $428,134. Their income from pas- 
turage leases amounted to $98,376 in the same year, and their total annual 
income was therefore about $265 per capita, making this tribe the richest in 
the entire United States. By act of June 28, 1906, an equal division of the 
lands and funds of the Osage was provided for." Their population in the 
last-named year was 1,994, having dwindled to that figure from some 5.000 
a century ago. - JOHN R. SWANTON, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


and the Kancas. This response pleased them little, be- 
cause, as the savages are very capricious, they do not 
allow themselves to be easily influenced by mere prom- 
ises. They went back, however, to Michilimakinak, as 
did all our allies, with the wife of the chief of the 
Nadouaissioux, who had been one of the prisoners whom 
the Outagamis had taken ; she was sold to an Outaouak, 
and ransomed by a Frenchman who brought her to 
Montreal. There remained only one Nadouaissioux, 
who was kept there some time; our people were very 
glad to let him see the colony, in order that he might 
give his own people some idea of the power of the 
French. He had come expressly to arouse in Monsieur 
de Frontenac some compassion for their calamity. 

-, Chapter XXV 

Monsieur the Count de Frontenac had reason to be- 
lieve that the Hurons and the Outaouaks had spoken to 
him with open heart in the audiences that he had given 
them; but he was much surprised to learn that the Hu- 
rons had sent ambassadors to the Iroquois, and the Iro- 
quois to the Hurons. The French commandant at 
Michilimakinak did not doubt that the presence of these 
latter would cause a great disturbance, and tried to make 
the Outaouaks tomahawk them. Great disorder pre- 
vailed, and the savages generally took up arms against 
him; they were, however, obliged to send the envoys 
back to their homes, for fear of some accident. The 
Outaouaks departed, the following winter, in order to 
hunt game at the rendezvous that they had appointed, 
where they were to conclude a full and substantial peace. 
They had taken the precaution to leave at Michilimaki- 
nak a chief to keep up friendly intercourse with the 
French, and as a pledge of their fidelity to Onontio, 


without letting it be known that they had any premedi- 
tated design -even asserting that, if they saw any Iro- 
quois, they would gradually lure them on, in order to 
"put them into the kettle." The French affected not to 
distrust their fidelity, but sent an envoy to the Bay of 
Puans to induce our allies to send out meantime some 
bands who could hinder this [proposed] interview. At 
the bay were found only the old men -as at that time all 
the young men were out hunting except those who had 
gone down to Montreal, who had [not yet?] returned 
home -and one chief, who was told that a favorable op- 
portunity now offered itself which might secure for him 
recommendation to Onontio, from whom he would re- 
ceive all possible advantages if he would go to persuade 
his people to fight the Iroquois at the rendezvous which 
the latter had granted to the Outaouaks. He promised 
that he would go gladly, for love of Onontio, and imme- 
diately set out without attempting to make a war-feast 
beforehand. The Outagamis were weaned from the 
ardor that they had had for going with their families 
to join the Iroquois. The son of their chief, who had 
returned from Montreal, made a deep impression on 
their minds by the account which he gave of the power 
of the French. The Sakis had always supported our 
interests during that time; they lost some men and va- 
rious captives were taken from them, for they found 
themselves surrounded by six hundred Iroquois who 
were going to Montreal for war. It was this army (who 
had been discovered by our Iroquois of the Saut), 
whom the Outagami chief's son and our other allies had 
gone to reconnoiter at Lake Frontenac. These Sakis were 
taken to Onnontague, where the ambassadors of the Hu- 
rons had arrived; and the Onnontaguais 33 censured the 

33 Onondaga (or Onontagues), one of the Iroquois Five Nations, formerly 
living on Onondaga Lake, N.Y., and extending northward to Lake Ontario, 


Hurons for coming to treat of peace while their allies 
the Sakis were killing the Iroquois. The Hurons re- 
plied that they did not regard the Sakis as friends or 
as allies; and for the purpose of confirming this asser- 
tion they immediately burned the hands and cut off the 
finger ends of the Saki prisoners. The Outagamis and 
the Sakis made every possible effort to form a peace 
with the Nadouaissioux. They promised the French 
that they would, if the latter would prevent the incur- 
sions of the Nadouaissioux, take the war-path against 
the Iroquois to the number of twelve or fifteen hundred 
men ; and even that, if the Outaouaks made peace with 
that nation, they would strike higher up -"in order to 
clear the road," they said, "which the Outaouaks would 
proceed to close against the French who should come 
to trade at the bay and with the southern tribes." All 
the Frenchmen who were in those quarters were called 
together; and it was decided that an attempt must be 
made to restrain the Nadouaissioux, to the end that the 
Outagamis might place in the field an expedition that 
would without fail be successful. The French bought 
six boys and six girls, the children of chiefs, besides the 
great chief's wife whom they already had; and they set 
out across the country to conduct these captives to the 
Nadouaissioux. Perrot was selected to transact this 
business; he also held special orders from Monsieur de 

and southward to perhaps the Susquehanna. Their principal village, Onon- 
daga, was also the capital of the confederation ; and their present reserve is in 
the valley of Onondaga Creek. "Many of the Onondaga joined the Catholic 
Iroquois colonies on the St. Lawrence, and in 1751 about half of the tribe 
was said to be living in Canada." In 1775 most of the Iroquois took sides 
with the British, who at the close of the war granted them lands on Grand 
River, Ont, where a part of them still reside. "The rest are still in New 
York, the greater number being on the Onondaga reservation, and the others 
with the Seneca and Tuscarora on their several reservations. . . In 1906 
the Onondaga in New York numbered 553, the rest of the tribe being with the 
Six Nations in Canada." J. N. B. HEWITT, in Handbook Amer, Indians. 


Frontenac for other enterprises. He arrived in the 
country of the Miamis, who sent people to meet him 
and point out to him their village, having learned from 
some one of their people who had come from Montreal 
that he was coming to see them again. On his arrival he 
announced to them that Onontio gave positive orders 
that they should quit their [present] fires, and light 
them at the Saint Joseph River; for the execution of this 
order they gave him, on their part, five collars. He 
told them that he was going to make efforts to restrain 
the Nadouaissioux, and to return to them some slaves 
whom he had rescued from their enemies; and he ad- 
monished them all to be present in their village on his 
return thither. The Nadouaissioux had sent to the Mi- 
amis seven of their women, whom they had rescued from 
the hands of the Maskoutechs; and the Miamis made 
them presents of eight kettles, a quantity of Indian corn, 
and tobacco. 

Chapter XXVI 

Twelve hundred Nadouaissioux, Sauteurs, Ayoes, and 
even some Outaouaks were then on the march against 
the Outagamis and the Maskoutechs, and likewise were 
not to spare the Miamis. They had resolved to take 
revenge on the French, if they did not encounter their 
enemies. These warriors were only three days' journey 
distant from the Miami village from which Perrot had 
departed ; they learned that he was coming among them 
with their women and children and the wife of the 
great chief. This was enough to make them lay down 
their arms and suspend war until they had heard what 
he had to say to them. He reached his fort, where he 
learned these circumstances ; he was also told that it was 
believed that the Miamis were already routed. As he 
did not know that the Nadouaissioux had the news that 


he was coming, he sent to them two Frenchmen, who 
came back the next day with their great chief. I cannot 
express the joy that they displayed when they saw their 
women. The remembrance of the loss of the other cap- 
tives caused at the same time so much grief that it was 
necessary to allow a day's time to their tears and all the 
lamentations that they uttered. According to them, 
Perrot was a chief whose "feet were on the ground and 
his head in the sky;" he was also the "master of the 
whole earth," and they heaped on him expressions of 
joy and endearment, regarding him as a divinity. They 
were so busy in weeping hot tears on his head and on the 
captives, and in gazing on the sun with many exclama- 
tions, that he could not obtain from them any satisfac- 
tion. On the next day they told him that when "the 
men" arrived they would render him thanks; it is thus 
that all the savages are designated among themselves, 
while they call the French "French," and the [other] 
people from Europe by the names of their respective 
nations. They are persuaded that in all the world they 
are the only real men; and the greatest praise that they 
can bestow on a Frenchman whose worth they recog- 
nize is when they say to him, "Thou art a man." When 
they wish to show him that they have contempt for him, 
they tell him that he is not a man. The chief desired to 
bring up all his men near the fort, but the Sauteurs, the 
Ayoe's, and several villages of the Nadouaissioux had 
made their arrangements for hunting beaver, and there 
were only two villages, of about fifty cabins each, who 
came to the fort. After the Nadouaissioux had en- 
camped, this chief sent to ask Perrot to come to his 
cabin, with all the men who had accompanied him. His 
brother, seeing a Saki, exclaimed that he was an Outa- 
gami, saying, "Behold the man who has eaten me!" 
This Saki, knowing well that he was not safe, offered 


him his calumet, which the Nadouaissioux refused. A 
Miami, who also was with the French, took his own 
calumet and offered it, which he accepted. Perrot gave 
his own calumet to the Saki, and told him to offer it; 
the Nadouaissioux did not dare to refuse, and took and 
smoked it -but with the cries and tears of an angry man, 
calling the Great Spirit, the Sky, the Earth, and all the 
spirits to witness that he asked to be pardoned if he re- 
ceived the calumet which his enemy offered him, which 
he dared not refuse because it belonged to a captain 
whom he esteemed. There was no one save a woman 
whom this very Saki had rescued from slavery who 
could prove who he was. He was so frightened that, if 
he had not felt some confidence in the outcome, he would 
have longed to be far away. During several days feasts 
were made, and the result of this conference was, that 
the Nadouaissioux were very willing to make peace with 
the Outagamis if the latter would restore the rest of 
their people ; but in regard to the Maskoutechs they had, 
together with the Miamis, sworn to ruin them ; and they 
parted, each according to his own side. The Miamis 
were advised not to rely on the Nadouaissioux, and they 
were more than ever attracted to the idea of abandoning 
Maramek in order to settle on Saint Joseph River, as 
Onontio had commanded them. They were given two 
hundred pounds of gunpowder in order to procure sub- 
sistence for their families while on the journey, and to 
kill any Iroquois whom they might meet The Saki 
who had been so frightened in the cabin of the Nadou- 
aissioux chief took to flight, and filled the Outagamis 
with such alarm that even the women and children 
worked, day and night, to build a fort in which they 
could make themselves safe. The arrival of one of their 
men, who was out hunting beaver, increased their ter- 


ror. He had indeed seen the camp of the Nadouaissioux 
army, but had not been able to consider whether it was 
recently made. The alarm therefore broke out more 
wildly than ever; they made many harangues to en- 
courage all the warriors to make a stout defense; and 
each vied with the others in showing the best way of 
ordering the combat. Word was sent to the bay to in- 
form the tribes of the march of the Nadouaissioux, and 
at the same time to ask them to furnish aid to that peo- 
ple. Scouts went out in all directions; some reported 
that they had seen the fires of the army and some freshly- 
killed animals, at two days' distance; and others, who 
arrived the next day, said that the army was only one 
day's march from there. Finally, people came in great 
haste to say that the river was all covered with canoes, 
and that, from all appearances the general attack was to 
be made at night; nothing, however, was visible. Per- 
rot, who was then among them, wished to go in person 
to reconnoiter; but they prevented him from this, in the 
fear which they felt, [imagining that] by detaining him 
the enemy would not come to surprise them. Some 
hunters, who had been bolder than the others, reported 
that the [alleged] camp had been made the preceding 
winter. Their minds began to regain confidence, and 
they no longer sought for anything save the means for 
sending back their prisoners in order to secure peace, 
and for making ready after that to march against the 
Iroquois; and they again entreated Perrot to be their 
mediator for peace. He went among them and pro- 
posed to them the above arrangement, which they ac- 
cepted; and promised to conduct their people [to the 
Nadouaissioux country] in the moon when the [wild] 
bulls would be rutting. The savages divide the year 
into twelve moons, to which they give the names of ani- 

ri6 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

mals, but which are similar to our months. Thus, Jan- 
uary and February are the first and second moons, when 
the bears bring forth their young; March is the moon of 
the carp, and April that of the crane; May is the moon 
of the Indian corn ; June, the moon when the wild geese 
shed their feathers; July, that when the bear is in rut; 
August, the rut of the bulls; September, that of the elk; 
October, the rut of the moose; November, that of the 
deer; December, the moon when the horns of the deer 
fall off. The tribes who dwell about the [Great] Lakes 
call September the moon when the trout milt; October, 
that of the whitefish ; and November, that of the herring ; 
to the other months they give the same names as do those 
who live inland. 34 Perrot then assured them that at the 

34 "Although the methods of computing time had been carried to an ad- 
vanced stage among the cultured tribes of Mexico and Central America, the 
Indians north of Mexico had not brought them beyond the simplest stage. 
The alternation of day and night and the changes of the moon and the seasons 
formed the bases of their systems. The budding, blooming, leafing, and fruit- 
ing of vegetation, the springing forth, growth, and decay of annuals, and the 
molting, migration, pairing, etc., of animals and birds, were used to denote 
the progress of the seasons. The divisions of the day differed, many tribes 
recognizing four diurnal periods the rising and setting of the sun, noon, and 
midnight while full days were usually counted as so many nights or sleeps. 
The years were generally reckoned, especially in the far north, as so many 
winters or so many snows; but in the Gulf States, where snow is rare and the 
heat of summer the dominant feature, the term for year had some reference to 
this season or to the heat of the sun. As a rule the four seasons spring, sum- 
mer, autumn, and winter were recognized and specific names applied to 
them; but the natural phenomena by which they were determined, and from 
which their names were derived, varied according to latitude and environment, 
and as to whether the tribe was in the agricultural or the hunter state. . . The 
most important time division to the Indians north of Mexico was the moon, or 
month, their count of this period beginning with the new moon." Some tribes 
counted twelve moons to the year, and some thirteen. "There appears to 
have been an attempt on the part of some tribes to compensate for the surplus 
days in the solar year. Carver (Travels, ed. 1796, 160), speaking of the 
Sioux or the Chippewa, says that when thirty moons have waned they add a 
supernumerary one, which they term the lost moon. . . The Indians gen- 
erally calculated their ages by some remarkable event or phenomenon which 
had taken place within their remembrance; but few Indians of mature years 
could possibly tell their age before learning the white man's way of counting 
time. Sticks were sometimes notched by the Indians as an aid in time 


time of the bulls' rutting he would be present at the 
mouth of the Ouisconk [i.e., the Wisconsin River], 
where the peace was to be concluded. He sent word to 
the Outagamis to have the Nadouaissioux slaves all 
ready; the chiefs met together for that purpose, and 
placed all the slaves in one cabin. Then they suddenly 
heard death-cries from the other side of their river; they 
believed that the Nadouaissioux had defeated the Mi- 
amis, and immediately sent messengers to find out how 
affairs stood; and these reported that the Nadouaissioux 
had destroyed forty of the Miami cabins, in which all 
the women and children and fifty-five men had been 
killed. This act of hostility against people whom they 
regarded as friends made them suspect that the Nadou- 
aissioux would not spare them [even] after they had 
sent back the people of the latter. Twelve Frenchmen 
immediately set out with Perrot in order to try to over- 
take the Nadouaissioux, and to induce them to give back 
the slaves whom they had just taken. They reached the 
French fort which is in the country of those peoples, and 
there they obtained information of everything. The 
French undertook to join the Nadouaissioux, in a vil- 
lage which was inaccessible on account of numberless 
swamps, from which they could not extricate themselves ; 
and they traveled through the bogs, without food for 
four days. All these Frenchmen took refuge on a little 
island, except two who, still trying to find some exit, 
encountered two hunters, who conducted them to their 
village. The Nadouaissioux were unwilling to send for 
the other Frenchmen, not daring to let them enter 
[their village] on account of their fear lest the French 

counts. . . Some of the northern tribes kept records of events by means of 
symbolic figures or pictographs ;" some of these are described in the loth and 
lyth annual Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology. - CYRUS THOMAS, in Hand- 
book Amer. Indians. 


would kill them in order to avenge the Miamis. The 
latter sent presents to the Outagamis, with entreaties to 
furnish them assistance and with them avenge their dead, 
by a general march [against the Nadouaissioux], which 
they would make in the approaching winter. The com- 
mandant of Michilimakinak, when he heard of the 
treachery of the Nadouaissioux, wrote to Perrot to make 
the Miamis hang up the war-club, so that he could go 
to the Nadouaissioux country and bring away all the 
Frenchmen, as he did not wish them to become the vic- 
tims of this new war; and he had even resolved to de- 
stroy that people who had so injured our best friends. 
The Miamis, who had abandoned everything to escape 
from that furious attack, were destitute of ammunition 
and of many articles which they obtained only from the 
French, who exchanged these for peltries. The Outa- 
gamis were resolved to give their lives for the cause of 
the Miamis, in case the French would consent to this; 
the Kikabous also asked for nothing better. A general 
expedition was formed to go to join the Miamis, their 
women and children also going with them. Perrot met 
on the way four Miamis, whom the chief had sent to ask 
that he would come to their camp ; and he left all that 
procession, to go thither. The allies, being in sight of 
the camp, fired some gunshots as a signal of his arrival ; 
and all the Miami young men stood in rows, and 
watched him pass them. He heard a voice saying Paku- 
mikol which signifies in their language, "Tomahawk 
him!" and he rightly judged that there was some decree 
of death against him ; but he feigned to take no notice 
of this speech, .and continued his walk to the chief's 
cabin, where he called together the most prominent men 
among them. He set forth to them that, as he had not 
been able to secure a more favorable opportunity for 


giving them proofs of the interest which he took in the 
matters which concerned their tribe, he had engaged the 
Outagamis and Kikabous who were following him to 
take up arms to avenge the Miami dead against the 
Nadouaissioux. These words turned aside the evil de- 
sign which they had formed against him, and they re- 
galed him. At the same time there arrived a young 
man, who brought the news that the Frenchmen who 
were living in the Nadouaissioux country were at the 
portage. The chief assigned fifty women to transport 
their bales of peltries ; but the young men, who had re- 
ceived a private order to plunder these, carried off every- 
thing that they could into the woods, and hid themselves 
there. The chief, being informed of this act, pretended 
to make a great commotion in the village, to the end 
that they should bring back what had been stolen; but 
there was one of the people who objected that this pil- 
lage had been made with the chief's consent, since he had 
even ordered them to kill the French ; and very few of 
the peltries were brought back. A great tumult arose 
among the chiefs, who quarreled together, some taking 
the side of the French, and others that of the tribe. In 
that place were three different tribes: the Pepikokis, 
the Mangakokis, and the Peouanguichias 35 (who had 
conspired against the French) . One of their chiefs said 
that he knew how to plunder merchandise and slay men, 

35 The Piankashaw were formerly a subtribe of the Miami, but later a 
separate people. La Salle induced some of them to come to his fort in Illinois; 
Cadillac mentions them (1695) as being "west of the Miami village on St. 
Joseph's River, Mich., with the Mascoutens, Kickapoo, and other tribes;" and 
a little later they had a village on Kankakee River. Their ancient village 
was on the Wabash, at the junction of the Vermillion; later they formed another 
village, at the present site of Vincennes, Ind. In the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century they and the Wea began to remove to Missouri, and in 1832 
both tribes sold their lands to the government and went to a reservation in 
Kansas, in 1867 again removing to Oklahoma with the Peoria (with whom 
they had united about 1854). "The Piankashaw probably never numbered 

120 LA PQTHERIE [Vol. 

and that, since his children had been eaten by the Sioux 
(who had formerly been his enemies), on whom the 
French had taken pity, obliging the Miamis to make 
peace with them, he would now avenge himself on the 
French. Four of his warriors immediately sang [their 
war-song], to invite their comrades to join all together 
in an attack on the French. Two other tribes, who had 
always had much intercourse with us, at the same time 
took up arms ; they obliged the others to cross the river 
the next day, after reproaching them with having robbed 
themselves in pillaging the Frenchmen, who were com- 
ing to succor them. "It is we," they said, "who have 
been ill-treated by the Nadouaissioux, whom we re- 
garded as our allies ; why stir up an unseasonable quarrel 
with the French, with whom you ought not to have any 
strife?" Those who had been so well-intentioned re- 
quested from the French only four men to accompany 
them to the Nadouaissioux country, in order that, in 
case the enemy should be entrenched there, the French- 
men might show them how to undermine the fort. They 
would not depend at all upon the rest of the Frenchmen, 

many more than 1,000 souls. . . In 1825 there were only 234. remaining, 
and in 1906 all the tribes consolidated under the name of Peoria numbered but 
192, none of whom was of pure blood." 

The Pepikokia are "an Algonquian tribe or band mentioned in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century as a division of the Miami. In 1718 both they 
and the Piankashaw were mentioned as villages of the Wea. That the rela- 
tion between these three groups was intimate is evident. They were located 
on the Wabash by Chauvignerie (1736) and other writers of the period. 
They are spoken of in 1695 as Miamis of Maramek River, that is, the Kala- 
mazoo. A letter dated 1701 (Margry, Decou<vertes> vol. iv, 592) indicates that 
they were at that time in Wisconsin. Chauvignerie says that Wea, Piankashaw, 
and Pepikokia 'are the same nation, though in different villages,' and that 
'the devices of these Indians are the Serpent, the Deer, and the Small Acorn.' 
They were sometimes called Nation de la Grue, as though the crane was their 
totem. They disappear from history before the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury and may have become incorporated in the Piankashaw, whose principal 
village was on the Wabash at the junction of the Vermillion. - JAMES MOONEY, 
in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


whom they even entreated to return to the bay. Orders 
were given to these four men to desert when they should 
come within a day's journey from the French fort, in 
order to give warning there to keep on their guard, and 
to inform the Sauteurs of the plans of the Miamis, who 
intended to slaughter them. The Miamis began their 
march, and crossed the river; only a few chiefs were 
left, who spent the night with the Frenchmen. At nine 
o'clock in the evening the moon was eclipsed ; and they 
heard at the camp a volley of three hundred gunshots, 
and yells as if they were being attacked; these sounds 
were repeated. These chiefs asked the Frenchmen what 
they saw in the sky ; the latter answered that the Moon 
was sad on account of the pillage that they had suffered. 
The chiefs answered, gazing .at the moon: "This is 
the reason for all the gunshots and cries that you hear. 
Our old men have taught us that when the Moon is 
sick it is necessary to assist her by discharging arrows 
and making a great deal of noise, in order to cause terror 
in the spirits who are trying to cause her death ; then she 
regains her strength, and returns to her former condi- 
tion. If men did not aid her she would die, and we 
would no longer see clearly at night; and thus we could 
no longer separate the twelve months of the year." 

The Miamis continued to fire their guns, and only 
ceased when the eclipse was ended; on this occasion 
they did not spare the gunpowder that they had taken 
from us. It would have been very easy for the French 
to bind these chiefs and sacrifice them to the Nadouais- 
sioux, but the Miamis could have taken vengeance for 
this on our missionaries, on our Frenchmen at the Saint 
Joseph River, and on those at Chikagon ; and our men 
took the road to the bay. They met three cabins of Outa- 
gamis, who were surprised at their return, and at seeing 

122 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

their canoes; they concluded that the Miamis had stolen 
these, but the latter were exonerated [by the French] 
from an act in which they had been suspected of taking 

When these Frenchmen arrived at the bay they found 
one hundred and fifty Outaouaks, sixty Sakis, and 
twenty-five Pouteouatemis, who were going to hunt 
beavers toward the frontiers of the Nadouaissioux; these 
savages held a council, to ascertain the decision of the 
leading Frenchmen regarding their voyage from Mi- 
chilimakinak. The Miamis of Saint Joseph River had 
informed the commandant of Michilimakinak of the 
hostile acts which the Nadouaissioux had committed on 
them, and demanded his protection. This commandant 
sent out despatches prohibiting the French in all those 
regions to go up to the Nadouaissioux country; and 
ordering those who had come thence to ask the Miamis 
to hang up the war-club until spring, as he was going to 
avenge them, with all the French who should be at 
Michilimakinak. The aspect of affairs had necessarily 
changed since the Miamis had pillaged the Frenchmen; 
tjhe Outaouaks therefore held a council, to learn the 
final resolution of the latter. They set forth that they 
found no one at Michilimakinak, and that, if these 
Frenchmen did not choose to join them, they could pre- 
vent the ruin of the Sauteurs through the agency of the 
Outagamis; and the Frenchmen themselves were run- 
ning a risk, in case they were not backed up, since the 
Outagamis had been displeased at the intercourse which 
the former had held with the Nadouaissioux in the past. 
These arguments were sufficiently strong to induce the 
greater number of the French to join the Outaouaks. 
They set out on the march across the country, and a few 
days later two Sakis were sent to notify the Outagamis 


of it, and to ask them not to go to Ouiskonch until this 
army had reached their village ; they were also requested 
to inform the Miamis that Perrot was going to find 
them, without positively telling the latter, however, that 
he was coming to furnish them assistance in their war. 
These two Sakis reported that the Outagamis and Kika- 
bous, having heard of the plunder of the French by the 
Miamis, were all dispersed through the country in 
search of means for subsistence -having been unwilling, 
since that news, to take up the cause of these tribes 
against the Nadouaissioux; that they were grieved be- 
cause Sieur Perrot had not gone to find them after that 
pillage, since they would have sacrificed themselves in 
order to secure the restitution of his goods; that they 
were going to send for all their people, so as to receive 
them on the shore of Ouiskonche, which they would not 
cross until everybody should arrive there. They said 
also that they had found the chief of the Miamis, with 
two of those Frenchmen who were to accompany them 
to the Nadouaissioux; this chief was urgently soliciting 
the Outagamis to march with the Miamis as they had 
promised, but the latter had replied that the Miamis 
could continue their course if they would not wait for 
the arrival of the French and the Outaouaks. The bad 
roads and the lack of provisions obliged the Outaouaks 
to remain [on the way] for some time; finally they 
reached the nearest cabins of the Outagamis, among 
whom they were well entertained. The chiefs of twenty- 
five [Outagami] cabins, and fifteen of the Kikabou 
cabins, becoming impatient because the Outaouaks did 
not arrive, had gone a little too far ahead, in order to 
gain Ouiskonch ; the Miamis who met them constrained 
them to go to their camp, where they displayed little 
consideration for the newcomers. The latter sent in 

124 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

haste a Saki and a Frenchman to urge the Outaouaks to 
hasten their arrival as soon as possible, saying that mean- 
while they would try to divert the Miamis and prevent 
them from beginning the march. 

Two or three Frenchmen set out at once, and at night 
reached the cabin of the Outagami chief, who imme- 
diately had their arrival made public. The Miamis 
promptly made their appearance there, and demanded, 
"Where are the other warriors?" On both sides depu- 
ties were sent to fix the place for the general rendezvous, 
which was at the entrance of a little river. The Miamis, 
who numbered five villages, desiring to break camp, sent 
out some men from each group to kindle fires, which was 
the signal of departure; they built five of these, abreast, 
the Outagamis two, and the Kikabous one. When these 
fires were kindled the call to break camp was uttered; 
all the women folded up the baggage, and gathered at 
the fires of their respective tribes, at which the men also 
assembled. All the people being ready, the war-chiefs 
(with their bags on their backs) began to march at the 
head, singing, making their invocations, and gesticu- 
lating; the warriors, who were on the wings, marched in 
battle array, abreast, and forming many ranks ; the con- 
voy for the women composed the main body, and a bat- 
talion of warriors formed the rear-guard. This march 
was made with order; some Frenchmen were detailed 
to go to meet the Outaouaks. The latter, having 
arrived in sight of the Miami camp, began to defile, and 
fired a volley of musketry. The Outagamis refused to 
return the salute to them ; on the contrary, they sent word 
to the Miami camp to make no commotion, for fear of 
frightening their brothers, the Outaouaks - because the 
Outagamis feared lest the Miamis, already entertaining 
evil thoughts, might lay violent hands on them, under 


pretext of receiving them as friends. The Outaouaks 
having made their camp, their chiefs entered the cabin 
of the chief of the Outagamis, with two guns, twelve 
kettles, and two collars made of round and long porce- 
lain beads; but they sent to call the Miamis, without 
making them any present. They asked from the Outa- 
gamis permission to hunt on their lands, intending to 
devote themselves only to the beavers and [other] quad- 
rupeds, as they had come under the protection of the 
French. The Outagamis divided their presents into 
three lots; they gave the largest to the Miamis, the sec- 
ond to the Kikabous, and reserved the smallest for them- 

The Miamis did not show to the Outaouaks the 
resentment which they felt at the affront which they had 
just received. They assembled about three hundred 
warriors to perform their war-dances, and in these they 
chanted the funeral songs, in which they named the per- 
sons who had been slain by the Nadouaissioux. They 
should, according to the custom in war, make the round 
of the camp while singing and dancing; it was their 
design [while doing so] to kill at the same time all the 
dogs belonging to the Outaouaks, in order to make a 
war-feast with them. The Outagamis, fearing that they 
would go to this extreme, came to meet them, so as to 
prevent the Miamis from acting toward the Outaouaks 
as they had done in regard to the Outagami dogs. The 
Outaouaks had already placed themselves on the de- 
fensive; however, everything went off without a dis- 

After this last people had ended their council, the 
Miamis assembled at night with the Fox Outagamis; 
they imagined that the French- [especially] two among 
them -had come only to prevent the Outagamis from 

126 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

uniting with them. A war-chief, desiring to irritate his 
tribe against the Frenchmen, was urging his people to 
burn them; the report of this ran through the camp. 
An Outagami, hearing the discourse of this chief, went 
out and told the Miamis that after having eaten the 
Outagamis they would probably eat these two French- 
men; he gave the alarm to the men of his tribe, who 
placed themselves under arms. Another Miami, ad- 
dressing his people, said that it was absolutely necessary 
to burn them. All the night there was nothing but com- 
motions on the part of the Miamis, who only longed for 
the moment to attack the Outaouaks-whom they called 
friends of the Sioux and the Iroquois who had eaten 
them. The Outagamis did not pay much attention to 
all these incivilities ; their only endeavor was to follow 
the wishes of the Frenchmen. When the day had come, 
the Miamis beat the salute, and defiled in battle array, 
the Outagamis and the Kikabous remaining stock-still. 
The decision which the French advised the Outagamis 
to make was, to join their forces with the Miamis, say- 
ing: "Go with them ; they mean to slay the Frenchmen 
who are in the country of the Nadouaissioux, without 
sparing the Sauteurs. Even though the latter may be 
your enemies, spare their lives ; and prevent the Miamis 
from attacking them or insulting the French. Go, then, 
to assist them, rather than to wage war against the 
Nadouaissioux. If they engage in fighting, remain in 
the reserve force, and quit it only when the enemy shall 
take to flight." The old men of the Miamis had re- 
mained at the camp in order to know the final decision 
of the Outagamis; they came into the council cabin, 
where these Frenchmen were present. The eldest of 
them offered his calumet to one of the latter, who 
smoked it, and told the other that he had heard the 


clamor of their speech-maker, who was inciting all the 
Miamis to burn his body so as to put it into the kettle; 
and had heard this man's brother, who said that it was 
necessary to lay violent hands on the Outaouaks whom 
the French had brought, although they had come to 
avenge the dead of the Miamis. He said that, since he 
found in them so little good sense and was aware of 
their misconduct, the French would abandon their en- 
terprise, and would join the four other Frenchmen who 
had been furnished to accompany them into the Nadou- 
aissioux country. "Eat," said this Frenchman to the old 
man, "eat the French who are among the Nadouais- 
sioux, but thou wilt no sooner take them in thy teeth than 
we will make thee disgorge them." Then every one 
arose ; and all the Outagamis and the Kikabous had their 
bundles tied up by the women, so as to go to join the 
Miamis in their camp -excepting the old men, and some 
people who were not very alert. 

The first news that came after their departure was, 
that the Miamis had been defeated; that the Outagamis 
and the Kikabous had lost no men ; and that the Outa- 
gamis had saved the Sauteurs and the French. Four 
of the Outagami youth arrived some days later, sent by 
the chiefs to give information of all that had occurred 
since the departure of the army. At the outset, they 
were heard to utter eight death-cries, but without saying 
whether they were Miamis or of some other tribe. A 
kettle was promptly set over the fire for them, and even 
before the meat was cooked they were set to eating. 
After they had satisfied their hunger, one of them spoke 
before the old men and some Frenchmen. He said : 

"A chief of the Chikagons having died from sickness, 
the Miamis made no present to his body; but our chiefs, 
touched by this lack of feeling, brought some kettles to 

128 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

cover it. The Miamis of Chikagon were so grateful for 
this that they told our chiefs that they would unite with 
them, to the prejudice of their allies -who paid them no 
attention when they were dying, even though they had 
come to avenge them. A Piouanguichias also died, a 
little farther on; we went to bury him, and made him 
presents; but the Miamis again did nothing. I tell you, 
old men, that these two tribes would have turned the 
war-clubs of the Miamis against us if we had undertaken 
to do the same by them. When we arrived at one of the 
arms of the Missisipi, eight Miamis who had gone out 
as scouts brought to the camp two Frenchmen who were 
coming from the Sauteur country; it was planned to 
burn them, but our warriors opposed this, loudly de- 
claring that we had set out to wage war on the Nadou- 
aissioux. They kept one of the prisoners, and sent back 
the other, with some Miamis, to the Sauteurs, who re- 
ceived them well. This Frenchman remained there only 
one day; on the next day ten Sauteurs and Outaouaks 
accompanied him to come after the Miamis, to whom 
they made a present of twelve kettles. Our people were 
displeased that the Sauteurs were not divided between 
them and us in the cabins, and that they had presented 
to the Miamis seven kettles, while the Kikabous and we 
received only five ; but what we considered extraordi- 
nary was, that at night the Miamis came to find our 
chiefs with the kettles of the Sauteurs, and other goods 
which they had added to these, to invite us to eat these 
ambassadors with them. It is true that our chief imme- 
diately drew out a collar which a Frenchman had given 
to him, without our knowledge, by which he asked our 
chief not to attack his people who were among the 
Nadouaissioux, or the Sauteurs, or any of the allies of 
Onontio. This collar, I say, restrained us all. Then 


they allowed the Sauteurs to go away; the latter pointed 
out the village of the Nadouaissioux, who had built a 
strong fort in order to take refuge in it in case of need. 
A part of the Miamis resolved to carry them away from 
it; but we also followed, so as to hold them back. The 
Oiiaouyartanons and the Peouanguichias, remembering 
the obligations which they were under to us for the care 
which we had taken of their dead, broke their camp, in 
order to thwart the designs of their allies. While they 
were making up their bundles, a young Sauteur arrived 
who had had some dispute with a Nadouaissioux; he 
said that he came to join our party; but a Miami imme- 
diately tomahawked him and cut off his scalp. This 
proceeding obliged us to pack our baggage and follow 
the Oiiaouyartanons and the Peouanguichias. The Mi- 
amis, seeing that they were not strong enough to attack 
the Nadouaissioux, broke camp as we had done, and 
followed us. At evening they concluded that it was 
necessary to go toward the Missisipi, where they would 
find more game than upon the road which they had so 
far taken. They sent forty of their warriors to the 
French fort, and imagined that they could enter it as 
they would one of our cabins. The dogs of the fort, dis- 
covering them, barked at them. The French, seeing men 
who were marching with hostile aspect, seized their 
arms and told them to advance no farther; the Miamis 
derided them, but the French fired over their heads and 
made them retire. The Miamis who had broken camp 
on the day after this detachment had set out took the 
same route as the latter. When we saw that they were 
going toward the French post we followed them, fear- 
ing lest they would go to make trouble for the French ; 
the Oiiaouyartanons and the Peouanguichias refused to 
abandon us. We saw the arrival of the above-mentioned 

130 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

[Miami] detachment, who as they came cried out that 
the French had fired on them ; and by that we knew that 
they had attempted to take the French fort by surprise. 
This was enough to make our chiefs reproach the Mi- 
amis for trying to ruin the land and redden it with the 
blood of the French. The Ouaoiiyartanons stoutly sup- 
ported us; we declared to them that we would go to 
visit the French, and that we felt sure we would be well 
received. At the same time our young chief set out with 
forty warriors; on arriving at the fort, they called out 
to the Frenchmen, and the chief had no sooner told his 
name than three of those who had been plundered with 
Metaminens recognized him. Immediately they made 
our people enter, who had a hearty meal, and whom the 
French loaded with Indian corn and meat- also warning 
them to beware of the Miamis, who were planning 
treachery toward them. After they had eaten they came 
to join us at the camp, where they related the friendly 
reception which the French had given them ; but when 
the Miamis saw that their design had been unmasked 
they acknowledged that they could no longer hope for 
any success -that Metaminens was against them, and 
that Heaven seconded him. They gave up, therefore, 
their design of going to attack the French, but that did 
not prevent them from going afterward to encamp in 
the vicinity of the fort; the French defended its ap- 
proaches from them by volleys of musketry, and even 
defied them to come on to the attack, asking us to re- 
main neutral. The chief of the Miamis, however, asked 
them to [let him] enter the fort alone, which was 
granted. He asked the French to inform the Nadou- 
aissioux that the Miamis were going to hunt, in order to 
make amends for the theft of merchandise which they 
had committed on the French; and to accompany them 


to the Nadouaissioux village, in order to obtain their 
women and children whom the latter were holding as 
slaves. What happened? the French were simple 
enough to send this message, believing that this chief 
had spoken in good faith. The Miamis encamped mean- 
while at a place two leagues below the fort, and sent 
three hundred warriors, with forty of our men, to go 
among the Nadouaissioux. The French, who had done 
their errands, heard on their return many gunshots; 
they saw plainly that they had been deceived, and im- 
mediately suspected that the Miamis were under the 
guidance of a slave who had recently escaped. The 
French hastened to find again the Nadouaissioux, who 
were abandoning their fort for lack of provisions. When 
they knew of the Miami expedition, they went back 
into the fort, and on the morrow at daybreak they were 
attacked ; a Nadouaissioux went out with the calumet, in 
order to hold a parley, but a Miami shot him dead, and 
his men brought him back to the fort. The Miamis 
came against the fort to cut it away, with great in- 
trepidity; but they were charged at so vigorously that 
they were compelled to abandon the attack with much 
loss of men. We all withdrew from the siege, and after 
making a general retreat we separated, five days Later. 
Our chiefs have sent us ahead, to give you the detailed 
account of all that I have just related to you; they have 
remained to set the young men at hunting, and will 
arrive in a little while." 

The conduct of the Outagamis on this occasion was 
altogether discreet: for the Outaouaks who were in those 
regions were not attacked by the Miamis (who were 
seeking a quarrel with them) , the Sauteurs escaped fall- 
ing into the hands of their enemies, the French profited 
by the warning that was given them to be on their guard, 

132 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

and the Nadouaissioux were not worsted [in the fight]. 
The tribe, certain that Monsieur de Frontenac would be 
pleased at the services which they had just rendered 
him, sent him several chiefs, to whom he gave a most 
friendly reception. The Outaouaks, who were then at 
Michilimakinak, kept them there a fortnight, in order 
to entertain them. Everything seemed to turn to the ad- 
vantage of the Colony, when an event occurred which 
was of infinite benefit to it; this was a great quarrel be- 
tween the Iroquois and the Outaouaks, which resulted 
in overthrowing all the schemes of the former. After 
I have given an account of a battle that was fought on 
Lake Herier between these two peoples, I will also 
finish describing the disturbances which occurred among 
all those tribes. 

Chapter XXVII 

Among the Outaouaks of Michilimakinak, who al- 
ways joined with the Hurons in favor of the Iroquois, 
there were some chiefs who did not fail to support our 
cause manfully. One day, loud reproaches passed be- 
tween the Hurons and our partisans, who told the former 
that Le Baron was, with impunity, deceiving Onontio 
with the protestations of friendship and alliance that he 
was again making to the governor, even while he was 
employing all sorts of stratagems to injure our allies; 
and that it was very well known that the Hurons in- 
tended to go with the Iroquois to Saint Joseph River to 
destroy the Miamis. On both sides there were long ex- 
planations. The Hurons acknowledged their design; 
but, as they felt piqued, they told the Outaouaks that if 
they would accompany them they would together attack 
the Iroquois, for whom they cared very little to show 
any consideration. They also said that, in order that the 
Outaouaks might not think that they intended to sacri- 


fice them, they would give up their women and children 
to them, and the Outaoiiaks should be masters of these 
in case there were any treachery; they departed, accord- 
ingly, in equal numbers. In the middle of Lake Herier 
they found three canoes of Sakis, who were seeking 
refuge from a defeat which they had suffered from the 
Iroquois-who had slain their chief, with two of his 
brothers and one of his cousins, while the Iroquois had 
lost on their side eight men. The Sakis joined the Hu- 
rons and Outaoiiaks; they fired several gunshots, in 
order to notify the Iroquois [of their coming] ; and, hav- 
ing descried a great cloud of smoke, they sent four men 
to reconnoiter, who marched through the woods. When 
they were on the shore, nearly where they could catch a 
glimpse of any one, they saw four men who were walk- 
ing on the edge of the lake; they went back into the 
woods, from which they fired a volley at these Iroquois, 
and then immediately gained their own canoes. The 
Iroquois, who were at work making canoes of elm-bark 
(of which they had at the time only five made), num- 
bered three hundred; they rushed into these, to attack 
the Outaouaks, with such headlong haste that they broke 
asunder two of the canoes, and then went in pursuit with 
the three others; the first contained thirty men, the sec- 
ond twenty-five, and the third sixteen. The Hurons, 
the Sakis, and the Outaouaks, who had a like.number of 
men, saw that they were on the point of being captured, 
but rallied, and resolved to endure the first fire of their 
enemies. The war-chief of the Outaouaks and a Huron 
were killed at the outset, but the others steadily ad- 
vanced until they were close up to the Iroquois; then 
they fired their volley at the canoe of thirty men, of 
whom so many were killed that the dead bodies caused 
it to capsize, so that all the thirty perished -some by 
drowning, some by the war-club, some by arrows. The 

134 LA POTHERIE [Vol. 

canoe of twenty[-five] met the same fate, but five of 
the braves were made prisoners. The great chief of the 
Tsonnontouans was mortally wounded in this encounter ; 
they tomahawked him, and carried away his scalp. At 
last these prisoners arrived at Michilimakinak, and they 
appeared deeply hurt because their people had been 
duped by the Hurons, whom they were regarding as 
their best friends; see in what manner they complained 
of it: 

"The Hurons have killed us. Last autumn they in- 
vited us by collars to be on hand near the Saint Joseph 
River, where they were to assemble. They had prom- 
ised to give us the village of the Miamis there to eat; 
and after this expedition they were to take us to Michili- 
makinak to deliver to us the Outaouaks, and even their 
own people who might be there. For this purpose our 
chiefs raised the war-party that you have seen ; but the 
Hurons have betrayed us. Believe us, we are among 
your friends. We know well that it is the Pouteouate- 
mis who have drawn you in with them to attack us, when 
you have defeated us, ten cabins in all. We do not blame 
you, but them; and we have never plotted against you." 
This defeat of the Iroquois confirmed the Hurons and 
all our allies on our side. [End of volume II.] 

[Volume iv 36 contains four letters, which are occu- 

36 La Potherie, before publishing his Histoire, desired for it the approval 
of Jacques Raudot, intendant of New France during 1705-1711; the latter re- 
quested one Father Bobe a secular priest, who was greatly interested in the 
Canadian colony, and wrote various memoirs regarding its affairs to read 
the manuscript and give him an opinion as to its quality and merit. At the 
end of vol. iv of the Histoire appears a letter from Bobe to Raudot, making 
the desired report on the book, which this priest warmly commends. The fol- 
lowing passages in the letter are of special interest, as indicating La Potherie's 
methods, and his sources of information: 

"Having read it very attentively, I have been surprised that it has so well 
fulfilled a project which, as it seemed to me, was very difficult to carry out 
successfully. He certainly must have taken much pains to inform himself of 
all that was necessary to disentangle the numerous intrigues of so many savage 


pied with the relations existing between the French and 
Iroquois-and, more or less, those of the western tribes 

peoples, in relation to both their own interests and those of the French. He 
has assured me that after he had personally obtained a knowledge of the 
government of Canada in detail of which he has written a history, which he 
has had the honor of dedicating to his royal Highness Monseigneur the Due 
d'Orleans he had intended to penetrate [the wilderness] to a distance six 
hundred leagues beyond; but as his health and his occupations had not per- 
mitted him to go through that vast extent of territory, he had contented himself 
with forming friendships with most of the prominent chiefs of the peoples 
allied with New France who came down to Montreal every year to conduct 
their trade in peltries. At the outset, he had made a plan of the present 
history; he has therefore had no trouble, in all the conversations that he has 
held with them, in gaining a knowledge of their manners, their laws, their 
customs, their maxims, and of all the events of special importance which have 
occurred among them. 

"Sieur Joliet has contributed not a little to this end ; for during the lessons 
in geometry which he gave to the author he informed him of all that he had 
seen and known among those peoples. The Jesuit fathers, who were excel- 
lent friends of his, have been very helpful to him. Sieur Perrot, who is the 
principal actor in all that has occurred among those peoples during more than 
forty years, has given the author the fullest information, and with the utmost 
exactness, regarding all that he narrates. Monsieur de la Potherie, to whom 
I expressed my surprise that he had been able to obtain so clear a knowledge 
of so great a number of facts, and reduce to order so many matters that were 
so entangled, avowed to me that all these persons had been of the utmost 
assistance to him. He said that he questioned them in order [of events], in 
accordance with his plan [for the book], and that he immediately set down in 
writing what the savages had told him, and then he read to them these notes 
in order to make proper corrections therein; and that it was by these careful 
means that he escaped from the labyrinth. 

"I assure you, Monsieur, that I have read this manuscript with pleasure; 
and that I have learned from it things which I had not found in Lahontan, in 
Father Hennepin, or in all the others who have written about New France. 
I believe that every one will read it with the same satisfaction. . . In it 
we shall see the attachment of all those peoples for the French nation; and 
we shall admire the prudence and adroitness of the French in managing the 
minds of those savages, and retaining them in alliance with us despite all the 
intrigues of the English, and of their emissaries the Iroquois who exerted 
every effort to render them our enemies or in persuading them to wage war 
against those nations, and by that means to secure them in their own interests. 
We shall be surprised at the boldness and intrepidity of the French who lived 
among those barbarians, who were continually threatening to burn them at the 
stake or to murder them. We shall recognize that those peoples whom we 
treat as savages are very brave, capable leaders, good soldiers, very discreet 
and subtle politicians, shrewd, given to dissimulation, understanding perfectly 
their own interests, and knowing well how to carry out their purposes. In 


with both peoples -during the years 1695-1701. The 
record is mainly one of hostilities with the Iroquois 
(who are, as usual, fierce and treacherous), varied by 
negotiations for peace, which is finally concluded in the 
summer of 1701. Much space is given to detailed re- 
ports of the various conferences held by Frontenac and 
his successor Callieres with the deputations of Indians 
who come to Quebec to settle their affairs with the gov- 
ernor; and the speeches on both sides are given in ex- 
tenso. At one of these (in 1695) a Sioux chief named 
Tioskatin participated; he was the first of his tribe to 
visit Canada, conducted thither by Pierre C. La Sueur, 
who afterward made explorations on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi. At the great conference of all the tribes held 
at Montreal, beginning July 25, 1701, the most noted of 
their chiefs were present and made speeches -including 
the Ottawa Outoutaga (also known as Le Talon, and as 
Jean le Blanc) ; Chingouessi, another Ottawa; the Hu- 
ron Le Rat; Ounanguice, a Potawatomi, who spoke for 
all the Wisconsin tribes; Quarante-Sols, a Huron; 
Chichikatalo, a Miami; Noro (or "the Porcupine"), of 
the Outagamis; Ouabangue, head of the Chippewas of 
the Sault; Tekaneot, Tahartakout, and Aouenano, from 
the various Iroquois tribes. A general peace was con- 
cluded, after long discussion and much giving of pres- 
ents, on August 7 -an event which crowned the long 
efforts of Frontenac to end the Iroquois Wars, which had 
so long wasted the resources and population of the 
French settlements, paralyzed their industries, and in- 
terrupted the trade with the Indians on which almost 
their life depended. This peace was negotiated by Cal- 
lieres, Frontenac having died on Nov. 28, 1698. -ED.] 

short, the French and the English have need of all their cleverness and intel- 
lect to deal with the savages." 


Letter to Reverend Dr. Jedidiah Morse, 
by Major Morrell Marston, U.S.A., 
commanding at Fort Armstrong, 111.; 
November, 1820. 

From original manuscript in the library of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society. 

"Account of the Manners and Customs of 
the Sauk and Fox nations of Indians 
Traditions." A report on this subject, 
sent to General William Clark, Super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs, by Thomas 
Forsyth, Indian agent for the U.S. Gov- 
ernment; St. Louis, January 15, 1827. 

From the original and hitherto unpublished 
manuscript in the library of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society. 

Letter of Major Marston to Reverend Doctor 


Fort Armstrong, November, 1820. 
SIR: Your letter dated "Mackinaw, June 20, 1820," 
requesting me to give you the names of the Indian tribes 
around me within as large a circle as my information 
can be extended with convenience and accuracy -the 
extent of the territories they respectively occupy, with 
the nature of their soil and climate -their mode of life, 
customs, laws and political institutions -the talents and 
character of their chiefs and other principal and influ- 
ential men, and their disposition in respect to the intro- 
duction and promotion among them, of education and 
civilisation; what improvements in the present system 
of Indian trade could in my opinion be made, which 
would render this commercial intercourse with them 
more conducive to the promotion of peace between them 
and us, and contribute more efficiently to the improve- 
ment of their moral condition ; together with a number 
of particular questions to be put to the Indians for their 
answers or to be otherwise answered according to cir- 
cumstances, came to hand in due time and would have 
been answered immediately, had it been in my power to 
have done so as fully as I wished. 8T 

37 Early in 1820 Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D.D., held commissions from the 
Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and from the 
Northern Missionary Society of New York, to visit the Indian tribes of the 
United States and ascertain their condition, and devise measures for their 
benefit and advancement. He suggested to the United States government the 
desirability of its cooperation in this undertaking, and was authorized to carry 
it out as an accredited agent of the government, which paid his expenses and 


Soon after the receipt of your communication, I in- 
vited four of the principal chiefs of the Sauk and Fox 
nations to my quarters, with a view of gaining all the 
information wished or expected from them, three of 
whom accordingly attended, when I made known to 
them that you as an agent of the President had requested 
certain information relating to their two nations, which 
1 hoped they would freely communicate to the best of 
their knowledge and belief, as their great father the 
President was anxious to be made acquainted with their 
situation in order to be enabled to relieve their wants 
and give them such advice from time to time as they 
might need. They replied, that they were willing and 
ready to communicate all the information in their power 
to give relative to their two nations; but I soon found 
that when the questions were put to them they became 
suspicious and unwilling to answer to them, and that 

directed him to make a report of his work in this field ; this appears from the 
letter written to him by the then secretary of war, J. C. Calhoun, dated Feb. 7, 
1820. He left New Haven on May 10 following, and returned home on 
August 30, this period having been devoted to visiting the Indian tribes as 
far west as Detroit, Mackinaw, and Green Bay. His report to the war de- 
partment, dated November, 1821, was published at New Haven in 1822, under 
the title "A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States, on Indian 
Affairs, comprising a narrative of a tour performed in the summer of 1820, 
under a commission from the President of the United States, for the purpose of 
ascertaining, for the use of the Government, the actual state of the Indian 
Tribes in our country." The greater part of this book is in the form of appen- 
dices, in which Dr. Morse incorporated a vast mass of information regarding 
the Indian tribes at that time, including reports, interviews, etc., from Indian 
agents, missionaries, army officers, traders, Indian chiefs, and others. He also 
gives statistical tables of the tribes and their population, residence, etc.; the 
annuities paid to them by the government; the lands purchased from them; 
and schools established among them. At the end of the report proper, Dr. 
Morse presents his views as to the policy which the government should adopt 
in dealing with the Indians, with plans for civilizing and educating them, 
and for the conduct of the Indian trade. The report by Major Marston 
(which the present editor has reproduced from that officer's original manu- 
script) was printed in Dr. Morse's report (pages 120-140), with some slight 
editorial changes intended to give it better form for publication mainly in 
spelling, the correct form of sentences, etc. - ED. 


many of their answers were evasive and foreign to the 
questions. 38 Such information, however, I was able to 
obtain, by putting your questions to them follows : 

Question to Mas-co, a Sauk chief- What is the name 
of your nation? Answer- Since we can remember we 
have never had any other name than Saukie or Saukie- 
uck. 39 

Question to Mas-co-What its original name? An- 
swer-Since the Great Spirit made us we have had that 
name and no other. 

Question to Mas-co-What the names by which it has 
been known among Europeans? Answer -The French 
called us by that name ; they were the first white people 

38 Gov. Ninian Edwards of Illinois wrote to Thomas Forsyth (from Kas- 
kaskia, Jan. 28, 1813): "The truth is that all the different tribes of Indians 
view our increase of population and approximation to their villages and hunt- 
ing grounds with a jealous eye, are predisposed to hostility and are restrained 
only by fear from committing aggressions. I make no calculations upon their 
friendship, nor upon anything else but the terror with which our measures may 
inspire them and therefore I am now and long have been opposed to temporiz- 
ing with them. I am very glad you contradicted the report of my having 
sent a Pipe, etc., to the Pottowattomies, for nothing can be more false than 
that report. There is in my opinion only one of two courses that ought to be 
pursued with the Sacs. If there be just grounds to believe that a part of them 
are friendly they should be brought into the interior of the country, furnished 
with provisions, and some ground to make their sweet corn, etc., which they 
would want when they should retire to their own country. This proposition 
w d test their sincerity if they accepted it, it would be advantageous to us 
by withdrawing so much force from the hostile confederacy whilst we are 
waging war against it if they refused I w d consider them all as enemies and 
treat them accordingly, making the whole tribe responsible for the conduct of all 
its members. No other plan of separating the hostile from the friendly part 
or discriminating between them can succeed. . . The Kickapoos are among 
the Sacs and most certainly if they wish to harbor our enemies they can not 
be considered nor ought they to be treated as our friends under the circum- 
stances the only line I shall prescribe to them will be to keep out of the way of 
my rangers. I should however be glad to send them a talk first requiring 
them to drive the Kickapoos from among them and I wish to procure some 
person to go on this business." (Forsyth Papers, vol. i, doc. 13.) ED. 

39 Saukie is the singular and Saukieuck the plural: the plural number of 
most names in the Sauk and Fox language is formed by the addition of the 
syllable uck. MARSTON. 


we had ever seen; since, the white people call us Sauks. 

Question to Wah-bal-lo 40 the principal chief of the 
Fox nation -What is the name of your nation? ^f/i- 
jie^r-Mus-quak-kie or Mus-quak-kie-uck. 

Question to Wah-bal-lo -What its original name? 
Answer- Since the Great Spirit made us we have had 
that name and no other. 

Question to Wah-bal-lo -What the names by which 
it has been known among Europeans? Answer -The 
French called us Renards, and since, the white people 
have called us Foxes. 

Question- Are any portion of your tribes scattered in 
other parts? Answer- Yes. 

Question- Where? Answer -There are some of our 
people on the Mifsouri, some near Fort Edwards 41 and 
some among the Pottawattanies. 

Question-To what nations are you related by lan- 
guage? Answer -The Sauk, Fox and Kickapoo nations 
are related by language. 

Question- Manners and customs? Answer -The 
Sauk, Fox and Kickapoo's manners and customs are 
alike except those who have had intercourse with the 

One of the chiefs added that the Shawnees descended 
from the Sauk nation: that at a bears-feast a chief took 
the feet of the animal for his portion who was not en- 
titled to them (which were esteemed the greatest luxury) 
and that a quarrel ensued, in consequence of which he 

40 Waa-pa-laa, Wah-bal-lo, Wapello, Waupella, are all variants of the 
same name, which means "He who is painted white." This chief was a signer 
of four treaties (1822 to 1836) ; he took no part in the Black Hawk War, but 
seems to have been a prisoner with Black Hawk in 1832. See Wis. Hist. Colls., 
vol. v, 305, and vol. x, 154, 217. ED. 

41 Fort Edwards was on the east side of the Mississippi (a little above the 
mouth of Des Moines River), fifty miles above Quincy, 111. In 1822 Marston 
was in command of this fort. See Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. vi, 190, 273-279. ED. 



and his band withdrew and have ever since been called 
the Shawnee nation. 

They acknowledge that the Sauks, Foxes, Kickapoos 
and lowas are in close alliance, but observed that the 
reason for being in alliance with the lowas was, because 
they were a bad people, and therefore it was better to 
have their friendship than enmity. 

Question -With what tribes can you converse, and 
what is the common language in which you converse 
with them? Answer- There are only three nations with 
which we can [talk,] the Sauk, Fox and Kickapoo na- 
tions, by being with [any] other nation we might learn 
their language, but if we [don't] see them how can we 
speak to them or they to us? Is [it] not the same with 
you white people? 

Question -What tribe do you call Grandfather? 
Answer-The Delawares call us and all other Indians 
Grandchildren, and we in return call them Grandfather ; 
but we know of no relationship subsisting between them 
and us. 

Question -What tribes are Grandchildren? An- 
swer-There are no tribes or other nations we call grand- 

Question- Where is the great council fire for all the 
tribes connected with your own tribes? Answer -We 
have no particular place, when we have any businefs to 
transact it is done at some one of our villages. 

Question-Do you believe that the soul lives after the 
body is dead? Answer -How should we know, none of 
our people who have died, have ever returned to inform 

No other questions were put to the chiefs as they ap- 
peared to be determined to give no further information. 
In conversation with one of them afterwards upon the 


subject, they give as a reason for declining to answer the 
remainder of the questions, that Gov r Clark 42 had not 
treated them with that attention they were entitled to 
when last at S l Louis. This plea however, was prob- 
ably without foundation. It is the character of these 
people to conceal as much as possible their history, re- 
ligion and customs from the whites, it is only when they 
are off their guard that any thing upon these subjects 
can be obtained from them. 

I have since been informed by some of the old men 
of the two nations that the Sauk and Fox nations emi- 
grated from a great distance below Detroit and estab- 
lished themselves at a place called Saganaw 43 in 
Michigan Territory, that they have since built villages 
and lived on the Fox River of the Illenois, at Mil-wah- 
kee 44 near Lake Michigan, on the Fox River of Green 
Bay and on the Ouesconsen : that about fifty years since 
they removed to this vicinity, where they lived for some 
time, and then went down to the Iowa River and built 
large villages; that the principal part of both nations 

42 Referring to Gen. William Clark, companion of Meriwether Lewis in 
their famous exploring expedition to the Pacific coast in 1803-1806. He was 
born on Aug. i, 1770, near Charlottesville, Va. ; and in 1784 his family removed 
to the vicinity of Louisville, Ky. From his nineteenth year until 1796, Clark 
was in the United States military service, and became a brave and able officer. 
During the period from July, 1803, to September, 1806, Clark was engaged in 
the famous expedition to the Pacific coast under direction of Meriwether Lewis 
and himself. Soon after his return (March, 1807) Clark was made superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs and brigadier-general of militia. From 1813 to 1820 
he was governor of Missouri, and during the next two years was again 
superintendent of Indian affairs. In 1822 he was appointed surveyor-general 
for Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas Territory. Clark died at St. Louis, 
Sept. i, 1838, aged sixty-nine. He was twice married, and left six children. 
See detailed account of his life in Thwaites's Original Journals of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition (N.Y., 1904), vol. i, pp. xxvii-xxxiii, liv. ED. 

43 Saganaw is probably derived from Sau-kie-nock (Saukie-town). 

44 Milwahkee is said to be derived from Man-na-*wah-kee (good land). 



remained on this river until about sixteen years ago, 
when they returned to their present situation. This is 
all the information I have been able to collect from 
themselves relating to the rise and progress of their two 
nations. At present their villages are situated on a point 
of land formed by the junction of the Rock and Mif- 
sifsippi Rivers, which they call Sen-i-se-po Ke~be-sau- 
kee (Rock River Peninsula) this land as well as all they 
ever claimed on the east side of the Mifsifsippi was sold 
by them to our government in 1805. The agents of 
government have been very desirious for some time to 
effect their removal, but they appear unwilling to leave 

I recently spoke of one of the principal Fox chiefs 
upon this subject and he replied that their people were 
not willing to leave Ke-be-sau-kee in consequence of a 
great number of their chiefs and friends being buryed 
there, but that he wished them to remove, as they would 
do much better to be farther from the Mifsifsippi where 
they would have lefs intercourse with the whites. They 
claim a large tract of country on the west of the Mif- 
sifsippi: it commences at the mouth of the upper Iowa 
River, which is above Prairie du Chien and follows the 
Mifsifsippi down as far as Des Moine River and ex- 
tending back towards the Mifsouri as far as the divid- 
ing ridge, and some of them say quite to that River -a 
large proportion of this tract is said to be high prairie; 
that part of it which lies in the vicinity of the Iowa and 
Des Moine Rivers is said to be valuable; their hunting 
grounds are on the head waters of these rivers, and are 
considered the best in any part of the Mifsifsippi coun- 
try. I have not been able to ascertain the extent of Ter- 
ritory claimed by any other nations. 

The Sauk village is situated on the bank of the Rock 


River and about two miles from its mouth, and contains 
[blank in Ms.] lodges, the principal Fox village is on 
the bank of the Mifsifsippi opposite Fort Armstrong, it 
contains thirty five permanent lodges. There is also a 
small Sauk village of five or six lodges on the left bank 
of the Mifsifsippi near the mouth of des Moine and be- 
low Fort Edwards, and a Fox village near the lead 
mines (about hundred miles .above this place) of about 
twenty lodges, and another near the mouth of the Wapsi- 
pinica [River] 45 of about ten lodges. The Sauk and 
Fox nations according to their own account, which I 
believe to be nearly correct, can muster eight hundred 
warriors, and including their old men, women and chil- 
dren, I think they do not fall short of five thousand souls ; 
of this number about two fifths are Foxes, but they are 
so much mixed by intermarries and living at each others 
villages, it would be difficult to ascertain the proportion 
of each with any great precision. These two nations 
have the reputation of being better hunters than any 
other that are to be found inhabiting the borders of 
either the Mifsouri or Mifsifsippi. 

They leave their villages as soon as their corn, beans, 
etc., is ripe and taken care of, and their traders arrive 
and give out their credits (or their outfits on credit- 
Morse) and go to their wintering grounds; it being 
previously determined on in council what particular 
ground each party shall hunt on. The old men, women, 

45 Wap-si-pin-i-ca. So called from a root of that name which is found in 
great plenty on its shores and which they use as a substitute for bread. 


Wapsipinica (the same as wdpisipinik, plural of zudpisipin, meaning "swan- 
root") is the tuber of the arrowhead (Sagittaria variabilis). The tubers are 
generally as large as hens' eggs, and are greatly relished when raw ; but they 
have a bitter milky juice, not agreeable to the palates of civilized men. This, 
however, is destroyed by boiling, and the roots are thus rendered sweet and 
palatable. They afford nourishment to the swans and other aquatic birds that 
congregate in great numbers about the lakes of the northwest. WM. R. GERARD. 


and children embark in canoes, the young men go by 
land with their horses ; on their arrival they immediately 
commence their winter's hunt, which last about three 
months. Their traders follow them and establish them- 
selves at convenient places in order to collect their dues 
and supply them with such goods as they need. In a 
favorable season most of these Indians are able not only 
to pay their traders, and will supply themselves and fam- 
ilies with blankets, 46 strouding, amunition, etc., during 

46 "In the popular mind the North American Indian is everywhere asso- 
ciated with the robe or the blanket. The former was the whole hide of a 
large mammal made soft and pliable by much dressing; or pelts of foxes, 
wolves, and such creatures were sewed together; or bird, rabbit, or other 
tender skins were cut into ribbons, which were twisted or woven. The latter 
were manufactured by basketry processes from wool, hair, fur, feathers, down, 
bark, cotton, etc., and had many and various functions. They were worn like 
a toga as protection from the weather, and, in the best examples, were con- 
spicuous in wedding and other ceremonies; in the night they were both bed 
and covering; for the home they served for hangings, partitions, doors, awn- 
ings, or sunshades; the women dried fruit on them, made vehicles and cradles 
of them for their babies, and receptacles for a thousand things and burdens; 
they even then exhausted their patience and skill on them, producing their 
finest art work in weaving and embroidery; finally, the blanket became a 
standard of value and a primitive mechanism of commerce. . . After the 
advent of the whites the blanket leaped into sudden prominence with tribes 
that had no weaving and had previously worn robes, the preparation of which 
was most exhausting. The European was not slow in observing a widespread 
want and in supplying the demand. When furs became scarcer blankets were 
in greater demand everywhere as articles of trade and standards of value. 
Indeed, in 1831 a home plant was established in Buffalo for the manufacture 
of what was called the Mackinaw blanket. . . In our system of educating 
them, those tribes that were unwilling to adopt modern dress were called 
'blanket Indians.' " The manufacture of blankets still continues among some 
of the southwestern tribes, and many of their products are highly valued by 
white people. OTis T. MASON and WALTER HOUGH, in Handbook Amer. 

R. R. Elliott says (U.S. Cath. Hist. Mag., vol. iv, 312) : "Blankets marked 
with 'points' were formerly manufactured in Europe especially for the north- 
western American trade, and during the present century were distinguished 
commercially as 'Mackinac blankets.' They were made of good, honest wool, 
half-inch thick, with two black stripes at each end. The size was marked by 
a black line four inches long and about half an inch wide, woven in a corner 
of the blanket." Strouding is defined by the Standard Dictionary as "a coarse, 
warm cloth or blanketing, formerly used in the Indian trade." A blanket made 


the winter, but to leave considerable of the proceeds of 
their hunt on hand; the surplus which generally consists 
of the most valuable peltries, such as beaver, otter, etc., 
they take home with them to their Villages, and dispose 
of for such articles as they may find necessary. In the 
winter of 1819-1820 these two nations had five traders. 
This number of traders employed nine clerks and inter- 
preters, with annual salaries of from two hundred to 
twelve hundred dollars each (the average about four 
hundred dollars), and forty-three labourers whose pay 
was from one hundred to two hundred dollars each p r 
annum. These traders including the peltries received 
at the United States factory 47 near Fort Edwards, col- 

of this goods was called a "stroud." The name is said to be derived from a 
place in Gloucestershire, Eng., named Stroud. - ED. 

47 During the eighteenth century "trade was mostly by barter or in the 
currency of the colonies or the government. The employment of liquor to 
stimulate trade began with the earliest venture and was more and more used as 
trade increased. The earnest protests of Indian chiefs and leaders and of philan- 
thropic persons of the white race were of no avail, and not until the United 
States government prohibited the sale of intoxicants was there any stay to the 
demoralizing custom. Smuggling of alcohol was resorted to, for the companies 
declared that 'without liquor we cannot compete in trade.' To protect the 
Indians from the evil effects of intoxicants and to insure them a fair return 
for their pelts, at the suggestion of President Washington the act of April 18, 
1796, authorized the establishment of trading houses under the immediate 
direction of the president. In 1806 the office of Superintendent of Indian Trade 
was created, with headquarters at Georgetown, D.C." In 1810 there were 
fourteen of these trading establishments, among them the following: At Ft. 
Wayne, on the Miami of the Lakes, Indiana T. ; at Detroit, Michigan T. ; at 
Belle Fontaine, mouth of the Missouri, Louisiana T.; at Chicago, on L. Mich- 
igan, Indiana T.; at Sandusky, L. Erie, Ohio; at the island of Michilimacki- 
nac, L. Huron, Michigan T. ; at Ft. Osage, on the Missouri, Louisiana T. ; at 
Ft. Madison, on the upper Mississippi, Louisiana T. "At that time there 
were few factories in the country where goods required for the Indian trade 
could be made, and, as the government houses were restricted to articles of 
domestic manufacture, their trade was at a disadvantage, notwithstanding 
their goods were offered at about cost price, for the Indian preferred the 
better quality of English cloth and the surreptitiously supplied liquor. Finally 
the opposition of private traders secured the passage of the act of May 6, 1822, 
abolishing the government trading houses, and thus 'a system fraught with 
possibilities of great good to the Indian' came to an end. The official records 


lected of the Sauk and Fox Indians during this season 
nine hundred and eighty packs. 

They consisted of 2760 beaver skins; 922 Otter; 
13,440 Raccoon; 12,900 Musk Rat skins; 500 Mink; 
200 Wildcat; 680 Bear skins; 28,680 Deer; whole num- 
ber -60,082. The estimated value of which is fifty eight 
thousand and eight hundred dollars. 

The quantity of tallow presumed to be collected from 
the Deer is 286,800 pounds. The traders also collected 
during the same time from these savages at least: 3,000 
Ibs. of feathers; 1,000 Ibs. of bees wax. 

They return to their villages in the month of April 
and after putting their lodges in order, commence pre- 
paring the ground to receive the seed. The number of 
acres cultivated by that part of the two nations who re- 
side at their villages in this vicinity is supposed to be 
upwards of three hundred. They usually raise from 
seven to eight thousand bushels of corn, besides beans, 
pumpkins, melons, etc. About one thousand bushels of 
the corn they annually sell to traders and others. The 
remainder (except about five bushels for each family, 
which is taken along with them) they put into bags, and 
bury in holes dug in the ground for their use in the 
Spring and Summer. 

The labor of agriculture is confined principally to 
the women, and this is done altogether with the hoe. 48 

show that until near the close of its career, in spite of the obstacles it had to 
contend with and the losses growing out of the War of 1812, the government 
trade was self-sustaining." ALICE C. FLETCHER, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

See Draper's "Fur Trade and Factory System at Green Bay, 1816-21," 
with sketch of the factory there, Matthew Irwin, in Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. vii, 
269-288; F. J. Turner's "Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in 
Wisconsin," in Johns Hopkins University Studies, vol. ix (1891), 543-615 ; H. M. 
Chittenden's American Fur Trade of the Far West (N.Y., 1902) ; C. Larpen- 
teur's Fur Trade on the Upper Missouri, 1833-1872 (N.Y., 1898). ED. 

48 There has been a widely prevalent popular notion that before and after 
the coming of Europeans to America nearly all the Indians north of Mexico 


In June the greatest part of the young men go out on 
a summer hunt, and return in August. While they are 
absent the old men and women are collecting rushes for 
mats, and bark to make into bags for their corn, etc. 

The women usually make about three hundred floor 

were virtually nomads, and hence practiced agriculture to a very limited 
extent. But this is certainly a misconception regarding most of the tribes in 
the temperate regions; for the earlier writers "almost without exception notice 
the fact that the Indians were generally found, from the border of the western 
plains to the Atlantic, dwelling in settled villages and cultivating the soil." 
Moreover, the early white colonists in all the European settlements "de- 
pended at first very largely for subsistence on the products of Indian culti- 
vation." Of these, Indian corn was the chief and universal staple, and 
according to Brinton (Myths of the New World^ 22) "was found in cultiva- 
tion from the southern extremity of Chile to the soth parallel of north lati- 
tude." The amount of corn destroyed by Denonville in his expedition of 1687 
against the Iroquois was estimated at 1,000,000 bushels. "If we are indebted 
to Indians for the maize, without which the peopling of America would prob- 
ably have been delayed for a century, it is also from them that the whites 
learned the methods of planting, storing, and using it. . . Beans, squashes, 
pumpkins, sweet potatoes, tobacco, gourds, and the sunflower were also culti- 
vated to some extent, especially in what are now the Southern States," and 
Coronado even found the Indians of New Mexico cultivating cotton. Among 
those southwestern tribes irrigation was practiced by the natives before white 
men came to America; and some of the eastern tribes used fertilizers on their 
land. Primitive tools for cultivating the soil were made of stone or wood, and 
sometimes sharp shells or flat bones were fastened into wooden handles for 
this purpose. "It was a general custom to burn over the ground before plant- 
ing, in order to free it from weeds and rubbish. In the forest region patches 
were cleared by girdling the trees, thus causing them to die, and afterward 
burning them down." As a rule, the field work was done by the women; 
later, as the tribes became more or less civilized, this work was shared by the 
men. "Though the Indians as a rule have been somewhat slow in adopting 
the plants and methods introduced by the whites, this has not been wholly 
because of their dislike of labor, but in some cases has been due largely to 
their removals by the government and to the unproductiveness of the soil of 
many of the reservations assigned them. Where tribes or portions of tribes, 
as parts of the Cherokee and Iroquois, were allowed to remain in their original 
territory, they were not slow in bringing into use the introduced plants and 
farming methods of the whites, the fruit trees, live stock, plows, etc." 

- CYRUS THOMAS, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

See B. H. Hibbard's "Indian Agriculture in Southern Wisconsin," in Pro- 
ceedings of Wisconsin Historical Society, 1904, pp. 145-155; and C. E. Brown's 
"Wisconsin Garden Beds," in Wis. Archeologist, vol. viii, no. 3, 97-105. Sec 
references to Wis. Hist. Colls, in note 254 to this book, for mention of lead 
mining by Indians. ED. 


mats every summer; these mats are as handsome and as 
durable as those made abroad. The twine which con- 
nects the rushes together is made either of bafswood bark 
after being boiled and hammered, or the bark of the 
nettle ; the women twist or spin it by rolling it on the leg 
with the hand. Those of the able bodied men who do 
not go out to hunt are employed in digging and smelting 
lead at the mines on the Mifsifsippi : in this businefs a 
part of the women are also employed, from four to five 
hundred thousand weight of this mineral is dug by them 
during a season : the lofs in smelting of which is about 
25 p r cent; most of it however is disposed of by them in 
the state that it is dug out of the mine, at about two dol- 
lars p r hundred. 

I now proceed to give such further information as a 
year's residence in the vicinity of the Sauk, Fox, and a 
part of the Kickapoo nations (about two hundred souls 
of which built a village last season near the mouth of 
Rock River) and considerable intercourse with several 
other nations has enabled me to collect. 

In the first place it is no more than justice for me to 
acknowledge that I am greatly indebted for much of the 
information contained in this letter to Thomas Forsyth 
Esq r Indian Agent, Mr. George Davenport, and Dr. 
Muir 49 Indian traders; from the first mentioned gentle- 
man I am principally indebted for an account of the 

49 Dr. Muir was a physician, a Scotchman, educated at Edinburgh; he 
came to this country, and in 1814-1815 was connected with the U.S. army. At 
this time some Indians conspired to kill him, but his life was saved by a 
young Sauk girl. In gratitude for this he took her as his wife, and settled in 
Galena, where he had several children by her. Afterward, he was one of the 
first settlers of Keokuk, la., where he engaged in the Indian trade. After his 
death, his family joined the Indians. L. C. DRAPER, in Wis. Hist. Colls., 
vol. ii, 224. 

The Blondeau here mentioned was evidently Maurice, son of Nicholas 
Blondeau and a Fox woman ; they resided at Portage des Sioux. Maurice was 
born about 1780, and died probably near 1830; he married a Sauk half-breed 
woman and had two children. ED. 


manners and customs of the Chippewa, Ottawa, and 
Pottawattamie nations, which are similar, if not the 
same as those of the Sauks, Foxes, and Kickapoos. In 
addition to the information furnished by these gentle- 
men, I have long been in expectation of receiving from 
Mr. Blondeau late a Sub. I. Agent and a man of intel- 
ligence in the religion, manners, and customs of the Sauk 
and Fox nations ; he was born with the Sauks, his mother 
being a woman of that nation, and is probably more 
competent to give a correct account of them than any 
other man ; this however, I have been disappointed as 
yet in receiving; the expectation of receiving this docu- 
ment has been the principal cause of delay in answering 
your communication. 

Among your queries are the following. -What are 
your terms for father, mother, Heaven, Earth; the pro- 
nouns I f thou, he? In what manner do you form the 
genitive case and plural number? How do you distin- 
guish present, past and future time? 

In the Sauk tongue: No-sah, is my father; Co-sah, 
your father ; Oz-son, his father ; Na-ke-ah, is my mother ; 
Ke-ke-ah, your mother; O-chan-en-e, his mother; 
Heaven is che-pah-nock; Earth, Ar-kee\ I is Neen; 
thou, keen] you (in the plural), Keen-a-wa' he, Ween; 
us, Ne-non; they, We-ne-wa. I have not been able to 
afcertain the manner they form the genitive case. The 
plural number of most nouns is formed by the addition 
of the syllable uck as Sau-kie, Sau-kie-uck. The plural 
of personal pronouns is generally formed by the addi- 
tion of the syllable <wah. 

The name of the principal chief of the Sauks is Nan- 
nah-que, he is about forty years of age, rather small in 
stature, unassuming in his deportment, and disposed to 
cultivate the friendship of the whites ; but he does not 


appear to pofsefs any extraordinary capacity. The two 
next chiefs in rank are Mus-ke-ta-bah (red head) and 
Mas-co ; the latter is a man of considerable intelligence 
but rather old, and too fond of whiskey to have much 
influence with his nation. These chiefs are all decidedly 
opposed to a change of their condition. About a year 
since this nation met with a heavy lofs in the death of 
Mo-ne-to-mack, the greatest chief that they have had for 
many years. Among other things which he contem- 
plated accomplishing for the good of his people, was to 
have their lands surveyed and laid off into tracts for 
each family or tribe. He has left a son, but as yet he is 
too young to afsume any authority. 

The principal chief of the Fox nation is Wah-bal-lo; 
he appears to be about thirty. He is a man of consider- 
able capacity and very independent in his feelings, but 
rather unambitious and indolent. The second chief of 
this nation is Ty-ee-ma (Strawberry) ; he is about forty. 
This man seems to be more intelligent than any other to 
be found either among the Foxes or Sauks, but he is 
extremely unwilling to communicate any thing relative 
to the history, manners and customs of his people. He 
has a variety of maps of different parts of the world and 
appears to be desirous of gaining geographical informa- 
tion; but is greatly attached to the savage state. I have 
frequently endeavored to draw from him his opinion 
with regard to a change of their condition from the sav- 
age to the civilised state. He one day informed me when 
conversing upon this subject, that the Great Spirit had 
put Indians on the earth to hunt and gain a living in the 
wildernefs; that he always found that when any of their 
people departed from this mode of life, by attempting 
to learn to read, write and live as white people do, the 
Great Spirit was displeased, and they soon died; he con- 


eluded by observing that when the Great Spirit made 
them he gave them their medicine bag and they in- 
tended to keep it. 

I have not had an opportunity of becoming much ac- 
quainted with that part of the Kickapoo nation living 
in this vicinity. There are two principal chiefs among 
them, Pah-moi-tah-mah (the swan that cries) and Pe- 
can (the Nut) the former is an old man; the latter ap- 
pears to be about forty; this nation has had considerable 
intercourse with the whites, but they do not appear to 
have profited much from it. They appear to be more 
apt to learn and practice their vices, than their virtues. 

The males of each nation of the Sauks and Foxes are 
divided into two grand divisions, called kish-co-qua and 
osh-kosh : to each there is a head called, war chief. As 
soon as the first male child of a family is born he is 
arranged to the first band, and when a second is born to 
the second band, and so on. 50 

The name of the Chief of the first band of Sauks, is 

50 "There is abundant evidence that the military code was as carefully 
developed as the social system among most of the tribes north of Mex- 
ico. . . East of the Mississippi, where the clan system was dominant, the 
chief military functions of leadership, declaration, and perhaps conclusion of 
war, seem to have been hereditary in certain clans, as the Bear clan of the 
Mohawk and Chippewa, and the Wolf or Munsee division of the Delawares. 
It is probable that if their history were known it would be found that most of 
the Indian leaders in the colonial and other early Indian wars were actually 
the chiefs of the war clans or military societies of their respective tribes. . . 
Among the confederated Sauk and Foxes, according to McKenney and Hall, 
nearly all the men of the two tribes were organized into two war societies 
which contested against each other in all races or friendly athletic games and 
were distinguished by different cut of hair, costume, and dances. . . Through- 
out the plains from north to south there existed a military organization so 
similar among the various tribes as to suggest a common origin, although with 
patriotic pride each tribe claimed it as its own." In these societies (four to 
twelve in each tribe) were enrolled practically all the males from boys of ten 
years old to the old men retired from active service. "Each society had its 
own dance, songs, ceremonial costume, and insignia, besides special tabus and 
obligations. . . At all tribal assemblies, ceremonial hunts, and on great 
war expeditions, the various societies took charge of the routine details and 


Ke-o-kuck ; when they go to war and on all public occa- 
sions, his band is always painted white, with pipe clay. 
The name of the second war chief is Na-cal-a-quoik: 
his band is painted black. Each of these chiefs is en- 
titled to one or two aid-de-camps, selected by themselves 
from among the braves of their nation, who generally 
accompany them on all public occasions and whenever 
they go abroad. These two chiefs were raised to their 
present rank in consequence of their succefs in opposing 
the wishes of the majority of the nation to flee from their 
village on the approach of a body of American troops 
during the late war; they finally persuaded their nation 
to remain on the condition of their engaging to take the 
command and sustain their position. Our troops from 
some cause or other did not attack them, and they of 
course remained unmolested. In addition to these, there 
are a great number of petty war chiefs or partizans, who 
frequently head small parties of volunteers and go 
against their enemies ; they are generally those who have 
lost some near relative by the enemy. An Indian in- 
tending to go to war will commence by blacking his 
face, permitting his hair to grow long, and neglecting 
his personal appearance, and also, by frequent fastings, 
some times for two or three days together, and refrain- 
acted both as performers and police." JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook Amer. 

The term Oshkushi "is the animate form of an inanimate word referring 
to 'hoof,' 'claw,' 'nail;' applied to a member of the social divisions of the 
Sauk, Foxes, and Kickapoo. The division is irrespective of clan and is the 
cause of intense rivalry in sport. Their ceremonial color is black." 

WILLIAM JONES, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

The name Oshkosh was borne by a chief of the Menominee, born in 1795, 
died Aug. 31, 1850. He, with a hundred of his tribesmen, fought under the 
British in the capture of Ft. Mackinaw from the Americans in July, 1812. 
At the treaty of Butte des Morts (Aug. u, 1827) he represented his tribe, 
being named chief at that time for this purpose. A portrait of him, painted 
by Samuel M. Brookes, is in the possession of the Wisconsin State Historical 
Society. The city of Oshkosh, in Wisconsin, bears his name. ED. 


ing from all intercourse with the other sex; if his dreams 
are favorable he thinks that the Great Spirit will give 
him succefs; he then makes a feast, generally of dog's 
meat (it being the greatest sacrifice that he can make to 
part with a favorite dog) ; when all those who feel in- 
clined to join him will attend the feast ; after this is con- 
cluded they immediately set off on their expedition. It 
frequently happens that in consequence of unfavorable 
dreams or some trifling accident the whole party will 
return without meeting with the enemy. When they are 
succefsful in taking prisoners or scalps, they return to 
their villages with great pomp and ceremony. The party 
will halt several miles from a village and send a mefsen- 
ger to inform the nation of their succefs, and of the time 
that they intend to enter the village ; when all the female 
friends of the party will drefs themselves in their best 
attire and go out to meet them; on their arrival it is the 
privilege of these women to take from them all their 
blankets, trinkets, etc., that they may pofsefs; the whole 
party then paint themselves and approach the village 
with the scalps stretched on small hoops and suspended 
to long poles or sticks, dancing, singing, and beating the 
drum, in this manner they enter the village. The chiefs 
in council will then determine whether they shall dance 
the scalps (as they term it) or not, if this is permitted, 
the time is fixed by them, when the ceremony shall com- 
mence, and when it shall end. In these dances 51 the 
women join the succefsful warriors. I have seen myself 

51 "The dance of the older time was fraught with symbolism and mystic 
meaning which it has lost in civilization and enlightenment. It is confined 
to no one country of the world, to no period of ancient or modern time, and to 
no plane of human culture. Strictly interpreted, therefore, the dance seems 
to constitute an important adjunct rather than the basis of the social, military, 
religious, and other activities designed to avoid evil and to secure wel- 
fare. . . The dance is only an element, not the basis, of the several festi- 
vals, rites, and ceremonies performed in accordance with well-defined rules 



more than a hundred of them dancing at once, all 
painted, and clad in their most gaudy attire. The fore- 
going manner of raising a war party, etc., is peculiar to 
the Sauks, Foxes and Kickapoos; with the Chippewas, 
Ottawas, and Pottawattamies it is some what different. 
A warrior of these nations wishing to go against his 
enemies, after blacking his face, fasting, etc., prepares 
a temporary lodge out of the village in which he seats 
himself and smokes his pipe; in the middle of his lodge 
hangs a belt of wampum or piece of scarlet cloth, orna- 
mented ; a young Indian wishing to accompany him goes 
into the lodge and draws the belt of wampum or piece 
of cloth thro 7 his left hand and sits down and smokes of 
the tobacco already prepared by the partizan. After a 
sufficient number is collected in this manner, the whole 
begin to compare their dreams daily together; if their 
dreams are favorable, they are anxious to march imme- 
diately; otherwise they will give up the expedition for 
the present saying, that it will not please the Great Spir- 

and usages, of which it has become a part. The dance was a powerful im- 
pulse to their performance, not the motive of their observance. . . The word 
or logos of the song or chant in savage and barbaric planes of thought and 
culture expressed the action of the orenda, or esoteric magic power, regarded 
as immanent in the rite or ceremony of which the dance was a dominant ad- 
junct and impulse. In the lower planes of thought the dance was inseparable 
from the song or chant, which not only started and accompanied but also 
embodied it. . . There are personal, fraternal, clan or gentile, tribal, and 
inter-tribal dances; there are also social, erotic, comic, mimic, patriotic, mili- 
tary or warlike, invocative, offertory, and mourning dances, as well as those 
expressive of gratitude and thanksgiving. Morgan (League of the Iroquois, 
1904, vol. i, 278) gives a list of thirty-two leading dances of the Seneca Iro- 
quois, of which six are costume dances, fourteen are for both men and women, 
eleven for men only, and seven for women only. Three of the costume dances 
occur in those exclusively for men, and the other three in those for both men 
and women. . . The ghost dance, the snake dance, the sun dance, the scalp 
dance, and the calumet dance, each performed for one or more purposes, are not 
developments from the dance, but rather the dance has become only a part of 
the ritual of each of these important observances, which by metonymy have 
been called by the name of only a small but conspicuous part or element of the 
entire ceremony." J. N. B. HEWITT, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


it for them to go, or that their medicine is not good or, 
that their partizan has cohabited with his wife. If 
every thing goes right the whole will meet at their 
leader's lodge, where they will beat the drums and pray 
the Great Spirit to make them succefsful over their 
enemies. When the party consists of twenty or upwards, 
its leader will appoint a confidential man, to carry the 
great medicine bag. After they are afsembled at the 
place of rendezvous and in readinefs to march, the parti- 
zan will make a speech in which he will inform them 
that they are now about to go to war; that when they 
meet their enemies he hopes they will behave like men, 
and not fear death; that the Great Spirit will deliver 
their enemies into their hands, and that they shall have 
liberty to do as they please with them ; but at the same 
time if there are any among them who are fearful of 
anything whatever, such had better remain at home and 
not set out on such a hazardous expedition. 

Among the Ottawas the partizan leads when they 
march out but the warrior who first delivers him a scalp 
or prisoner leads the party homeward and receives the 
belt of wampum. On the arrival of the party at the 
village, they distribute the prisoners to those who have 
lost relations by the enemy; or if the prisoners are to be 
killed, their spirits are delivered over to some particular 
person's relations who have died and are now in the 
other world. 

Among the Pottawattamies it is different; all prison- 
ers or scalps belong to the partizan, and he disposes of 
them as he may think proper: he will some times give 
a prisoner to a family who has lost a son and the pris- 
oner will be adopted by the family and considered the 
same as though he was actually the person whose place 
he fills. This latter practice is also observed among the 
Sauks and Foxes. 


In addition to the grand divisions of the males, each 
nation is subdivided into a great number of families or 
tribes. Among the Sauks there are no less than fourteen 
tribes; each of them being distinguished by a particular 
name (generally by the name of some animal) some of 
which are as follows -The bear tribe, wolf tribe, dog 
tribe, elk tribe, eagle tribe, partridge tribe, sturgeon 
tribe, sucker tribe, and the thunder tribe. Except in 
particular cases all the Indian nations mentioned in the 
foregoing are governed almost altogether by the advice 
of their chiefs and the fear of punishment from the evil 
spirit not only in this, but in the other world. The only 
instances wherein I have ever known any laws enforced 
or penalties exacted for a disobedience of them by the 
Sauks and Foxes, are when they are returning in the 
spring from their hunting grounds to their village. The 
village chiefs then advise the war chiefs to declare the 
martial law to be in force, which is soon proclaimed and 
the whole authority placed in the hands of the war 
chiefs. 52 Their principal object in so doing appears to 

52 "Among the North American Indians a chief may be generally defined 
as a political officer whose distinctive functions are to execute the ascertained 
will of a definite group of persons united by the possession of a common terri- 
tory or range and of certain exclusive rights, immunities, and obligations, and 
to conserve their customs, traditions, and religion. He exercises legislative, 
judicative, and executive powers delegated to him in accordance with custom 
for the conservation and promotion of the public weal. The wandering band 
of men with their women and children contains the simplest type of chief- 
taincy found among the American Indians, for such a group has no perma- 
nently fixed territorial limits, and no definite social and political relations exist 
between it and any other body of persons. The clan or gens embraces several 
such chieftaincies, and has a more highly developed internal political structure 
with definite land boundaries. The tribe is constituted of several clans or 
gentes and the confederation of several tribes." In the course of social pro- 
gress and the advance of political organization, multiplied and diversified 
functions also required various kinds and grades of officials, or chiefs; there 
were civil and war chiefs, and the latter might be permanent or temporary, the 
former existing where the civil structure was permanent, as among the Iro- 
quois. "Where the civil organization was of the simplest character the 
authority of the chiefs was most nearly despotic; even in some instances where 


be to prevent one family from returning before another 
whereby it might be exposed to an enemy ; or by arriving 
at the village before the others, dig up its neighbours' 
corn. It is the businefs of the war chiefs in these cases 
to keep all the canoes together; and on land to regulate 
the march of those who are mounted or on foot. One of 
the chiefs goes ahead to pitch upon the encamping 
ground for each night, where he will set up a painted 
pole or stake as a signal for them to halt; any Indian 
going beyond this is punished, by having his canoe, and 
whatever else he may have along with him, destroyed. 
On their arrival at their respective villages, sentinels are 
posted, and no one is allowed to leave his village until 
every thing is put in order; when this is accomplished 
the martial law ceases to be in force. A great deal of 
pains appears to be taken by the chiefs and principal 
men to imprefs upon the minds of the younger part of 
their respective nations what they conceive to be their 
duty to themselves and to each other. As soon as day 
light appears it is a practice among the Sauks and Foxes 
for a chief or principal man to go through their respec- 
tive villages, exhorting and advising them, in a very loud 
voice, what to do, and how to conduct themselves. Their 
families in general appear to be well regulated, all the 
laborious duties of the lodge, and of the field, however, 
are put upon the women, except what little afsistance the 
old men are able to afford. The children appear to be 
particularly under the charge of their mother; the boys 
until they are of a suitable age to handle the bow or gun. 

the civil structure was complex, as among the Natchez, the rule of the chiefs 
at times became in a measure tyrannical, but this was due largely to the recog- 
nition of social castes and the domination of certain religious beliefs and con- 
siderations. The chieftainship was usually hereditary in certain families of 
the community, although in some communities any person by virtue of the 
acquisition of wealth could proclaim himself a chief. Descent of blood, prop- 
erty, and official titles were generally traced through the mother." 

-J. N. B. HEWITT, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


Corporal punishment is seldom resorted to for their cor- 
rection ; if they commit any fault, it is common for their 
mother to black their faces, and send them out of the 
lodge, when this is done they are not allowed to eat until 
it is washed off ; sometimes they are kept a whole day in 
this situation as a punishment for their misconduct. 

When the boys are six or seven years of age a small 
bow is put into their hands and they are sent out to hunt 
birds about the lodge or village ; this they continue to 
do for five or six years, when their father purchases them 
shot guns, and they begin to hunt ducks, geese, etc. 
Their father (particularly in winter evenings) will re- 
late to them the manner of approaching a Deer, Elk, or 
Buffaloe, also the manner of setting a trap, and when 
able, he will take them a hunting with him, and show 
them the tracks of different animals, all of which the boy 
pays the greatest attention to. 

The girls as a matter of course are under the direction 
of their mother, and she will show them how to make 
moggazins, leggins, mats, etc. She is very particular to 
keep them continually employed, so that they may have 
the reputation of being industrious girls, and therefore 
the more acceptable or more sought after by the young 

Most of the Indians marry early in life, the men from 
sixteen to twenty generally, and the girls from fourteen 
to eighteen. There appears to be but little difficulty in 
a young Indians procuring himself a wife, particularly 
if he is a good hunter, or has distinguished himself in 
battle. There are several ways for a young Indian to 
get himself a wife; sometimes the match is made by the 
parents of the young man and girl without his knowl- 
edge, but the most common mode of procuring a wife 
is as follows: 

A young man will see a young woman that he takes a 


fancy to; he will commence by making a friend of 
some young man, a relation of hers (perhaps her 
brother) ; after this is done he will disclose his inten- 
tions to his friend, saying, that he is a good hunter and 
has been several times to war, etc., appealing to him for 
the truth of his assertions, and conclude by saying, if 
your parents will let me have your sister for a wife I 
will serve them faithfully, that is to say, according to 
custom, which is until she has a child; after which he 
can take her away to his own relations or live with his 
wife's. During the servitude of a young Indian neither 
he nor his wife has any thing at their disposal, he is to 
hunt, and that in the most industrious manner, his wife 
is continually at work, dressing skins, 53 making mats, 
planting corn, etc. The foregoing modes of procuring 

53 "In the domestic economy of the Indian skins were his most valued and 
useful property, as they became later his principal trading asset; and a mere 
list of the articles made of this material would embrace nearly half his earthly 
possessions. Every kind of skin large enough to be stripped from the carcass 
of beast, bird, or fish was used in some tribe or other, but those in most general 
use were those of the buffalo, elk, deer, antelope, beaver" [in the region covered 
in the present book]. Among the chief articles made from skins were tipis, 
boxes, bed-covers, pouches, and bags, blankets, harness for animals, the boats 
used by the upper Missouri tribes, clothing of all kinds, shields, cradles, fishing 
lines and nets. "The methods employed for dressing skins were very much the 
same everywhere north of Mexico, the difference being chiefly in the chemicals 
used and the amount of labor given to the task. Among the plains tribes, with 
which the art is still in constant practice nearly according to the ancient 
method, the process consists of six principal stages, viz, fleshing, scraping, 
braining [anointing the skin with a mixture of cooked brains, etc.], stripping, 
graining, and working, for each of which a different tool is required. . . Ac- 
cording to Schoolcraft (Narr. Jour., 323; 1821) the eastern Sioux dressed their 
buffalo skins with a decoction of oak bark, which he surmises may have been 
an idea borrowed from the whites." Various kinds of skins, and those for 
special purposes, receive special kinds of treatment, according to varying cir- 
cumstances. "It is doubtful if skin dyeing was commonly practiced in former 
times, although every tribe had some method of skin painting. The process as 
described in practice by the plains tribes refers more particularly to the north- 
ern and western tribes of the United States; those dwelling south of the Al- 
gonquian tribes, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, had a somewhat different 
method. This is described, as seen among the Choctaw." JAMES MOONEY, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians. 


a wife apply particularly to the Sauk, Fox, and Kicka- 
poo nations ; with the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Potta- 
wattamies, a wife is sometimes purchased by the parents 
of the young man, when she becomes at once his own 
property; but the most common mode of procuring a 
wife in all these nations is by servitude. It frequently 
happens that when an Indians servitude for one wife has 
expired he will take another (his wife's sister perhaps) 
and again serve her parents according to custom. Many 
of these Indians have two or three wives, the greatest 
number that I have known any man to have at one time 
was five. When an Indian wants more than one wife, 
he generally prefers that they should be sisters, as they 
are more likely to agree and live together peaceable. An 
old man of fifty or sixty will frequently marry a girl of 
sixteen and who already has two or three wives. It 
seldom happens that a man separates from his wife, it 
sometimes does however happen, and then she is at 
liberty to marry again. The crime of adultery is gen- 
erally punished by the Pottawattamies, by the husband's 
biting off the woman's nose and afterwards separating 
from her. 

There appears to be no marriage ceremony among 
these Indians at the present day. 

The Pottawattamies have a ceremony in naming their 
children ; 54 which is generally performed when they are 
about a month old; it is as follows. The parents of the 

54 "Among the Indians personal names were given and changed at the 
critical epochs of life, such as birth, puberty, the first war expedition, some 
notable feat, elevation to chieftainship, and, finally, retirement from active 
life was marked by the adoption of the name of one's son. In general, names 
may be divided into two classes: (i) True names, corresponding to our per- 
sonal names; and (2) names which answer rather to our titles and honorary 
appellations. The former define or indicate the social group into which a man 
is born, whatever honor they entail being due to the accomplishments of an- 
cestors, while the latter mark what the individual has done himself. There are 
characteristic tribal differences in names, and where a clan system existed each 


child invite some old and respectable man to their lodge 
in the evening, and inform him, that they wish him to 
name their child the day following. The old man then 
engages two or more young men to come to the lodge 
early in the next morning to cook a feast; this feast 
must be cooked by young men in a lodge by themselves, 
no other person is permitted to enter until it is ready for 
the guests who are then and not before invited. After 
the feast is over the old man then rises and informs the 
company the object of their being together, and gives 
the child its name, and then goes on to make a long 
speech, by saying, that he hopes the Great Spirit will 
preserve the life of the child, make a good hunter and 
a succefsful warrior, etc. With the Sauks, Foxes, and 
Kickapoos this ceremony is not always attended to ; they 
however, in common with the Chippewas, Ottawas, and 
Pottawattamies, have a great number of feasts. They 
all make a feast of the first Dear, Bear, Elk, Buffaloe, 

clan had its own set of names, distinct from those of all other clans, and, in the 
majority of cases, referring to the totem animal, plant, or object. At the 
same time there were tribes in which names apparently had nothing to do with 
totems, and some such names are apt to occur in clans having totemic 
names. . . Names of men and women were usually, though not always, 
different. When not taken from the totem animal, they were often grandilo- 
quent terms referring to the greatness and wealth of the bearer, or they might 
commemorate some special triumph of the family, while, as among the Navaho, 
nicknames referring to a personal characteristic were often used. . . Often 
names were ironical, and had to be interpreted in a manner directly opposite 
to the apparent sense. . . Names could often be loaned, pawned, or even 
given or thrown away outright; on the other hand, they might be adopted out 
of revenge without the consent of the owner. The possession of a name was 
everywhere jealously guarded, and it was considered discourteous or even in- 
sulting to address one directly by it. This reticence, on the part of some 
Indians at least, appears to have been due to the fact that every man, and 
every thing as well, was supposed to have a real name which so perfectly 
expressed his inmost nature as to be practically identical with him. This name 
might long remain unknown to all, even to its owner, but at some critical 
period in life it was confidentially revealed to him. . . In recent years the 
Office of Indian Affairs has made an effort to systematize the names of some 
of the Indians for the purpose of facilitating land allotments, etc." 

JOHN R. SWANTON, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


etc., a young man kills; even the first small bird, that a 
boy kills, is preserved and makes a part of the next feast. 
There appears to be a great deal of secrecy and cere- 
mony in preparing these feasts. 

Other feasts to the Great Spirit are frequently made 
by these Indians, sometimes by one person alone; but it 
is oftener the case, that several join in making them. 
They repair to the lodge where the feast is to be made, 
shut themselves up, and commence beating the drum, 
shaking the che-che-quon (a gourd shell with a handful 
of corn in it), 55 singing and smoking; this is alternately 
continued during the whole time that the feast is pre- 
paring, which generally continues from twelve to 
eighteen hours. When everything is in readinefs the 
guests are invited by sending to each a small stick or 
reed; as soon as they arrive, they seat themselves in a 
circle on the ground in the middle of the lodge, when 
one of the guests places before each person a wooden 
bowl with his proportion of the feast, and they imme- 

55 The rattle is "an instrument for producing rhythmic sound, used by all 
Indian tribes except the Eskimo. It was generally regarded as a sacred ob- 
ject, not to be brought forth on ordinary occasions, but confined to rituals, 
religious feasts, shamanistic performances, etc. This character is emphasized 
in the sign language of the plains, where the sign for rattle is the basis of all 
signs indicating that which is sacred. Early in the i6th century Esfevan, the 
negro companion of Cabeza de Vaca, traversed with perfect immunity great 
stretches of country occupied by numerous different tribes, bearing a cross in 
one hand, and a gourd rattle in the other. . . Rattles may be divided into 
two general classes, those in which objects of approximately equal size are 
struck together, and those in which small objects, such as pebbles, quartz crys- 
tals, or seeds, are inclosed in a hollow receptacle. The first embraces rattles 
made of animal hoofs or dewclaws, bird beaks, shells, pods, etc. These were 
held in the hand, fastened to blankets, belts, or leggings, or made into neck- 
laces or anklets so as to make a noise when the wearer moved. . . The 
second type of rattle was made of a gourd, of the entire shell of a tortoise, of 
pieces of rawhide sewed together, or, as on the N.W. coast, of wood. It was 
usually decorated with paintings, carvings, or feathers and pendants, very 
often having a symbolic meaning. The performer, besides shaking these rattles 
with the hand, sometimes struck them against an object." JOHN R. SWANTON, 
in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


diately commence eating. When each man's proportion 
is eaten, the bones are all collected and put into a bowl 
and afterwards thrown into the river or burnt. 56 The 
whole of the feast must be eaten ; in case a man can not 
eat his part of it he pafses his dish with a piece of to- 
bacco to his neighbor and he eats it and the guests then 
retire. Those who make a feast never eat any part of 
it themselves, they say, they give their part of it to the 
Great Spirit, they always have some consecrated tobac- 
co, which they afterwards bury, and then the feast is 
concluded. The women of these nations are very par- 
ticular to remove from their lodges, to one erected for 
that particular purpose, when their menstrual term ap- 
proaches; 57 no article of furniture that is used in this 

56 Cf. allusions to the superstitious burning of bones, in Jesuit Relations, 
vol. ix, 299, vol. xx, 199, vol. xli, 301, 303 (and others, for which see Index, 
vol. Ixxii, 323). This belief is thus explained by Brinton (Myths of New 
World, first edition, 257-261) : "The opinion underlying all these [burial] 
customs was, that a part of the soul, or one of the souls, dwelt in the bones; 
that these were the seeds, which, planted in the earth, or preserved unbroken 
in safe places, would in time put on once again a garb of flesh, and germinate 
into living human beings. . . Even the lower animals were supposed to 
follow the same law. Hardly any of the hunting tribes, before their original 
manners were vitiated by foreign influence, permitted the bones of game slain 
in the chase to be broken, or left carelessly about the encampment. They were 
collected in heaps, or thrown into the water." Also (144, 145) : "As the path 
to a higher life hereafter, the burning of the dead was first instituted. . . 
Those of Nicaragua seemed to think it the sole path to immortality, holding 
that only such as offered themselves on the pyre of their chieftain would escape 
annihilation at death; and the tribes of upper California were persuaded that 
such as were not burned to death were liable to be transformed into the lower 
orders of brutes." See also Long's Expedition (Phila., 1823), vol. i, 278. ED. 

57 For this clause is substituted in Morse's Report, obviously by that learned 
doctor, the following words, "at such seasons as were customarily observed by 
Jewish women, according to the law of Moses." For further mention of this 
seclusion of women, and superstitions connected with it, see Jesuit Relations, 
vol. iii, 105, vol. ix, 123, 308, 309, vol. xiii, 261 ; also Report of Bureau of 
Amer. Ethnology, 1881-1882, 263, 267, and 1892-1893, 175. The same custom 
was connected with childbirth; see Report of 1883-1884, 497; of 1884-1885, 
610; and 1887-1888, 415. - ED. 

This was a form of taboo, "a Polynesian term (tabu] applied to a sacred 
interdiction proper to or laid upon a person, place, day, name, or any conceiv- 


lodge is ever used in any other, not even the steel and 
flint with which they strike fire. No Indian ever ap- 
proaches this lodge while a woman occupies it, and 

able thing which is thereby rendered sacred and communication with it except 
to a few people or under certain circumstances forbidden. It was formerly 
such a striking institution, and was in consequence so frequently mentioned by 
explorers and travelers, that the word has been adopted into English both as 
applying to similar customs among other races and in a colloquial sense. Its 
negative side, being the more conspicuous, became that attached to the adopted 
term; but religious prohibitions among primitive races being closely bound up 
with others of a positive character, it is often applied to the latter as well ; and 
writers frequently speak of the taboos connected with the killing of a bear or 
a bison, or the taking of a salmon, meaning thereby the ceremonies then per- 
formed, both positive and negative. In colloquial English usage, it has 
ceased to have any religious significance. Whether considered in its negative 
or in its positive aspect this term may be applied in North America to a num- 
ber of regulations observed at definite periods of life, in connection with im- 
portant undertakings, and either by individuals or by considerable numbers of 
persons. Such were the regulations observed by boys and girls at puberty; by 
parents before the birth of a child; by relatives after the decease of a relative; 
by hunters and fishermen in the pursuit of their occupations; by boys desiring 
guardian spirits or wishing to become shamans; by shamans and chiefs desiring 
more power, or when curing the sick, prophesying, endeavoring to procure food 
by supernatural means, or 'showing their power' in any manner; by novitiates 
into secret societies, and by leaders in society or tribal dances in preparation 
for them. . . In tribes divided into totemic clans or gentes each individual 
was often called upon to observe certain regulations in regard to his totem 
animal," which sometimes took the form of an absolute prohibition against 
killing that animal ; "but at other times it merely involved an apology to the 
animal or abstinence from eating certain parts of it. The negative prohi- 
bitions, those which may be called the taboos proper, consisted in abstinence 
from hunting, fishing, war, women, sleep, certain kinds of work, etc., but 
above all abstinence from eating; while among positive accompaniments may 
be mentioned washing, sweat-bathing, flagellation, and the taking of emetics 
and other medicines. In the majority of American tribes, the name of a dead 
man was not uttered unless in some altered form for a considerable period 
after his demise; and sometimes, as among the Kiowa, the custom was carried 
so far that names of common animals or other terms in current use were en- 
tirely dropped from the language because of the death of a person bearing such 
a name. Frequently it was considered improper for a man to mention his own 
name, and the mention of the personal name was avoided by wives and hus- 
bands in addressing each other, and sometimes by other relatives as well. But 
the most common regulation of this kind was that which decreed that a man 
should not address his mother-in-law directly, or vice versa; and the prohi- 
bition of intercourse often applied to fathers-in-law and daughters-in-law 
also." Anything desired or feared by man might occasion these prohibitions or 


should a white man approach it and wish to light his 
pipe by the fire of a woman while in this situation, she 
will not allow him by any means to do so, saying, that 
it will make his nose bleed and his head ache ; that it 
will make him sick. 

When an Indian dies, his relations put on him his best 

regulations; misfortunes might result from their non-fulfilment, or they might 
bring good fortune more or less as the regulation was more or less strictly 
observed. The taboo "is one aspect of religious phenomena known by many 
other names ; and, at least among the lower races, is almost as broad as religion 

"The significance of a girl's entrance into womanhood was not only appre- 
ciated by all American tribes, but its importance was much exaggerated. It 
was believed that whatever she did or experienced then was bound to affect 
her entire subsequent life, and that she had exceptional power over all persons 
or things that came near her at that period. For this reason she was usually 
carefully set apart from other people in a small lodge in the woods, in a 
separate room, or behind some screen. There she remained for a period vary- 
ing from a few days, preferably four, to a year or even longer -the longer 
isolation being endured by girls of wealthy or aristocratic families and pre- 
pared her own food or had it brought to her by her mother or some old 
woman, the only person with whom she had anything to do. Her dishes, 
spoons, and other articles were kept separate from all others, and had to be 
washed thoroughly before they could be used again, or, as with the Iroquois, an 
entirely new set was provided for her. For a long period she ate sparingly 
and took but little water, while she bathed often. Salt especially was tabooed 
by the girl at this period." Many other taboos were in vogue, among the dif- 
ferent tribes, and the girl was made the subject of various ceremonies peculiar 
to this period of her life; and many superstitions regarding her and her con- 
dition were current among the savages. "The whole period of isolation and 
fast usually ended with a feast and public ceremonies as a sign that the girl 
was now marriageable and that the family was now open to offers for her 
hand. . . Although not so definitely connected with the puberty, certain 
ordeals were undergone by a boy at about that period which were supposed 
to have a deep influence on his future career. Among these are especially 
to be noted isolation and fasts among the mountains and woods, sweat bathing 
and plunging into cold water, abstinence from animal food, the swallowing of 
medicines sometimes of intoxicating quality, and the rubbing of the body with 
fish spines and with herbs. As in the case of the girl, numbers of regulations 
were observed which were supposed to affect the boy's future health, happi- 
ness, and success in hunting, fishing, and war. . . The regulations of a boy 
were frequently undergone in connection with ceremonies introducing him 
into the mysteries of the tribe or of some secret society. They were not as 
widespread in North America as the regulations imposed upon girls, and varied 
more from tribe to tribe. It has also been noticed that they break down sooner 
before contact with whites." JOHN R. SWANTON, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


clothes, and either bury him in the ground or put him on 
a scaffold ; but the former is the most common mode of 
disposing of the dead. As soon as an Indian dies his 
relations engage three or four persons to bury the body; 
they usually make a rough coffin of a piece of a canoe 
or some bark, the body is then taken to the grave in a 
blanket or buffaloe skin, and placed in the coffin, to- 
gether with a hatchet, knife, etc., and then covered over 
with earth. Some of the near relations usually follow 
the corps; the women on these occasions appear to be 
much affected. If the deceased was a warrior, a post 
is usually erected at his head, on which is painted red 
crofses of different sizes, to denote the number of men, 
women, and children he has killed of the enemy during 
his life time, and which they say he will claim as his 
slaves now that he has gone to the other world. It is 
frequently the case that some of his friends will strike 
a post, or tree, and say I will speak; he then in a loud 
voice will say at such a place I killed an enemy, I give 
his spirit to our departed friend; and sometimes he may 
give a greater number in the same manner. The friends 
of the deceased will afterwards frequently take victuals, 
.tobacco, etc., to his grave and there leave it, believing 
that whatever they present to him in this manner, he 
will have in the other world. 

An Indian always mourns for the lofs of near relations 
from six to twelve months, by neglecting his personal 
appearance, blacking his face, etc. A woman will 
mourn for the lofs of a husband, at least twelve months, 
during which time she appears to be very solitary and 
sad, never speaking to any one unlefs necefsary, and al- 
ways wishing to be alone; at the expiration of their 
mourning she will paint and drefs as formerly, and en- 
deaver to get another husband. 

The belief of these Indians relative to their creation 


is not very dissimilar to our own. Masco, one of the 
chiefs of the Sauks informed me that they believed, that 
the Great Spirit in the first place created from the dirt 
of the earth two men ; but finding that these alone would 
not answer his purpose, he took from each man a rib 
and made two women, from these four he says sprang all 
red men; that the place where they were created was 
Mo-ne-ac (Montreal). That they were all one nation 
until they behaved so badly that the Great Spirit came 
among them, and talked different languages to them, 
which caused them to separate, and form different na- 
tions : he said that it was at this place that Indians first 
saw white men, that they then thought they were spirits. 
I asked him how they supposed white men were made ; 
he replyed that Indians supposed the Great Spirit made 
them of the fine dust of the earth as they knew more than 
they did. They appear to entertain a variety of opin- 
ions with regard to a future state; a Fox Indian told me 
that their people generally believed that as soon as an 
Indian left this world, he commenced his journey for 
the habitation provided for him by the Great Spirit in 
the other world; that those who had conducted them- 
selves well in this life, met with but little difficulty in 
finding the road which leads to it; but that those who 
had behaved badly always got into the wrong road, 
which was very crooked and very difficult to travel in; 
that they frequently met with broad rivers which they 
had to ford or swim ; and in this manner they were pun- 
ished, until the Great Spirit thought proper to put them 
into the good road, and then they soon reached their 
friends, and the country of their future residence, where 
all kinds of game was plenty, and where they had but 
little to do, but to dance by night, and sleep by day; he 
further observed that when young children died they 


did not at first fare so well. That originally there were 
two Great Spirits who were brothers, and equally good, 
that one of them died and went to another world and 
has ever since been called Mach-i-Man-i-to (the Evil 
Spirit) that this Spirit has a son who makes prisoners 
of all the children that die too young to find the good 
path, and takes them to his own town, where they were 
formerly deprived by him of their brains, in order that 
when they grew up they might not have sense enough to 
leave him. That the Good Spirit seeing this, sent an 
eagle to peck a hole in the head of every young child as 
soon as it dies and makes its appearance in the other 
world, and to deprive it of its brain and conceal the 
same in the ground ; that the child is always immediate- 
ly after taken as a prisoner by the Evil Spirit and kept 
until of a suitable age to travel, when the eagle returns 
its brain; and then, it having sense enough, immediately 
leaves the Bad Spirit and finds the good road. 

Most of these Indians say that their deceased friends 
appear occasionally to them in the shape of birds and 
different kinds of beasts. A Fox Indian observed one 
morning last summer that the spirit of a certain Indian 
(who was buryed the day before) appeared last night 
near his grave in the shape of a Turkey, and that he 
heard the noise of him almost all night. I enquired of 
another Indian (quite an old man) if any of their people 
had ever returned from the dead, he replyed, that he 
had heard of only one or two instances of the kind ; but 
that he believed they knew what they were about in this 

I do not at the present time think of anything further 
relative to the history, manners, religion and customs 
of the Indians worthy of notice. No part of what I have 
written is taken from books, but almost every thing has 


been drawn from either the Indians themselves or from 
persons acquainted with their language, manners, cus- 
toms, etc., on this account I presume that it will be the 
more acceptable. 

I will now proceed agreeably to your request to give 
you my ideas relative to the Indian trade, etc. 58 

In the first place I have to observe, that the Factory 
System for supplying the Indians with such articles as 
they may need, does not appear to me to be productive 
of any great advantage, either to the savages, themselves, 
or to the government. But very few, if any of the In- 
dians have sufficient forecast to save enough of the pro- 
ceeds of their last hunt to equip themselves for the next; 
the consequence is, that when the hunting season ap- 
proaches they must be dependant upon some one for a 
credit. An Indian family generally consists of from 
five to ten persons, his wife, children, children-in-law, 
and grandchildren, all of whom look to its head for 
their supplies; and the whole of the proceeds of the 
hunt goes into one common stock, which is disposed of 
by him for the benefit of the whole. When cold weather 
approaches they are generally destitute of many articles, 
which are necefsary for their comfort and convenience; 
besides guns, traps, and ammunition; some kettles, blan- 
kets, strouding, etc., are always wanting; for these 
articles they have no one to look to but the private 
trader; as it is well known that the United States Fac- 
tors give no credit; but even if they did, the number of 
these establishments is too limited to accommodate any 
considerable number of Indians, as but few of them will 
travel far to get their supplies if it can be avoided: and 
farther, the Indians (who are good judges of the quality 
of the articles they are in want of) are of the opinion 

58 The rest of Marston's letter (except the last two paragraphs) was printed 
by Morse on pages 56-59 of the Report. ED. 


that the Factor's goods are not so cheap, taking into con- 
sideration their quality, as their private trader's; in this 
I feel pretty well convinced, from my own observation, 
and the acknowledgment of one of the most respectable 
Factors of our government, Judge Johnson, of Prairie 
du Chien, that they are correct; this gentleman informed 
me but a few months ago that the goods received for his 
establishment were charged at least 25 pc* higher than 
their current prices, and that he had received many 
articles of an inferior and unsuitable quality for Indian 
trade. 59 If you speak to an Indian upon the subject of 
their great father, the President, supplying them with 
goods from his factories, he will say at once you are a 
pash-i-pash-i-to (a fool), our great father is certainly 
no trader, he has sent these goods to be given to us as 
presents, but his agents are endeavoring to cheat us by 
selling them for our peltries. 

The amount of goods actually disposed of by the 
United States Factors at Green Bay, Chicago, Prairie 
du Chien, and Fort Edwards, if I am rightly informed 
is very inconsiderable. The practice of selling goods to 
the whites and of furnishing outfits to Indian traders, 

69 "A similar complaint was made by the Six Nations at Buffalo the last 
August, when I was present A member of Congress, I was told, had been 
invited to inspect the goods and to witness the fact of their inferiority. It was 
asserted to me that much better goods, and at a less price than those which 
were distributed at this time (an annuity payment) by the Indian agent, could 
have been purchased at New York. Had the amount due these Indians been 
judiciously expended in that city, the Indians, it was said, might have been 
benefited by it, in the quality of their goods, several hundred dollars. It was 
added, that the Indians are good judges of the quality of goods, and know 
when they were well or ill treated. But they had, in this case, no means of 
redress." REV. J. MORSE. 

"John W. Johnson, a native of Maryland, was United States factor at 
Prairie du Chien, in 1816, and afterwards. In his manners, he was a real 
gentleman, and a very worthy man ; but unfortunately, he was quite deaf. 
He married a Sauk woman, and raised several children, and educated them; 
and finally retired to St. Louis, wealthy, where he resided the last I heard of 
him." JOHN SHAW, in Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. x, 222. 


are the principal causes of their sales being so great as 
they actually are. 

In my opinion the best plan of supplying the natives 
is by private American traders of good character, if 
they could be placed under proper restrictions. 

In the first place it is for their interest to please the 
Indians and prevent their having whiskey (particularly 
when they are on their hunting grounds) and to give 
them good advice. 

Secondly. They always give them a credit sufficient 
to enable them to commence hunting. 

Thirdly. They winter near their hunting grounds 
and agreeably to the suggestion of a late secretary of 
war, take to themselves u help mates" from the daughters 
of the forest, and thereby do much towards civilizing 

Fourthly. They always have comfortable quarters 
for the Indians when they visit them, and by the fre- 
quent intercourse which subsists between them become 
acquainted with us and imperceptibly imbibe many of 
our ideas, manners, and customs. 

Fifthly. From interested motives, if from no other, 
traders will always advise the Indians to keep at peace 
among themselves and with the whites. 

There are some changes which I think might be made 
to advantage in the regulations for Indian traders. In 
the first place with a view to do away the imprefsion 
which almost universally prevails in the minds of the 
Indians in this part of the country, that the traders, 
clerks, interpreters, boatmen, and laborers, and also 
their goods are almost all British (which unfortunately 
happens to be nearly the truth, for their is scarcely a 
single boatman or laborer employed by the traders who 
is not a British subject, their goods it is well known are 


almost altogether of British manufacture), I would 
recommend, that no clerk, interpreter, boatman or la- 
borer be employed by them who is not a citizen of the 
United States; and further, that every trader be obliged 
to display the American flag on his boat when travel- 
ling, and at his tent or hut when encamped. 

The best and most succefsful means which could be 
employed by government to civilize the Indians or 
render them lefs savage than they now are, in my opin- 
ion would be for the agent of each nation to reside at 
or near one of their principal villages, there to have a 
comfortable habitation and a council room sufficiently 
large to accommodate all who might wish to attend his 
councils. To employ a blacksmith and a carpenter, 
and of course have shops and suitable tools for them; 
every nation has a great deal for a blacksmith to do; 
there would probably be lefs for a carpenter to attend 
to, but he might be advantageously employed in mak- 
ing agricultural implements, etc. For him to cultivate 
in the vicinity of the village, with the consent of the 
nation a small farm and to keep a small stock of horses, 
oxen and cows. It should be understood among the 
Indians that the farming establishment is solely for the 
benefit of the agent, should it be known among them 
that the object was to learn them to cultivate the soil 
as the whites do, they would most certainly object to it; 
but if this is not known, they will soon see the advan- 
tages of employing the plough, harrow, etc., and be 
induced to imitate our examples; and thus get on the 
road which leads to civilization before they are aware 
of it. 

If an agent of government should go among them, as 
has sometimes been the case, and inform them that he 
had been sent by their great father, the president, to 


learn them how to cultivate the soil, spin, weave cloth 
and live like white people, they would be sure to set 
their faces against him and his advice, and say that he 
is a fool; that Indians are not like white people, the 
Great Spirit has not made them of the same color, 
neither has he made them for the same occupations. 

The next step towards their civilization would prob- 
ably be, that some of their old people would remain at 
their respective villages, if [they] could be afsured of 
their being secure from their enemies, while the others 
are on their hunting grounds : thus they would go on 
from step to step until they would become not only civi- 
lized beings, but Christians. 

I consider it important that government should ex- 
change as soon as practicable all British flags and 
medals which the Indians may have in their pofsefsion 
for American ones. 60 The Sauk and Fox Indians have 
no American flags at present and but few American 
medals; if you speak to them of the impropriety of their 
displaying British flags and wearing British medals, 

60 Presents of various kinds were made by European governments, and later 
by that of the United States, to Indian chiefs as rewards for loyalty. These 
were often military weapons, especially brass tomahawks; also were given 
hat- bands, gorgets, and belt- buckles of silver, often engraved with the royal 
arms, or with emblems of peace. "The potency of the medal was soon 
appreciated as a means of retaining the Indian's allegiance, in which it played 
a most important part. While gratifying the vanity of the recipient, it ap- 
pealed to him as an emblem of fealty or of chieftainship, and in time had a 
place in the legends of the tribe. The earlier medals issued for presentation 
to the Indians of North America have become extremely rare from various 
causes, chief among which was the change of government under which the 
Indian may have been living, as each government was extremely zealous in 
searching out all medals conferred by a previous one and substituting medals 
of its own. Another cause has been that within recent years Indians took their 
medals to the nearest silversmith to have them converted into gorgets and 
amulets. After the Revolution the United States replaced the English medals 
with its own, which led to the establishment of a regular series of Indian peace 
medals. Many of the medals presented to the North American Indians were 
not dated, and in many instances were struck for other purposes. Medals were 
also given to the Indians by the fur companies, and by missionaries (these 


they will reply, we have no others, give us American 
flags and medals and you then will see them only. The 
flags given to them ought to be made of silk, their Brit- 
ish flags being made of that material, and besides they 
are more durable as well as more portable than the 
worsted ones. One of each nation should be of a large 
size, for them to display at their villages on public occa- 
sions: they have at present British flags considerably 
larger than the American Army standards. The prac- 
tice of painting these flags causes them to break and soon 
wear out, they should be made in the same manner that 
navy flags are. 

The annuities paid by government to the Sauk and 
Fox nations 61 appears to be a cause of dissatisfaction 

latter usually religious in character). PAUL E. BECKWITH, in Handbook Amer. 

The article here cited contains a description, with several illustrations, of 
the known Spanish, French, British, and United States medals given to In- 
dians. ED. 

61 In Morse's Report is a table, occupying pages 376-382, 391, showing the 
annuities paid (1820-1821) to every tribe in the United States. Some of these 
were limited, but most of them were permanent; a few were granted to indi- 
vidual chiefs. The total annual amount of these payments was $154,575, 
representing a total capital of $2,876,250. Among the tribes receiving them 
are the following: Piankeshaws, $50x5; Kaskaskias, $500; Six Nations (Iro- 
quois), $4,500; Sauks, $600; Foxes, $400; Ottawas, $4,300; Chippewas, $3,800; 
Miamis, $17,300; and to those on Eel River $1,100 more; Pottawatamies, 
$57,666,6623; Weas, $3,000; Kickapoos, $4,000; Ottawas, Chippewas, and 
Pottawatamies residing on the Illinois and Melwakee Rivers, etc., $1,000; the 
remnant of the Illinois (five tribes), $300; Wyandots, $5,900, besides $825 paid 
to them and to eastern tribes living with them. Besides these, a permanent 
annuity of salt was paid to a number of western tribes. Another table (pages 
383-390) gives an "estimate of the quantity of land that has been purchased 
from the Indians," showing the amount sold by each tribe, with place and 
date of treaty therefor, and remarks on these. The total amount of lands thus 
acquired (1784-1821) is 191,998,776 acres, besides several tracts of "unknown" 
extent. In vol. ix of the Forsyth Mss. is an account by Forsyth of the original 
causes of the Black Hawk War, in which he relates the circumstances of the 
alleged cession by the Sauk and Foxes of their lands by the treaty of 1804 at 
St. Louis (an agreement which he pronounces worthless, as well as most 
unjust) ; he thus mentions the annuities given them on account of it: "When 
the annuities were delivered to the Sauk and Fox nations of Indians according 


among them, in consequence of their not being able to 
divide and subdivide the articles received so as to give 
every one a part. I believe that powder, flints, and to- 
bacco would be much more acceptable to them than the 
blankets, strouding, etc., which they have been in the 
habit of receiving. 

I enclose a list of ten nations of Indians who inhabit 
the upper Mifsifsippi [and] the borders of the great 
lakes, showing the names given them by Europeans and 
by each other. The latter information I have obtained 
principally from the Indians themselves. 62 

I have the honor to remain with great respect your 
Ob' Ser* M. MARSTON, B l Maj. 5 Inf y , Command'g, 
To the REV. D r MORSE, New Haven, Connecticut. 

to the treaty (amounting to $1,000 per annum) the Indians always thought 
that they were presents ( as the annuities of the first twenty years were always 
paid in goods, sent on from George Town District of Columbia and poor sort 
of merchandise they were [see note 289], very often damaged, and not suitable 
for Indians) until I as their agent convinced them to the contrary in the 
summer of 1818. When the Indians heard that the goods were delivered to 
them as annuities, for lands sold by them to the United States, they were 
astonished, and refused to accept the goods, denying that they ever sold the 
land as stated by me." - ED. 

62 This list is found in vol. ii of the Forsyth Papers in the Draper Col- 
lection (pressmark "2,T") ; by some oversight in arranging the documents for 
binding, it was separated from Marston's letter to Morse, which is found in 
vol. i. The list of tribes is printed in the Report, 397. - ED. 

An account of the Manners and Customs of 

the Sauk and Fox Nations of 

Indians Tradition 

The original and present name of the Sauk Indians, 
proceeds from the compound word Sakie alias, A-saw- 
we-kee literally Yellow Earth. 

The Fox Indians call themselves Mefs-qua-kee alias 
Mefs-qua-we-kee literally Red Earth, thus it is natural 
to suppose, that those two nations of Indians were once 
one people, or part of some great nation of Indians, and 
were called after some place or places where they then 
resided, as yellow banks, and red banks, etc. Both the 
Sauk and Fox Indians acknowledge, that they were once 
Chipeways, but intestine quarrels, and wars which en- 
sued separated one band or party from another, and all 
became different in manners, customs and language. 
The Sauk Indians, are more immediately related to the 
Fox Indians than any other nation of Indians, whose 
language bears an affinity to theirs, such as the Kica- 
poos and Shawanoes to whom they (the Sauks and 
Foxes) claim a relationship by adoption. The Kica- 
poos and Shawanoes call the Sauk and Fox Indians their 
Younger Brothers, the Sauks call the Foxes (and the 
Foxes call them) their kindred. 

The earliest tradition of a particular nature among 
them, is the landing of the whites on the shores of the 
Atlantic, somewheres about the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
The Sauk and Fox Indians have been at war formerly 


with the Iroquois, and Wyandotts, 63 who drove the 
Sauks up the St. Lawrence to the lakes, and the Foxes 
up the Grand River, and at Green Bay they formed a 
coalition and renewed their former relations to each 
other, since then (in alliance with the Chipeways, Ot- 
tawas, and Pottawatimies), they have been engaged in a 
war with the Illinois Indians, which ended in their 
final extermination: afterwards the Sauks and Foxes in 
alliance with other nations of Indians, made war against 
the Ofsage Indians, and on settlement of their differ- 
ences they allied themselves to the Ofsage Indians, 
against the Pawnee Indians, with whom in alliance with 
the Of sages they had a severe fight in 1814 on the head 
waters of the Arkansas River, where the Sauks lost the 
Blue Chief who was then celebrated among them. Thro 
the interference of the government that war was 

The Sauk and Fox Indians repeatedly told me that 
from depredations continually committed on them by 
the Sioux Indians of the interriour (the Yanctons and 
Scifsitons [i.e., Sisseton] bands) they (the Sauk and 
Fox Indians) thro the solicitations of their young men, 
they commenced a war against the above mentioned 
Sioux Indians in the Spring of the year 1822, but the 
General Council held at Pirarie du Chiens in August 
1825 put a final stop to that war, otherwise, not a Sioux 
Indian would have been seen south of St. Peters River, 

63 Up to 1650 the tribe called Tionontati (or by the French, Nation du 
Petun, "Tobacco Nation," from their cultivation of and trade in tobacco) were 
living in the mountains south of Nottawasaga Bay, on the eastern coast of 
Lake Huron ; but they were then forced to abandon their country, by a sudden 
murderous incursion of the Iroquois, and they fled to the region southwest of 
Lake Superior. Eight years later they were with the Potawatomi near Green 
Bay; soon afterward they joined the Hurons who also had been driven west- 
ward by the Iroquois, and about 1670 both tribes were at Mackinaw, and 
later in the vicinity of Detroit. From that time they were practically the same 
people, and, thus blended, became known by the modernized name of Wyan- 
dot- JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


in twelve months after the termination of that council. 

Belts f Alliances, etc. 

The wampum belts are woven together by thread 
made of the deer's sinews, 64 the thread is pafsed through 
each grain of wampum and the grains lay in the belt 
parallel to each other, the Belts are of various sizes, 
some more than two y ds in length, if for peace or friend- 
ship the Belts are composed solely of white grained 
wampum, if for war, they are made of the blue grained 
wampum painted red with vermillion, the greater the 
size of the Belt, the more force of exprefsion is meant 
by it to convey. In forming alliances other Belts are 
made of white wampum interspersed with diamond like 
figures of blue wampum, representing the various na- 
tions with whom they are in alliance or friendship. 65 

64 "Sinew is the popular term for the tendonous animal fiber used by the 
Indians as thread for sewing purposes" not, as is commonly supposed, the 
tendon from the legs, but the large tendon, about two feet in length, lying along 
each side of the backbone of the buffalo, etc., just back of the neck joint. 
"The tendons were stripped out and dried, and when thread was needed were 
hammered to soften them and then shredded with an awl or a piece of flint. 
Sometimes the tendon was stripped of long fibers as needed, and often the 
tendons were shredded fine and twisted. . . Practically all the sewing of 
skins for costume, bags, pouches, tents, boats, etc., was done with sinew, as 
was embroidery with beads and quills." It was also used for bowstrings, and 
to render the bow itself more elastic; also in feathering and pointing arrows, 
and in making fishing lines, cords, etc. WALTER HOUGH, in Handbook Amer. 

65 The early white explorers found everywhere among the natives shells, 
or beads made from them, in use as currency, and for personal adornment; 
and the English colonists adopted the name for this article that was current 
among the New England Indians, "wampum," This term was afterward 
extended to the glass or porcelain beads brought from Europe by traders. The 
beads were strung upon cords or sinews, and when woven into plaits about as 
broad as the hand formed "wampum belts;" these constituted practically the 
official form of presents sent by one tribe or one village to another, and were 
used in negotiating and in recording treaties. Wampum also was the mark 
of a chiefs authority, and was sent with an envoy as his credentials. See 
Holmes's account of beads, wampum, etc., in Report of Bureau of Amer. Eth- 
nology, 1880-1881, 230-254; R. E. C. Stearns's "Ethno-Conchology," in Report 



The Sauk and Fox nations of Indians are governed 
by hereditary chiefs, their power descending to the old- 
est male of the family, which on refusal extends to the 
brothers or nephews of the chief and so on thro the male 
relations of the family. They have no war chiefs, any 
individual of their nations may lead a party to war, if 
he has enfluence to raise a party to redrefs any real or 
supposed grievance. 

The chiefs interfere and have the sole management in 
all their national affairs, but they are enfluenced in a 
great measure by their braves or principal men in mat- 
ters of peace or war. The province of the chief is to 
direct, the braves or warriors to act. The authority of 
the chiefs is always supreme in peace or war. There are 
no female chiefs among the Sauk and Fox nations of 
Indians, a boy (if a chief) is introduced into the coun- 
cils of the nation, accompanied by some older branch of 
the family capable of giving him instructions. When 
the chiefs direct the head or principal brave of the na- 
tion to plant centinels for any particular purpose, if 
they neglect their duty or fail to effect the purpose, they 
are flogged with rods by the women publicly. There is 
no such thing as a summary mode of coercing the pay- 
ment of debts, all contracts are made on honor, for re- 
drefs of civil injuries an appeal is made to the old people 
of both parties and their determination is generally ac- 
ceded to. In case of murder, it is determined by the 
relations of the deceased, they say, that by killing the 
murderer, it will not bring the dead to life, and it is 
better to receive the presents offered by the relations of 
the murderer than want them. Horses, merchandise 

of U.S. Natl. Museum, 1887, 297-334; IngersolPs "Wampum and its History," 
in Amer. Naturalist, vol. xvii (1883), 467-479; Jesuit Relations, vol. viii, 
312-314. - ED. 


and silver works sometimes to a very large amount are 
given to the relations of a murdered person, and indeed 
in some instances the murderer will marry or take to 
wife the widow of the person whom he has killed. 

Sometimes it may happen, that the relations of the 
deceased will refuse to receive any thing for the lofs of 
a murdered relation, the chiefs then interfere, who never 
fail to settle the businefs. There is nothing that I know 
of that an Indian may be guilty what is considered a 
national offence, except aiding and afsisting their ene- 
mies, such a person if taken in war is cut to pieces, such 
things rarely happen. 

The Sauk and Fox Indians are not thievish, they sel- 
dom steal any thing from their traders, they sometimes 
steal a few horses from a neighboring nation of Indians, 
and formerly they used to steal many from the white 
settlements and their excuse is always that they were in 
want of a horse, and did not take all they seen. Steal- 
ing horses from their enemies is accounted honorable, 
the women will sometimes steal trifling articles of 
drefs or ornament, the men very seldom. The traders 
feel perfectly safe among them, so much so, that they 
seldom or ever close their doors at night, but give them 
free accefs to come in and go out at all hours day and 
night. All questions relating to the nations are settled 
in council by the Chiefs, and when it is necefsary that 
the council must be a secret one, 66 the chiefs apply to the 
principal brave for centinels, who must do their duty, 
or they are punished by the women by stripes on their 
bare backs. In all Indian Councils that I have seen and 
heard of, the whole number of chiefs present must be 
of the same opinion otherwise nothing is done. 

66 "I never was at more than one secret council all the time I were among 
the Indians, and it was strictly a secret council to all intents and purposes." 



Council Fire at Brownstown in Michigan Territory 

It is hard for me to say at this late day where and when 
the council fire originated, but I believe it to have origi- 
nated immediately after the reduction of Canada by 
the British. A similar one is supposed to have existed 
on the Mohawk River at Sir William Johnston's place 
of residence previous to our Revolution. The first 
knowledge I have of it, is when it existed at old Chili- 
cothe in the State of Ohios, and from the Indian war 
that took place subsequently to the peace of 1783 the 
council fire was by unanimous consent removed to Fort 
Wayne thence afterwards to the foot of the rapids of the 
Miamie River of the Lakes, where it remained until 
1796 when it was removed to Brownstown where it now 
is. The British in confederacy with the Shawanoes, 
Delawars, Mingoes, Wyandots, Miamies, Chipeways, 
Ottawas and Pottawatimies offensive and defensive are 
the members of the council fire. The first nation of 
Indians who joined were the Shawanoes and Delawars 
and the other nations fell in or joined afterwards. 

The British as head of the confederacy have a large 
belt of white wampum of about six or eight inches wide 
at the head of which is wrought in with blue grains of 
a diamond shape, which means the British Nation: the 
next diamond in the belt is the first Indian Nation who 
joined in alliance with the British by drawing the belt 
thro their hands at the council fire and so on, each nation 
of the confederacy have their diamond in the belt, those 
diamonds are all of the same size and are placed in the 
belt at equal distances from each other. When any 
businefs is to be done that concerns the confederacy it 
must be done at this council fire where are afsembled 
as many chiefs as can be conveniently collected. At any 


meeting at this council fire, 67 the British government is 
always represented by their Indian Agent, and most 
generally accompanied by a military officer, to represent 
the soldiers or braves. By consent of the confederacy, 

67 "In a conversation I had with General Clark previous to my giving him 
a copy of this production, I told him about this council fire at Brownstown in 
Michigan Territory: he observed 'no other agent but yourself knows anything 
about this Council fire.' There is more besides that, that the Indian agents do 
not know said I to him, and if I had included himself I would have done 
right, for in Indian affairs he is a perfect ignoramus. But he is superintendant 
and can do no wrong." T. FORSYTH. 

Early in the eighteenth century an alliance was formed by the Wyandotts, 
Chippewa, Ottawas, and Potawatamies for their mutual protection against the 
incursions of hostile western tribes; the French made a fifth party to this 
alliance which before many years fell through. About 1720 those four 
tribes made an arrangement as to the respective territories which they were 
to occupy each tribe, however, to have the privilege of hunting in the terri- 
tory of the others. The Wyandotts were made the keepers of the international 
council-fire (a figurative expression, meaning their international archives), 
and arbiters, in their general council, of important questions that concerned 
the welfare of all the four tribes. "From that period might be dated the first 
introduction of the wampum belt system, representing an agreement among the 
four nations. The belt was left with the keepers of the council-fire. From 
that time forward until the year 1812 (when the council-fire was removed from 
Michigan to Canada) every wampum belt representing some international 
compact was placed in the archives of the Wyandott nation. Each belt bore 
some mark, denoting the nature of a covenant or contract entered into between 
the parties, and the hidden contents of which was kept in the memory of the 
chiefs." About 1842 part of the Wyandotts left Canada, to join their tribes- 
men in Ohio, and with them remove to Kansas, to which territory they sent 
(1843) their archives; but when these were desired (about 1864) by the 
eastern Wyandotts it was found that most of the belts and documents were 
dispersed and lost. The last general council of those tribes, at which the 
belts were displayed and their contents recited, was held in Kansas in 1846. 
Brownstown (later called by the whites Gibraltar) was thus named for a 
noted chief of the Wyandotts, Adam Brown, who was captured in Virginia 
by one of their scouting parties about 1755, and taken to their village near 
Detroit; he was an English boy, then about eight years old. He was adopted 
by a Wyandott family belonging to one of the ruling clans, and afterward 
married a Wyandott woman ; he was finally made a chief, and was greatly 
esteemed by that tribe, and died after the War of 1812. He was a compas- 
sionate and honorable man, and never approved the attacks made by Indian 
parties on the whites in their homes. See Origin and Traditional History of 
the Wyandotts (Toronto, 1870), by Peter D. Clarke, himself a grandson of 
Adam Brown. ED. 


the Shawanoe nation were formerly the leading nation, 
that is to say, the Shawanoes had the direction of the 
wars that the parties might be engaged in, the power of 
convening the allies, etc. Since the late war, the Chipe- 
ways are at the head of those affairs and no doubt re- 
ceive occasional lefsons from their British father. All 
Indians in forming alliances with each other, select a 
central spot to meet every two or three years, to com- 
memorate and perpetuate, their alliances. It is very 
well known that for many years an alliance has existed 
between the Chipeways, Ottawas and Pottawatimies, 
and their chiefs encourage intermarriages with each 
other, for the purpose of linking themselves strongly 
together, and at a future period to become one people. 
These alliances are strictly attended to by all the parties 
concerned, and should there be any neglect to visit the 
council fire (by deputies or otherwise), to commemo- 
rate their alliances, it is considered as trifling with their 
allies. In 1806 or 7, the Chipeway, and Ottawa chiefs 
sent a speech to the Pottawattimies Indians, saying that 
for many years they had not sent deputies to the Island 
of Mackinac to the council fire according to custom, and 
if they declined sending deputies the ensuing summer, 
their part of the council fire would be extinguished: 
the Pottawatimies fearful of the consequences sent depu- 
ties the following year to Mackinac which satisfied all 

Names and Number of Tribes \i.e., clani\ among the 
Sank Nation** of Indians 

1 Na-ma-wuck or Sturgeon Tribe 

2 Muc-kis-sou " Bald Eagle 

3 Puc-ca-hum-mo-wuck Ringed Perch 

68 The Sauk were a canoe people while they lived near the Great Lakes; 
they practised agriculture on an extensive scale. "Despite their fixed abode 



Mac-co. Pen-ny-ack or 

Bear Potatoe 


Kiche Cumme 

Great Lake 















Black Bafs 







and villages they did not live a sedentary life altogether, for much of the time 
they devoted to the chase, fishing, and hunting game almost the whole year 
round. They were acquainted with wild rice, and hunted the buffalo; they 
did not get into possession of the horse very much earlier than after the Black 
Hawk War in 1832. . . Their abode was the bark house in warm weather, 
and the oval flag-reed lodge in winter; the bark house was characteristic of 
the village. Every gens had one large bark house wherein were celebrated 
the festivals of the gens. In this lodge hung the sacred bundles of the gens, and 
here dwelt the priests that watched over their keeping. It is said that some 
of these lodges were the length of five fires. The ordinary bark dwelling had 
but a single fire, which was at the center." 

"In the days when the tribe was much larger there were numerous gentes. 
It may be that as many as fourteen gentes are yet in existence. These are: 
Trout, Sturgeon, Bass, Great Lynx or Water monster, Sea, Fox, Wolf, Bear, 
Bear-Potato, Elk, Swan, Grouse, Eagle, and Thunder. It seems that at one 
time there was a more rigid order of rank both socially and politically than 
at present. For example, chiefs came from the Trout and Sturgeon gentes, and 
war chiefs from the Fox gens ; and there were certain relationships of courtesy 
between one gens and another, as when one acted the role of servants to another, 
seen especially on the occasion of a gens ceremony." 

These were two great social groups: Kishko a and Oshkash a . "A person 
entered into a group at birth, sometimes the father, sometimes the mother 
determining the group into which the child was to enter. The division was 
for emulation in all manner of contests, especially in athletics. The Sauk never 
developed a soldier society with the same degree of success as did the Foxes, 
but they did have a buffalo society; it is said that the first was due to con- 
tact with the Sioux, and it is reasonable to suppose that the second was due 
to influence also from the plains. There was a chief and a council. The chiefs 
came from the Trout and Sturgeon gentes, and the council was an assembly of 
all the warriors. Politically the chief was nothing more than figurehead, but 
socially he occupied first place in the tribe. Furthermore, his person was held 
sacred, and for that reason he was given royal homage." WILLIAM JONES, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians. 

The sixth in Forsyth's list of Fox clans is called by Morgan Na-na-mi- 
kew-uk (Ancient Society, 170). He also mentions the buffalo clan, Na-nus- 
sus-so-uk, as among the Sauk and Foxes. ED. 


Names and Number of Tribes among the Fox Nation 

of Indians 

1 Wah-go or Fox Tribe 

2 Muc-qua Bear 

3 Mow-whay Wolf 

4 A-ha-wuck Swan 

5 Puck-kee Partridge (drumming) 

6 Ne-nee-me-kee Thunder 

7 Me-sha-way Elk 

8 As-she-gun-uck " Black Bafs 

War and its Incidents 

The warriours 69 of the Sauk Nation of Indians are 
divided into two bands or parties, one band or party is 
called Kees-ko-qui or long hairs, the other is called 
Osh-cush which means brave the former being con- 
sidered something more than brave, and in 1819 each 
party could number 400 men, now (1826) perhaps they 

69 Among the aborigines there was no paid war force, organized police, or 
body of men set aside for warfare; but all these duties rested in the tribe on 
every able-bodied man, who from his youth had been trained in the use of 
arms and taught to be always ready for the defense of home and the protection 
of the women and children. "The methods of fighting were handed down by 
tradition, and boys and young men gained their first knowledge of the war- 
rior's tactics chiefly from experiences related about the winter fire." In the 
lodge the young men were placed near the door where they would be first to 
meet an attack by enemies. "There was however a class of men, warriors of 
approved valor [called 'soldiers' by some writers], to whom were assigned 
special duties, as that of keeping the tribe in order during the annual hunt or 
at any great ceremonial where order was strictly to be enforced. . . In many 
tribes warriors were members of a society in which there were orders and de- 
grees. The youth entered the lowest, and gradually won promotion by his 
acts. Each degree or order had its insignia, and there were certain public 
duties to which it could be assigned. Every duty was performed without com- 
pensation; honor was the only pay received. These societies were under the 
control of war chiefs and exercised much influence in tribal affairs. In other 
tribes war honors were won through the accomplishment of acts, all of which 
were graded, each honor having its peculiar mark or ornament which the man 
could wear after the right had been publicly accorded him. There were 
generally six grades of honors. It was from the highest grade that the 'soldier' 
spoken of above was taken." - ALICE C. FLETCHER, in Handbook Amer. Indians, 
art. "Soldier." 


can number 500 men each. The Kees-ko-quis or long 
hairs are commanded by the hereditary brave of the 
Sauk Nation named Keeocuck 70 and whose standard is 
red. The head man of the Osh-cushes is named Waa- 
cal-la-qua-uc and his standard is blue : him and his party 
are considered inferiour 'in rank to the other party. 
Among the Sauk Indians every male child is clafsed in 
one of the two parties abovementioned in the following 
manner. The first male child born to a Kees-ko-qui, is 
and belongs to the band or party of Kees-ko-quis. The 
second male child (by the same father) is an Osh-cush, 

70 Keeocuck is a sterling Indian and he is the hinge on which all the affairs 
of the Sauk and Fox Indians turn on, he is a very smart man, his manners are 
very prepossessing, his mother was a half breed, and much attached to white 
people. Keeocuck is about 46 years old now in 1832. T. FORSYTH. 

Keokuk, the noted Sauk leader, was born on Rock River, 111., about 1780. 
"He was not a chief by birth, but rose to the command of his people through 
marked ability, force of character, and oratorical power. His mother is said 
to have been half French." He was ambitious to become the foremost man in 
his tribe, and by affability and diplomacy gradually attained great popularity 
among them; he lost much of this prestige, however, by his passive attitude 
regarding the St. Louis treaty of 1804, by which a small band of Sauk who 
wintered near that post agreed to cede the Rock River country to the U.S. 
government. The rest of the tribe refused to confirm this agreement, and part 
of them decided to take up arms against its enforcement. Not finding Keokuk 
favorable to this action, they turned to Black Hawk as their leader; and he 
was forced to begin hostilities with a much smaller force than he had expected, 
as Keokuk with his adherents joined the Foxes whose union with the Sauk 
had been already broken, largely through the intrigues of Keokuk. After the 
war was over, Keokuk was made chief of the Sauk, an act which "has always 
been regarded with ridicule by both the Sauk and the Foxes, for the reason that 
he was not of the ruling clan. But the one great occasion for which both the 
Sauk and the Foxes honor Keokuk was when, in the city of Washington, in 
debate with the representatives of the Sioux and other tribes before govern- 
ment officials, he established the claim of the Sauk and Foxes to the territory 
comprised in what is now the state of Iowa. He based this claim primarily 
on conquest." Keokuk died in 1848, in Kansas, after residing there three 
years; in 1883 his remains were removed to Keokuk, Iowa, and a monument 
was erected over his grave by the citizens of that town. His authority as chief 
passed to his son, Moses Keokuk a man of great ability, intellectual force, 
eloquence, and strong character, who won high esteem from his tribe. He was 
converted to the Christian faith, late in life; and died near Horton, Kans., in 
1903. WILLIAM JONES, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


the third a Kees-ko-qui and so on. The first male child 
of an Osh-cush is also an Osh-cush the second is a Kees- 
ko-qui and so on as among the Kees-ko-qui's. When 
the two bands or parties turn out to perform sham bat- 
tles, ball playing, or any other diversion the Kees-ko- 
quis paint or daub themselves all over their bodies with 
white clay. The Osh-cushes black their bodies on same 
occasions with charcoal. The Sauk and Fox Indians 
have no mode of declaring war, if injured by another 
nation they wait patiently for a deputation from the 
nation who committed the injury, to come forward and 
settle the businefs, as a Fox Chief told me some years 
ago, "the Sioux Indians have killed of[f] our people 
four different times, and according to our custom, it is 
time for us to prepare for war, and we will do so, as we 
see the Sioux chiefs will not come forward to settle 
matters." Sometimes a nation of Indians may be at 
peace with all others when they are invited by a neigh- 
bouring nation to afsist them in a war, by promising 
them a portion of the enemy's country they may conquer. 
Young Indians are always fond of war, they hear the 
old warriours boasting of their war exploits and it may 
be said, that the principle of war is instilled into them 
from their cradles, they therefore embrace the first op- 
portunity to go to war even in company with strange 
nations so that they may be able to proclaim at the 
dance, I have killed such a person, etc. One or more 
Indians of the same nation and village may at same time 
fast, pray, consult their Munitos or Supernatural Agents 
about going to war. The dreams they may have during 
their fasting, praying, etc., determine every thing, as 
they always relate in public the purport of their lucky 
dreams to encourage the young Indians to join them. 
Those Indians who prepare for war by dreams, etc., 
may be any common Indian in the nation, and if the 


warriours believe in his dreams, etc., he is never at a 
lofs for followers, that is to say, after a partizan is done 
fasting, and praying to the great Spirit, and that he con- 
tinues to have lucky dreams, he makes himself a lodge 
detached from the village, where he has tobacco pre- 
pared, and in this lodge a belt of blue wampum painted 
red with vermillion, or a stripe of scarlet cloth hanging 
up in his lodge, and each warriour who enters the lodge 
smokes of the partizan's tobacco and draws the wampum 
or scarlet cloth thro his hands, as much as to say, he is 
enlisted in his service. If a nation of Indians or a vil- 
lage are likely to be attacked, every one turns out for 
the general defence. 

Two or more partizans may join their parties together, 
and may or may not divide when near the enemies' coun- 
try. The businefs of the partizan is to shew his follow- 
ers the enemy, and they are to act, the partizan may if 
he pleases go into the fight. In going to war, the In- 
dians always travel slowly, and stop to hunt occasionally, 
where they deposit their jerked meat for their return, 
in going off the partizan leads the party, carrying his 
Mee-shome or medicine sack on his back, and on leav- 
ing the village sings the She-go-dem or war song, i.e. 
the partizan takes up his medicine sack and sings words 
to the following effect: "We are going to war, we must 
be brave, as the Great Spirit is with us." The warriours 
respond by singing heugh! heugh! heugh! in quick time 
dancing round the partizan. Sometimes a certain 
place distant from the villages is appointed for the 
party to rendevous at, in this case, every one as he de- 
parts from his residence sings his war song, and on the 
departure of the whole from the general rendevous, they 
sing the She-go-dem or general war song as described 

The form of a war encampment is this, small forks 


the size of a mans arm are planted in two rows about 
five or six feet a part and about four feet out of the 
ground, on which are laid small poles, these rows ex- 
tend in length proportionate to the number of war- 
riours, and the rows are about fifteen feet apart, thro the 
center are other forks set up on which other poles are 
placed, these forks are about six feet out of the ground, 
and them with the poles are stoughter then the side forks 
and poles. The warriours lay side by side with their 
guns laying against the side poles if the weather is fair, 
if wet they place them under their blankets. 

The Indian who carries the kettle is the cook for the 
party and when encamped the warriours must bring him 
wood and water, furnish meat, etc., the cook divides the 
vituals, and has the priviledge of keeping the best morsel 
for himself. The partizan and warriours when prepar- 
ing for war, are very abstemious, never eating while the 
sun is to be seen, and also abstemious from the company 
of women, after having accepted the wampum or scarlet 
cloth before spoken of the[y] cease to cohabit with their 
wives, and they consider the contrary a sacrilidge. A 
woman may go to war with her husband, but must cease 
during the period to have any connection. Before mak- 
ing an attack they send forward some of their smartest 
young men as spies, the attack is generally made a little 
before day light, the great object is to surprise, if de- 
feated, every one makes the best of his way home stop- 
ping and taking some of the meat jerked and burried on 
the way out. If a party is victorious the person who 
killed the first of the enemy heads the party back, by 
marching in front, the prisoners in the center and the 
partizan in the rear. On the arrival of a victorious 
party of Indians at their village they dance round their 
prisoners by way of triumph after which the prisoners 


are disposed of: elderly prisoners are generally killed 
on the way home, and their spirits sent as an atonement 
to that of their deceased friends. Young persons taken 
in war are generally adopted by the father or nearest 
relation of any deceased warriour who fell in the battle 
or child who died a natural death and when so adopted, 
are considered the representatives of the dead, prison- 
ers who are slaves are bought and sold as such. When 
they grow up the males are encouraged by the young 
men of the nation they live with, to go to war, if they 
consent and kill one of the enemy the slave changes his 
name and becomes a freeman to all intents and purposes. 
The female slaves are generally taken as concubines to 
their owners and their offspring if any are considered 

Sometimes an owner will marry his female slave, in 
that case, she becomes a f reewoman, but whether a slave 
or free, the Sauks and Fox Indians treat their prisoners 
with greatest humanity, if they have the luck to get to 
the village alive, they are safe and their persons are con- 
sidered sacred. I never heard except in the war with 
the Ninneways 71 of the Sauk or Fox Indians burning 
any of their prisoners, and they say, that the Ninneways 
commenced first, I remember to have heard sometime 
since of a Sauk Indian dying and leaving behind him a 
favorite male slave, the relations of the deceased killed 
the slave so that his spirit might serve on the spirit of his 
deceased master in the other world. The young Sauk 
and Fox Indians generally go to war about the age of 
from 1 6 to 18 and some few instances as young as 15 
and by the time they are 40 or 45 they become stiff from 
the hardships they have encountered in hunting and 

71 Ninneways so called by the Sauk, Fox, Chipeway, Ottawa, and Potta- 
watimie Indians: but they called themselves Linneway, i.e., men from which 
comes the word Illinois. - T. FORSYTH. 


war, they are apt at that age to have young men sons or 
sons-in-law to provide for them: they pals the latter 
part of their days in peace (except the village is at- 
tacked). A good hunter and warriour will meet with 
no difficulty in procuring a wife in one of the first fam- 
ilies in the nation. I know a half-breed now living 
among the Sauk Indians who had the three sisters for 
wives, they were the daughters of the principal chief of 
the Nation. I have always observed that the half-breeds 
raised among the Indians are generally resolute, re- 
markably brave and respectable in the nation. 72 The 
case that leads to war are many: the want of territory 
to hunt, depredations committed by one nation against 
another, and also the young Indians to raise their names, 
will make war against their neighbors without any cause 
whatever. The Sauk and Fox Indians have for many 
years back wished much for a war with the Pawnees 
who reside on the heads of the River Platte, they know 
that country is full of game and they don't fear the other 

72 "It has long been an adage that the mixed-blood is a moral degenerate, 
exhibiting few or none of the virtues of either, but all the vices of both of the 
parent stocks. In various parts of the country there are many mixed-bloods 
of undoubted ability and of high moral standing, and there is no evidence to 
prove that the low moral status of the average mixed-blood of the frontier is 
a necessary result of mixture of blood, but there is much to indicate that it 
arises chiefly from his unfortunate environment. The mixed-blood often finds 
little favor with either race, while his superior education and advantages, de- 
rived from association with the whites, enable him to outstrip his Indian 
brother in the pursuit of either good or evil. Absorption into the dominant race 
is likely to be the fate of the Indian, and there is no reason to fear that when 
freed from his environment the mixed-blood will not win an honorable social, 
industrial, and political place in the national life. HENRY W. HENSHAW, 
in Handbook Amer. Indians ', art. "Popular fallacies." 

In the Forsyth Mss., vol. ii, doc. 7 (pressmark "2X7") is a list of the Sauk 
and Fox half-breeds claiming land according to the treaty made at Washington, 
Aug. 4, 1824. It contains thirty-eight names. Another and similar list (doc. 8) 
gives thirty-one names, and fourteen others which are considered doubtful. 
Among the (presumably) rightful claimants appears Maurice Blondeau, men- 
tioned in note 49. ED. 


nations who live in the way such as the Ottos, T3 Mahas, 
and Kansez, they don't consider them formidable. The 
Sauk and Fox Indians would long ago have made war 
against the Pawnees if they thought the United States 
government would allow them, they are well acquainted 
with the geography of the country west as far as the 
mountains, also the country south of the Mifsouri River 
as far as Red River which falls into the Mifsifsippi 
River down below. 7 * More than a century ago all the 
country commencing above Rocky River and running 
down the Mifsifsippi to the mouth of Ohio up that 
river to the mouth of the Wabash, thence to Fort Wayne 

73 The traditions of the Siouan tribe called Oto-who resided on the Mis- 
souri and Platte Rivers successively, and went to Indian Territory in 1880- 
1882 relate that before the arrival of the white people they dwelt about the 
Great Lakes, under the name of Hotonga ("fish-eaters") ; migrating to the 
southwest, in pursuit of buffalo, they reached Green Bay, where they divided. 
A part of them remained there, and were called by the whites Winnebago; 
another band halted at the mouth of Iowa River, and formed the Iowa tribe; 
and the rest traveled to the Missouri River, at the mouth of the Grand, after- 
ward moving farther up the Missouri, in two bands, called respectively 
Missouri and Oto. Information to this effect was given to Major Long and to 
Prince Maximilian when they visited these people. In 1880-1882, they re- 
moved to Indian Territory. Handbook Amer. Indians. 

74 The Arctic peoples, and the Algonquian tribes of northern Canada were 
able to travel rapidly and for long distances on account of their using dogs 
and sleds for this purpose; but the tribes south of them were obliged to travel 
on foot until the Spaniards introduced the horse. These peoples, however, 
accomplished long and remote journeys, often in the midst of great hardships, 
in which they often showed phenomenal speed and endurance. It is probable 
that they first made their trails in the search for food, for which purpose they 
needed only to follow those already made by the wild animals, especially the 
buffalo. "The portages across country between the watersheds of the different 
rivers became beaten paths. The Athapascan Indians were noted travelers; 
so also were the Siouan and other tribes of the great plains, and to a smaller 
degree the Muskhogean; while the Algonquian tribes journeyed from the ex- 
treme east of the United States to Idaho and Montana in the west, and from 
the headwaters of the Saskatchewan almost to New Orleans. Evidences of 
such movements are found in the ancient graves, as copper from Lake Mich- 
igan, shells from the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and stone imple- 
ments from various quarters. Pipes of catlinite are widely distributed in the 
graves and mounds. These articles show* that active trade was going on over 


on the Miamie River, of the lakes down that river some 
distance, thence north to St. Joseph and Chicago also 
all the country lying south of River de Moine down 
(perhaps) to Mifsouri River was inhabited by a nu- 
merous nation of Indians who called themselves Linne- 
way and called by other Indians, Ninneway (literally 
men) this great nation of Indians were divided into 
several bands and inhabited different parts of an exten- 
sive country as follows. The Michigamians, the coun- 
try south of River de Moine ; the Cahokians, the country 
east of the present Cahokia in the state of Illinois; the 
Kaskaskias, east of the present Kaskaskia; the Tamorois 
had their village near St. Phillip, nearly central be- 

a wide region. There is good evidence that the men engaged in this trade 
had certain immunities and privileges. They were free from attack, and were 
allowed to go from one tribe to another unimpeded." O. T. MASON, in Hand- 
book Amer. Indians. 

There is much evidence that from far prehistoric times the Indians were 
familiar with vast regions of territory besides these of their own abode, and 
made long journeys over well-defined routes of travel. The great river-systems 
of the continent, whose headwaters often interlocked together, and their nu- 
merous tributaries furnished the easiest routes in the extensive forest regions 
of the north and east, which were penetrated by canoes or dugouts; on the 
plains and prairies well-worn trails still remain to indicate the lines of aborigi- 
nal travel and trade. These paths also existed along or between the river 
routes, many of them originally made by the tracks of deer or buffalo in their 
seasonal migrations or in search of water or salt. These same early trails 
(which generally followed the lines of least natural resistance) have since been 
utilized in many cases by the whites as lines for highways and railroads. 
"The white man, whether hunter, trader, or settler, blazed the trees along the 
Indian trails in order that seasonal changes might not mislead him should he 
return." J. D. McGuiRE, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

It is remarkable how the old plainsmen who laid out the Santa Fe trail 
across the State of Kansas and on into New Mexico, were able to follow the 
grades so well and get such a straight road. They simply used their eyes, for 
in those days there were no engineers on the western plains. "We tried to best 
it with our own engineering," W. B. Strang said, "but we finally ended by 
following the old trail made by the wheels of the wagon trains. Eleven times 
our engineers surveyed other lines, but they finally concluded that the grades 
made by the men without the knowledge of mathematics fifty years ago were 
the most practical, and hence we are keeping very near the old Santa Fe trail 
in the building of our line to the west from Kansas City." Chicago Record- 
Herald, Jan. 2, 1910. 


tween Cahokia and Kaskaskia; the Piankishaws, near 
Vincennes; the Weahs up the Wabash; the Miamies, on 
the head waters of the Wabash and Miamie of the lakes, 
on St. Joseph River and also at Chicago; the Pianki- 
shaws, Weah, and Miamies must have hunted in those 
days south towards and on the banks of the Ohio River. 
The Peorias (being another band of the same nation) 
lived and hunted on Illinois River: also the Masco or 
Mascotins called by the French Gens des Pirarie lived 
and hunted in the great Piraries lying between the Illi- 
nois River and the Wabash. All those different bands 
of the Ninneway Nation spoke the language of the pres- 
ent Miamies, and the whole considered themselves as 
one and the same people, yet from the local situation of 
the different bands and having no standard to go by, 
their language afsumed different dialects, as at present 
exists among the different bands of the Sioux and Chipe- 
way Indians. Those Indians (the Ninneways) were 
attacked by a general confederacy of other nations of 
Indians such as the Sauks and Foxes who then resided 
at or near Green Bay and on Ouisconsin River, the 
Sioux Indians whose frontiers extended south and on 
the River des Moine, the Chipeways and Ottawas from 
the lakes and the Pottawatimies from Detroit as also 
the Cherrokees, Chickashaws and Chactaws from the 
south. This war continued for a great many years, un- 
til that great nation (the Ninneways) were destroyed 
except a few Miamies and Weahs on the Wabash and a 
few who are now s[c]attered among strangers. Of the 
Kaskaskia Indians from their wars, their great fondnefs 
for spirituous liquor and frequent killing each other 
in drunken frolics, there remains but a few of them say 30 
or 40 souls, of the Peorias near St. Geneveve about 10 or 
15 souls, of the Piankishaws 40 or 50 souls. The Mi- 
amies are the most numerous band. They did a few 


years ago consist of about 400 souls, they don't exceed 
in my opinion at the present day more than 500 souls of 
the once great Ninneway Nation of Indians. Those 
Indians (the Ninneways) were said to be very cruel to 
their prisoners, they used to burn them, and I have 
heard of a certain family among the Miamies who were 
called man eaters 7S as they always made a feast of human 
flesh when a prisoner was killed, that being part of their 
duty so to do. 

From enormities, the Sauk and Fox Indians, when 
they took any of the Ninneways, they give them up to 
the women to be buffeted to death. They speak of the 
Mascota or Mascotins at this day with abhorance for 
their cruelties. In the history of the Sauks and Foxes, 
they speak of a severe battle having been fought oppo- 
site the mouth of Ihowai River, about 50 or 60 miles 
below the mouth of Rocky River. 

The Sauk and Fox Indians descended the Mifsif- 
sippi River in canoes, from their villages on Ouisconsin 
River, and landed at the place abovementioned, and 
started east towards the enemy's country, they had not 
gone far, before, they were attacked by a party of Mas- 
cota or Mascotins, the battle continued nearly all day, 
the Sauks and Foxes gave way for want of amunition, 
and fled to their canoes. The Mascotins pursued, fought 
desperately and left but few of the Sauks and Foxes to 
return home to tell the story. The Sauk Indians at- 

75 Cf. this interesting allusion to cannibalism among the Malays in early 
times, referring to the islands of Samar and Leyte in the Philippines (cited in 
Blair and Robertson's Philippine Islands, vol. Hi, 331) : "In almost every large 
village there are one or more families of Asuans, who are universally feared 
and avoided, and treated as outcasts, and who can marry only among their 
own number; they have the reputation of being cannibals. Are they perhaps 
descended from men-eaters? The belief is very general and deeply rooted. 
When questioned about this, old and intelligent Indians answered that certainly 
they did not believe that the Asuans now ate human flesh, but that their fore- 
fathers had without doubt done this." _ ED. 


tacked a small village of Peorias about 40 or 50 years 
ago, this village was about a mile below S l Louis, and 
has been said by the Sauks themselves that they were 
defeated in that affair. At a place on the Illinois River 
called the Little Rock there were killed by the Chipe- 
ways and Ottowas a great number of men, women and 
children of the Ninneway Indians. In 1800 the Kicka- 
poos made a great slaughter among the Kaskaskia In- 
dians. The celebrated Main Poque 76 the Pottawatimie 
jugler in 1801 killed a great many of the Piankishaws 
on the Wabash. It does not appear that the Kicapoos 
entered into the war against the Ninneway Indians 

76 In vol. iv of the Forsyth Papers ("Letter-book, 1814-1827") is a sketch 
(evidently composed by Forsyth) of the Potawatomi chief Main Poque a 
name, probably the French translation of his Indian name, meaning "swelled 
hand," doubtless in allusion to his left hand, which at his birth was destitute 
of fingers and thumb. "He used much to impose on the Indians by telling 
them that it was a mark set on him by the Great Spirit, to know him from 
other Indians when they met." He was a great orator, few surpassing him 
in eloquence. His father's standing as head military chief in the tribe gave 
prestige to the son, who added to this his own renown as a warrior. Thus 
Main Poque gained great influence among not only his own tribe, but the 
Sauk, Foxes, and others. He was in the habit of retiring alone into the woods 
for several days at a time, on his return home professing to have held conver- 
sations with the Great Spirit, on certain plans which he would propose to the 
tribe. It was rumored that this man had obtained arsenic from the whites, and 
had used it to cause the deaths of some persons in his tribe; and "at one time 
the Indians dreaded him as if he was a real deity, and thought his word was 
sufficient to destroy any or the whole of them. Indians have told me that the 
Main Poque was not born of a woman, that he was got by the Great Spirit 
and sprung out of the ground, and that the Great Spirit marked him in con- 
sequence" (alluding to his hand). They thought he was invulnerable to all 
weapons; and when he was wounded in a fight with the Osages (1810) his 
people said that it was done by "a gun that must have been made by some great 
Munito," and regarded the weapon with superstitious reverence. Main Poque 
was immoderately fond of spirituous liquor, and a confirmed drunkard, also very 
licentious ; he always had three wives, and at one time had six. "He died last 
summer (1816) at a place called the Manesti [Manistique?] on Lake Mich- 
igan." He left two sons and three daughters, and five or six grandchildren. 
"His youngest son is a perfect Ideot, and his oldest son may redily be called a 
thick headed fool. . . The Main Poque may be considered as having been 
a bad Indian and it is of service to the whites and Indians that he is out of 
the way."- ED. 


untill after they (the Kicapoo Indians) left the Wabash 
River which is now about 50 or 60 years ago and made 
war against the band of Kaskaskias. I do not mean to 
say that all the Kicapoos left the Wabash at the same 
time above mentioned as Joseph L'Reynard and a few 
followers never would consent to leave the Wabash, and 
go into the Piraries, and it is well known that he directed 
that after his death that his body must be burried in a 
Coal Bank on the Wabash, so that if the Kicapoos sold 
the lands after his death, they would also sell his body, 
and their flesh, such was his antipathy to sell any land. 


I never heard of any peace having been made between 
two nations of Indians (when war had properly com- 
menced) except when the government of the United 
States interfered, and that the Indians were within 
reach of the power of the United States to compel them 
to keep quiet, for when war once commenced, it alwavs 
led to the final extermination of one or the other of the 

Some years ago a war commenced between the Sauk 
and Fox Indians against the Ofsage Indians. The Sauks 
and Foxes being a very politic and cunning people, 
managed matters so well, that they procured the afsist- 
ance of the Ihowais, Kicapoos, and Pottawatimies 
headed by the celebrated Main Poque, and in pafsing 
by the Sauk village on Rocky River in one of his war 
expeditions he was joined by upwards of one hundred 
Sauk Indians, this happened in 1810, the government 
interfering, put a final stop to the war, otherwise before 
this there can be no doubt the whole of the Ofsages 
would have been driven beyond reach, as some of the 
Chipeways and Ottawa Indians accompanied the Main 


Poque. This confederacy, would have gained strength 
daily. It is true we hear of belts of wampum and pipes 
accompanied with presents in merchandise as peace of- 
ferings sent with conciliatory talks to make peace, but 
such a peace is seldom or never better than an armistice, 
witnefs the Sioux and Chipeway Indians, they have been 
at war for the last 60 or 80 years, the British government 
thro their agents, General Pike 77 when he traveled to 
the heads of the Mifsifsippi River and last year (1825) 
the United States Commifsioners at Pirarie des Chiens 
made peace (apparently) between the Sioux and Chipe- 
way Indians but the war is going on as usual, the reason 
is because those nations are out of reach of the power of 
the United States. The Ihowai Indians, sent a depu- 
tation of their people some years ago, to the Sioux In- 
dians, to ask for peace, the Mefsengers were all killed 
and the war continued untill a general peace took place 
at Pirarie des Chiens last year ( 1825) . In the summer 
of 1821 I advised the Sauk and Fox Indians to make 
peace with the Otto and Maha Indians living on the 
Mifsouri River, they took my advise and the winter fol- 
lowing they sent Mefsengers to the Council Bluffs with 
a letter from me to the Indian Agent at that post, the 
Sauk and Fox Mefsengers proceeded on to the Otto and 
Maha villages where they made peace and mutual pres- 
ents took place among them to the satisfaction of all 
parties. I know of no armorial bearings among the 
Sauk and Fox Indians, except Standards of White and 
Red feathers, they have flags American and British 
which they display at certain ceremonies. 

77 Referring to Zebulon M. Pike who made in 1805-1806 an expedition to 
the headwaters of the Mississippi. In September, 1805, he made a treaty of 
peace between the Sioux and the Chippewa tribes. He published (Phila., 1810), 
a narrative of that expedition. ED. 


Death and its Incidents 

When an Indian is sick and finds he is going to die, 
he may direct the place and manner of his interment, 
his request is religeously performed. The Sauk and Fox 
Indians bury their dead in the ground and sometimes 
have them transported many miles to a particular place 
of interment. The grave is dug similar to that of white 
people, but not so deep, and a little bark answers for a 
coffin, the body, is generally carried to the grave by old 
women, howling at intervals most pitiously. Previous 
to closing the grave one or more Indians who attend the 
funeral will make a motion with a stick or war-club 
called by the Indians Puc-ca-maw-gun speaking in an 
audible voice, "I have killed so many men in war, I 
give their spirits to my deceased friend who lies there 
(pointing to the body) to serve him as slaves in the other 
world." After which the grave is filled up with earth, 
and in a day or two afterwards a kind of cabin is made 
over the grave with split boards something like the roof 
of a house, if the deceased was a brave a post is planted 
at the head of the grave, on which is painted with ver- 
million the number of scalps and prisoners he had taken 
in war, distinguishing the sexes in a rude manner of 
painting peculiar to themselves. The Indians bury their 
dead as soon as the body becomes cold, after the death 
of an adult all the property 78 of the deceased is given 

78 "Broadly speaking, Indian property was personal. Clothing was owned 
by the wearer, whether man, woman, or child. Weapons and ceremonial para- 
phernalia belonged to the man; the implements used in cultivating the soil, in 
preparing food, dressing skins, and making garments and tent covers, and 
among the Eskimo the lamp, belonged to the women. In many tribes all raw 
materials, as meat, corn, and, before the advent of traders, pelts, were also her 
property. . . Communal dwellings were the property of the kinship group, 
but individual houses were built and owned by the woman. While the land 
claimed by a tribe, often covering a wide area, was common to all its members 
and the entire territory was defended against intruders, yet individual occu- 
pancy of garden patches was respected. . . The right of a family to gather 


away to the relations of the deceased and the widow or 
widower returns to his or her nearest relations, if a 
widow is not too old, after she is done mourning, she is 
compelled to become the wife of her deceased husband's 
brother, if he wishes. Sometimes an Indian will take 
the wife of his deceased brother, and dismifs his other 
wife or wives from all obligations to him, or he may 
keep them all. Many may mourn for the lofs of a rela- 

spontaneous growth from a certain locality was recognized, and the harvest , 
became the personal property of the gatherers. For instance, among the Me- 
nominee a family would mark off a section by twisting in a peculiar knot the 
stalks of wild rice growing along the edge of the section chosen; this knotted 
mark would be respected by all members of the tribe, and the family could 
take its own time for gathering the crop. . . Names were sometimes the 
property of clans. Those bestowed on the individual members, and, as on the 
N.W. coast, those given to canoes and houses, were owned by 'families.' Prop- 
erty marks were placed upon weapons and implements by the Eskimo and by 
the Indian tribes. A hunter established his claim to an animal by his per- 
sonal mark upon the arrow which inflicted the fatal wound. Among both the 
Indians and the Eskimo it was customary to bury with the dead those articles 
which were the personal property of the deceased, either man or woman. In 
some of the tribes the distribution of all the property of the dead, including the 
dwelling, formed part of the funeral ceremonies. There was another class of 
property, composed of arts, trades, cults, rituals, and ritual songs, in which 
ownership was as well defined as in the more material things. For instance, 
the right to practise tattooing belonged to certain men in the tribe; the right 
to say or sing rituals and ritual songs had to be purchased from their owner 
or keeper. . . The shrine and sacred articles of the clan were usually in 
charge of hereditary keepers, and were the property of the clan. . . The 
accumulation of property in robes, garments, regalia, vessels, utensils, ponies, 
and the like, was important to one who aimed at leadership. To acquire 
property a man must be a skilful hunter and an industrious worker, and must 
have an able following of relatives, men and women, to make the required 
articles. All ceremonies, tribal festivities, public functions, and entertainment 
of visitors necessitated large contributions of food and gifts, and the men who 
could meet these demands became the recipients of tribal honors. Property 
rights in harvest fields obtained among the tribes subsisting mainly on maize 
or on wild rice. Among the Chippewa the right in wild rice lands was not 
based on tribal allotment, but on occupancy. Certain harvest fields were 
habitually visited by families that eventually took up their temporary or per- 
manent abode at or near the fields; no one disputed their ownership, unless an 
enemy from another tribe, in which case might established right. Among the 
Potawatomi, according to Jenks, the people 'always divide everything when 
want comes to the door.' " ALICE C. FLETCHER, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


tion but the widows are always the principal mourners, 
they are really sincere, they are to be seen all in rags, 
their hair disheveled, and a spot of black made with 
charcoal on the cheeks, their countenance dejected, 
never seen to smile but appears always pensive, seldom 
give loose to their tears unlefs it is alone in the woods, 
where they are out of the hearing of any person, there 
they retire at intervals and cry very loud for about fif- 
teen minutes, they return to their lodges quite composed. 
When the[y] cease from mourning which is generally 
at the suggestion of their friends, they wash themselves 
put on their best clothes and ornaments, and paint red. 
I have heard Indians say, that, the spirit of a deceased 
person, hovers about the village or lodge for a few days, 
then takes its flight to the land of repose. 79 

79 The aboriginal ideas relating to the soul are based on various mental 
processes: concepts of life and the power of action; the phenomena of the will: 
the power of imagery, which produces impressions both subjective and objective, 
as in memory images, the conceptions of fancy, dreams, and hallucinations. 
All these "lead to the belief in souls separate from the body, often in human 
form, and continuing to exist after death. The lack of tangibility of the soul 
has led everywhere among Indians to the belief that it is visible to shamans 
only, or at least that it is like a shadow (Algonquiaa), like an unsubstantial 
image (Eskimo)," etc. Almost everywhere the soul of the dead is identified 
with the owl. "The beliefs relating to the soul's existence after death are very 
uniform, not only in North America but all over the world. The souls live in 
the land of the dead in the form that they had in life and continue their former 
occupations. Detailed descriptions of the land of the dead are found among 
almost all American tribes. . . The most common notion is that of the 
world of the ghosts lying in the distant west beyond a river which must be 
crossed by canoe. This notion is found on the western plateaus and on the 
plains. The Algoiiquians believe that the brother of the Culture Hero lives 
with the souls of the dead. Visits to the world of the dead by people who have 
been in a trance are one of the common elements of American folk-lore. They 
have been reported from almost all over the continent." FRANZ BOAS, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians. 

The Indians certainly believe in a future life, but their ideas of its nature 
and location were vague and undefined. "Nor does it appear that belief in a 
future life had any marked influence on the daily life and conduct of the 
individual. The American Indian seems not to have evolved the idea of hell 
and future punishment." HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. Indians, 
art. "Popular fallacies." 


The spirit on its way arrives at a very extensive Pi- 
rarie, over which they see the woods at a great distance 
appearing like a blue cloud, the spirit must travel over 
the Pirarie and when arrived at the further border, the 
Pirarie and woodland are separated by a deep and rapid 
stream of water, acrofs this stream is a pole which is 
continually in motion by the rapidity of the water, the 
spirit must attempt to crofs on the pole, if he or she has 
been a good person in this world, the spirit will get safe 
over and will find all of his or her good relations who 
died formerly. In those woods are all kinds of game in 
plenty, and there the spirits of the good live in everlast- 
ing happinefs, if on the contrary, the person has done 
bad in this life, his or her spirit will fall off the pole into 
the water, the current of which will carry the spirit to 
the residence of the evil spirit, where it will remain 
for ever in indigence and extreame mifsery. If con- 
venient, the graves of deceased Indians are often visited, 
they hoe away the grafs all about and sweep it clean, 
and place a little vituals occasionally with some to- 
bacco near the grave. All Indians are very fond of their 
children and a sick Indian is loth to leave this world if 
his children are young, but if grown up and married 
they know they are a burden to their children and don't 
care how soon they die. An Indian taken prisoner in 
war, or so surrounded by his enemies that he cannot es- 
cape, or that he is to suffer for murder, he will smile in 
the face of death, and if an opportunity offers he will 
sell his life dear. In burying Indians they place all 
their ornaments of the deceased, sometimes his gun and 
other implements for hunting, also some tobacco in his 
grave, paint and drefs the dead body as well as pofsible 
previous to interment. 


Birth and its Incidents 

A couple marrying the offspring belong to the tribe 
of the father, therefore are named from some particular 
thing or incident that has relation to the name of the 
tribe: for example, if the man belongs to the Bear Tribe, 
he takes the name of the child from some part of the 
bear, or the bear itself. A few days after a child is born 
and some of the old relations of the father or mother's 
side are near, the mother of the child gives a feast and 
inviting a few of her or her husband's oldest relations, 
she having previously hinted to some or all of them the 
nature of the feast, one of the oldest relations gets up 
while the others are sitting on the ground in a ring with 
a dish containing some vituals before each person (the 
mother and child being present but do not taste of the 
feast) and makes a speech to the following purport. 
"We have gathered together here to day in the sight of 
the Great Spirit, to give that child a name ; we hope the 
Great Spirit will take pity on our young relation (if a 
male) make him a good hunter and warriour and a man 
of good cense, etc. (if a female) that she may make an 
industrious woman, etc., and we name him or her." 

This name cannot be changed untill he goes to war, 
when an Indian commonly changes his name from some 
fete [i.e., feat] in war, which has no analogy to the 
tribe he belongs to. A female after marriage may 
change her name, perhaps a dream may occasion a 
woman to change her name or some incident that has 
happened may do so. An Indian may change his name 
half a dozen times without being to war more than once, 
an Indian who has been to war and returns home after 
travelling towards the enemy's country for a few days, 
may change his name, and very often in changing their 
names, take the name of one of their ancestors so that 


those names may be handed down to posterity. I know 
a Fox Indian whose name is Muc-co-pawm which is in 
English language Bear's Thigh or ham, he belongs to 
the Bear Tribe. A Sauk Indian named Muc-it-tay 
Mish-she-ka-kake in English the Black Hawk, 80 he 
belongs to the Eagle Tribe. Wab-be-we-sian or White 
hair (of an animal) belongs to the Deer Tribe. 

80 Black Hawk was a subordinate chief in the Sauk tribe, and noted as the 
leader in the war of 1832 which is named for him; was born in 1767, in the 
Sauk village at the mouth of Rock River, 111. This name is the English trans- 
lation of his Sauk name, Ma'katawimesheka'ka*. From the age of fifteen years 
he was distinguished as a warrior; and while still a young man he led expe- 
ditions against the Osage and Cherokee tribes, usually successful. In the War 
of 1812 he fought for the British, and after that war he was the leader of those 
among his tribesmen who preferred British to American affiliations. When 
the tide of American migration pushed into the old territory of the Sauk and 
Foxes (which had been surrendered to the Federal government by the treaty 
of 1804) part of those tribes, under the chief Keokuk, moved across the Missis- 
sippi into Iowa; but Black Hawk refused to leave, saying that he had been 
deceived in signing that treaty. "At the same time he entered into negotiations 
with the Winnebago, Potawatomi, and Kickapoo to enlist them in concerted 
opposition to the aggressions of the whites." Open hostilities ensued, lasting 
from April to August, 1832, being ended by the capture of Black Hawk; he 
was confined for a time at Fortress Monroe, and finally settled on the Des 
Moines River, where he died on October 8, 1838. JOHN R. SWANTON, in Hand- 
book Amer. Indians. 

For particulars of his life and of the "Black Hawk War" see Wis. Hist. 
Colls., vols. i, iv, v, x, xii; also Forsyth's own account (Forsyth Mss., vol. ix), 
"Original causes of the troubles with a party of Sauk and Fox Indians under 
the direction or command of the Black Hawk who is no chief." He says that 
the treaty of 1804 was signed only by two Sauk chiefs, one Fox chief, and one 
warrior; and that those tribes were not consulted and knew nothing about it 
(see note 291). Squatters came upon their lands, and robbed and abused the 
Indians, besides selling them whisky, regardless of the objections made to this 
by the chiefs, especially Black Hawk. They were not allowed to hunt on the 
lands alleged to have been ceded by them to the government, although this 
privilege was granted to them by the treaty of 1804. In 1830 they decided to 
remove to their lands in Iowa, and Forsyth (at their own request) asked for 
certain action on this by Gen. Clark, who paid no attention to the matter 
neglect which Forsyth blames as causing the later hostilities with Black Hawk. 
He praises that leader as always a friend to the whites, and says that when he 
came back to Illinois in 1832 with his people he had no intention of fighting, 
and did so only because they were first attacked by the whites and naturally 
undertook to defend themselves. ED. 


The Eagle Tribe have a peculiar monumental way 
of designating their dead from others by placing the 
trunk of a fallen tree at the head of their graves, with the 
roots upwards. The other tribes have also a peculiar 
way of marking their graves but I am not acquainted in 
what manner. All Indians that I am acquainted with 
are always unwilling to tell their names except when 
immediate necefsity require it before many people, if 
you ask an Indian what his name is, he will not answer 
you, some other Indian present will generally answer 
for him : it is considered impolite to ask an Indian his 
name promptly: in speaking of an Indian not present, 
his name is mentioned, but if present the Indians will 
say, him, that man. If a few old acquaintances meet, 
they call one another comrade, uncle, nephew, brave, 
etc. Children while young are altogether under the 
guidance of their mothers, they seldom or ever whip 
their children particularly the boys. The mother re- 
ports to their children all the information she pofsefses 
relating to any great event that she recollects or has 
heard of. When a boy grows up to be able to hunt they 
follow their father a hunting, he shews them the differ- 
ent tracks of animals, and the art of hunting different 
animals, and the mode of preparing the medicine for 
the Beaver Traps and how to apply it, etc. 

A female always keeps close to her mother until she 
gets married who teaches her how to make mocosins, 
drefs skins, make or construct a lodge, etc. Males after 
marriage or being once to war are considered men, yet 
if a young Indian has to serve for a wife, he has nothing 
to say in the disposial of his hunt until after the birth of 
the first child, after which he considers himself his own 
master, and master of his wife. In delivering to the In- 
dians annuities or presents for the whole it is divided 


among the poorer clafs of the Indians, the chief and 
braves seldom keep any of the annuities or presents for 
themselves. Old people are a very great incumbrance 
to their relations except the[y] live exclusively on the 
bank of rivers or creeks, where they may be easily trans- 
ported in canoes. A great many of the old people of the 
Sauk and Fox Indians may be seen pafsing the winter 
on the banks of the Mifsifsippi, they live on corn, pump- 
kins and such other provision as a boy or two can pro- 
cure such as wild fowl, raccoons, etc. They are very 
indigent in the absence of their relations in the interiour 
of the country yet never complain. All adopted chil- 
dren are treated as real children and considered in same 
light, it is often the case, a man may adopt his nephew 
whom he calls his son, and the nephew calls the uncle 
father. All young Indian children are tied up in an 
Indian cradle, I know of no difference made between 
the children untill the boys begin to hunt, then the 
mother shews a preference to the best hunter or the 
oldest (as it generally happens that they are all hunters 
in time) in giving them good leggins, mocosins, etc. 
The young females are also very industrious in attend- 
ing on their brothers, as they well know the hardships 
their brothers endure in hunting. When young In- 
dians grow up to seventeen or eighteen and their fathers 
are hard to them, they leave their parents, but when the 
young Indian begins to kill deer, they are seldom spoken 
harsh to, on the contrary, they are flattered with silver 
works, wampum, vermillion and other ornaments. 

In the event of an Indian dying and leaving a fam- 
ily of children, the relations take care of them untill 
they are married, if the orphan children have no rela- 
tions their situation is bad, but it is almost impofsible for 
a child or children in the Sauk and Fox nations not to 


have relations. The mother always takes care of her 
children, legitimate or illegitimate. It seldom happens 
that Indian women have more than one child at a birth, 
and I never heard of any Indian woman having more 
than two. 


An Indian girl may become loose, and if she happens 
to be taken off by a young Indian in a summer hunting 
excursion (as it frequently happens) on his return he 
will give her parents part of his hunt, probably a horse, 
or some goods and a little whiskey, telling them that he 
means to keep their daughter as his wife : if the old peo- 
ple accept of the presents, the young couple live peace- 
ably together with his or her relations, and so end that 
ceremony. A young Indian may see a girl whom he 
wishes for a wife, he watches opportunities to speak to 
her, if well received, he acquaints his parents: his par- 
ents not wishing to part with their son if he is a good 
hunter, the old people make an offer of goods or horses 
for the girl, and if they succeed they take home their 
daughter-in-law. On the contrary if the parents of the 
girl will not agree to receive property but insist on 
servitude, the young Indian must come to hunt for his 
wife's parents for same one, two, or three years as may 
be agreed on before the parents will relinquish their 
right to their daughter. I do not know of any marriage 
ceremony except the contract between the parties. An 
Indian may have two, three or more wives, but always 
prefer sisters as they agree better together in the same 
lodge, the eldest has generally the disposal of the hunt, 
purchase all the goods and regulate all the domestic 
affairs. Adultery among the Sauk and Fox Indians is 
punished by cutting off the ears, or cutting or biting off 
the nose of the woman, the punishment is generally per- 


formed by the husband on the wife, however this seldom 
happens, and altho there are many loose girls among 
them, the married women are generally very constant. 
An Indian will not be blamed for committing the act, 
if he has not made use of force, the old women will say, 
he is a Kit-che-Waw-wan-ish-caw, i.e. a very worthlefs 
rake, however the injured husband might in a fit of 
jealousy kill both of them. 

An Indian's wife is his property, and has it in his 
power to kill her if she acts badly without fear of re- 
venge from her relations. There is no such thing as 
divorces, the Indians turn off their wives, and the wives 
leave their husbands when they become discontented, 
yet the husband can oblidge his wife to return if he 
pleases. Women seldom leave their husbands and the 
Sauk and Fox Indians as seldom beat or maltreat their 
wives. An Indian will listen to a woman scold all day, 
and feel no way affected at what she may say. Barrenefs 
is generally the cause of separation among the Indians. 

The Indian women never have more than one hus- 
band at a time, nor does an Indian ever marry the mother 
and daughter, they look with contempt on any man that 
would have connection with a mother and her daughter, 
he would be called a worthlefs dog. The relationship 
among Indians is drawn much closer than among us, for 
instance, brother's children consider themselves and call 
one another brothers and sisters and if the least relation- 
ship exists between an Indian and a girl it will prevent 
them from being married. An old Sauk chief who died 
a few years ago named Masco, told me that he was then 
upwards of ninety years of age, I hesitated to believe 
him, but he insisted on what he said to be true, he spoke 
of the taking of Canada by the British also about the 
French fort at Green Bay on Lake Michigan, mentioned 


the French commandant's name Monsieur Marrin 81 
which left no doubt with me of his being a very old man. 
There are now many very old people among the Sauk 
and Fox Indians but as all Indians are ignorant of their 
exact age, it is impofsible to find out the age of any of 
the old people. It is very uncommon for unmarried 
women to have children, except it be those who live with 
whitemen for sometime, in that case, when they return 
to live with their nation, necefsity compels them to ac- 
cept the first offer that is made to them and they gener- 
ally get some poor, lazy, worthlefs fellow who cannot 
procure a wife in the usual way. 

There are few women among the Sauk and Fox In- 
dians who are sterile: the proportion of sterile women 
to them who bear children, are about one to 500, it will 
not be too much to say, that each married woman on an 
average have three children. Girls seldom arrive at the 
age of sixteen without being married, fourteen is the 
usual age of getting married for the young girls, and we 
often see a girl of fourteen with her first child on her 
back, Indian women generally have a child the first year 
after marriage, and one every two years subsequent, they 
allow their children to suck at least twice as long as a 
whitewoman do, they generally leave off child bearing 
about the age of thirty. 

Family Government, etc. 

The duties of an Indian is to hunt, to feed and clothe 
his wife and children, to purchase arms and amunition 
for himself and sons, purchase kettles, axes, hoes, etc., to 
make canoes, paddles, poles, and saddles, to afsist in 

81 There were two French officers named Marin in the northwestern Indian 
country, and their identity has been sometimes confused. Pierre Paul, sieur 
Marin was born in 1692, and was for a long time a trader among the Sioux 
and the Wisconsin Indians. From 1745 until his death in 1.753, he held com- 
mands in the French-Canadian troops. His son Joseph followed also a military 


working the canoes also in hunting, saddling and driv- 
ing the horses. 

The duties of the women 82 is to skin the animals when 
brot home, to stretch the skins and prepare them for 
market, to cook, to make the camp, to cut and carry 
wood, to make fires, to drefs leather, make mocosins and 
leggins, to plant, hoe and gather in the corn, beans, etc., 

career, from 1748 until the fall of Quebec (1763), when he returned to France. 
The man named Marin (or Morand) reported as living in Wisconsin after 
1763 was probably a half-breed. Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. xvii, 315. [Cf. also 
many references in indexes, vols. v, viii, xvi, xvii. ED.] 

82 The position of woman in Indian society, especially as regards the division 
of labor has been misunderstood. In the idea that she was a mere drudge and 
slave, and her husband only indolent, there was some truth, but it was much 
overdrawn, "chiefly because the observations which suggest it were made about 
the camp and village, in which and in the neighboring fields lay the peculiar 
province of woman's activity." Her field of labor was naturally the home and 
household industries, and the rearing of the children, and among agricultural 
tribes generally tillage of the fields was largely woman's work; but she had 
some leisure time for amusement and social intercourse. "In an Indian com- 
munity, where the food question is always a serious one, there can be no idle 
hands. The women were aided in their round of tasks by the children and old 
men. Where slavery existed their toil was further lightened by the aid of 
slaves, and in other tribes captives were often compelled to aid in the women's 

"The men did all the hunting, fishing, and trapping, which in savagery are 
always toilsome, frequently dangerous, and not rarely fatal, especially in winter. 
The man alone bore arms, and to him belonged the chances and dangers of 
war." It was men also who attended to the making and administration of 
laws, the conduct of treaties, and the general regulation of tribal affairs, 
"though in these fields, women also had important prerogatives;" and import- 
ant ceremonies and religious rites, and the memorizing of tribal records, and 
of treaties and rituals, were intrusted to the men. "The chief manual labor of 
the men was the manufacture of hunting and war implements, an important 
occupation that took much time." They also made the canoes, and often dressed 
the skins of animals, and sometimes even made the clothing for their wives. 
"Thus, in Indian society, the position of woman was usually subordinate, and 
the lines of demarcation between the duties of the sexes were everywhere 
sharply drawn. Nevertheless, the division of labor was not so unequal as it 
might seem to the casual observer, and it is difficult to understand how the line 
could have been more fairly drawn in a state of society where the military 
spirit was so dominant. Indian communities lived in constant danger of attack, 
and their men, whether in camp or on the march, must ever be ready at a 
moment's warning to seize their arms and defend their homes and families." 
-HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


and to do all the drudgery. They will scold their hus- 
bands for getting drunk or parting with a favorite horse 
or wasting any property to purchase spiritous liquor, 
will scold their children for wasting or destroying any 
property. It is a maxim among the Indians that every 
thing belong to the woman or women except the Indian's 
hunting and war implements, even the game, the In- 
dians bring home on his back. As soon as it enters the 
lodge, the man ceases to have anything to say in its dis- 
posal, properly speaking, the husband is master, the 
wife the slave, but it is in most cases voluntary slavery 
as the Indians seldom make their wives feel their author- 
ity, by words or deeds, they generally live very happy 
together, they on both sides make due allowances. 


The Sauk and Fox Indians are much troubled with 
the pleuricy and sore eyes, one proceeds from their fa- 
tigue and exposure in hunting and war, the other I 
suppose from smoke in their lodges. They understand 
the use of medicine 83 necefsary for the cure of the most 

83 "Many erroneous ideas of the practice of medicine among the Indians 
are current, often fostered by quacks who claim to have received herbs and 
methods of practice from noted Indian doctors. The medical art among all 
Indians was rooted in sorcery; and the prevailing idea that diseases were 
caused by the presence or acts of evil spirits, which could be removed only 
by sorcery and incantation, controlled diagnosis and treatment. This concep- 
tion gave rise to both priest and physician. Combined with it there grew up 
a certain knowledge of and dependence upon simples, one important develop- 
ment of which was what we know as the doctrine of signatures, according to 
which, in some cases, the color, shape, and markings of plants are supposed to 
indicate the organs for which in disease they are supposed to be specifics. 
There was current in many tribes, especially among the old women, a rude 
knowledge of the therapeutic use of a considerable number of plants and roots, 
and of the sweating process, which was employed with little discrimination." 
HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

Many of the medicinal roots of eastern and southern United States were 
adopted by the whites from the Indian pharmacopeia; some of these are still 
known by their native names, and about forty are quoted in current price lists 
of crude drugs. Indians formerly gathered medicinal roots to supply the trade 


complaints, they are subject to, they make the use of pur- 
gatives and emetics, some of them operate promptly, 
some of the Indians understand the art of bleeding, and 
make use of the lancet or penknife for that purpose, they 
make use of decoctions of roots, and there are few die 
for want of medicines, probably some die from taking 
to much. 


I am informed that the Indians in general are much 
better acquainted with the anatomy of the human body, 
than the commonalty of white people, and in many in- 
stances, making surprising cures, they are very succefsful 
in the treatment of wounds : I have known many to have 
been cured after having been shot in the body with ball 
and arrows, they are rather rough in their surgical 
operations, they cut away with a small knife, and I 
have seen them make use of a pair of old scifsors, to ex- 
tract an arrow point stuck in the thigh bone, and suc- 
ceeded after much carving to get at it. Every Indian 
is acquainted either more or lefs with the use of common 
medicines, in extreame cures [sc. cases], they apply to 
some of their most celebrated jugglers, they in addition 
to their medicine make use of superstitious ceremonies, 
to imp re Is on the minds of the sick, or the persons 
present, that he makes use of supernatural means for the 
recovery of the person sick: also that the sick persons is 
bewitched and will work away making use of the most 
ludicrous experiments all of which is swallowed by the 
credulous Indians. The conjuror or Man a too- Caw- So 

that arose after the coming of the whites. Many roots were exported, espe- 
cially ginseng, in which there was an extensive commerce with China; and, 
curiously enough, the Iroquois name for the plant has the same meaning as the 
Chinese name." WALTER HOUGH, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

See the list of trees and plants used for medicinal purposes by the Chippewa 
in Minnesota, in Hoffman's "Mide'wiwin of the Ojibwa," in Seventh annual 
Report of the Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, 198-201. ED. 


or doctor are feared by the bulk of the Indians, and 
never dare to do any thing to displease them. 


The general opinion of all Indians is, that the earth 
is flat, and [they] appear to be acquainted with several 
stars, they know all the fixed stars, and have names for 
them all, also for others that apparently change their 
position, the[y] regulate their seasons as well by the 
stars as by the moon. The year the[y] divide into four 
seasons, as we do. Spring- Man-no-cum-ink. Sum- 
mer -Pen-a- wick. Autumn -Tuc-quock. Winter - 
Pap-po-en. Also into twelve moons as follows: 
Tuc-wot-thu Keeshis First frosty moon commencing in Sept. 
Amulo " Rutting " October 

Puccume Freezing November 

Kiche Muqua " Big Bear " December 

Chuckee Muqua Little Bear " January 

Tuc-wun-nee " Cold February 

Pa-puc-qua " Sap March 

A-paw-in-eck-kee " Fish " April 

Uc-kee-kay " Planting " May 

Pa-la-nee First summer or flowering moon June 

Na-pen-nee Midsummer moon July 

Mish-a-way " Elk " August 

Their year is quoted as the[y] are placed in the above 
list of moons, commencing with the moon that changes 
in September, being the time the[y] usually leave their 
villages (after saving their corn) to go westward to 
make their fall and winter's hunt. The Sauk and Fox 
Indians say that the Great Spirit made every thing, the 
earth, moon, sun, stars, etc., all kinds of birds, beasts, 
and fishes, and all for the use of the Indians. As a 
proof they say, that it is only in their country that the 
buffaloe, elk, deer, bear, etc., are to be found, therefore 
they were specially intended for the Indians. To the 


white people the Great Spirit gave the book, and taught 
them the use of it, which the Great Spirit thought was 
absolutely necefsary for them to guide them through 
life : he also shewed them how to make blankets, guns, 
and gunpowder, all of which were special gifts to the 
whites. The use of letters particularly astonish them, 
and the[y] hold writing of any sort in great esteem, 
they have many papers among them of sixty and seventy 
years old in the French and Spanish languages, they 
take care of all old papers, without knowing any thing 
of the purport of them: the old papers are generally 
recommendations formerly written by French and Span- 
ish commandants, commonly called patents by the 
French and Spaniards. 

The Indians do not like to see eclipses of the sun or 
moon, they say that some bad munitoo is about to hide 
and devour the sun or moon, the Indians always fire at 
the eclipse to drive away the munitoo, which they think 
they succeed in when the eclipse is over. The Indians 
also fire ball at any comet, or bright star, which they 
think are munitoos. 

All Indians can count as far as 1,000, which they call 
a big hundred, a great many can count to 10,000. They 
know as much of arithmetic as is sufficient to do their 
own businefs, altho they have no particular mark to 
represent numbers. The method the Indians describe 
north, east, south, and west, is as follows. They point 
to the north (or at night to the north star which they call 
the immoveable star) which they call the cold country : 
south the warm country, east the rising sun, west the 
setting sun. The Indians are excellent judges of the 
weather, and I have known them prepare for rain, when 
I could observe no signs whatever. Met[e]ors they 
cannot comprehend, they call them munitoos. In mak- 


ing calculations for the appearance of the new moon, 
they say, in so many days the present moon will die, and 
in so many more days, the next moon will hang in the 
firmament (or the moon will be visible) . 

Few of the Indians know any thing of Europe, or the 
ocean, the little they know, they have learned it from 
the traders. 


The only musical instruments the Sauk and Fox In- 
dians make use of, is the flute, made of a piece of cane 
of two pieces of soft wood hallowed out and tied to- 
gether with leather thongs, also a drum, which they beat 
with a stick, the flute they blow at one end, and except 
the key it is something like a flagelet. They beat the 
drum at all kinds of feasts, dances, and games, they 
dance keeping time with the tap of the drum, their tunes 
are generally melancholly, they are always on a flat 
key, and contain many variations, they have a pe- 
culiar mode of telling stories, elegantly illustrated with 
metaphor and similie, in telling their stories they always 
retain something to the last, which is necefsary to ex- 
plain the whole. 


The Sauk and Fox Indians believe in one great and 
good Spirit, 84 who superintends and commands all 
things, and that there are many supernatural agents or 

8 * "Among the many erroneous conceptions regarding the Indian none has 
taken deeper root than the one which ascribes to him belief in an overruling 
deity, the 'Great Spirit.' Very far removed from this tremendous conception 
of one all-powerful deity was the Indian belief in a multitude of spirits that 
dwelt in animate and inanimate objects, to propitiate which was the chief 
object of his supplications and sacrifices. To none of his deities did the Indian 
ascribe moral good or evil. His religion was practical. The spirits were the 
source of good or bad fortune, whether on the hunting path or the war trail, 
in the pursuit of a wife or in a ball game. If successful he adored, offered 
sacrifices, and made valuable presents. If unsuccessful he cast his manito away 
and offered his faith to more powerful or more friendly deities. In this world 


munitoos permitted by the Great Spirit to interfere in 
the concerns of the Indians. 

They believe the thunder presides over the destinies of 
war, also Mache-muntitoo or bad Spirit is subordinate 
to Kee-shay-Munitoo or the Great Spirit, but that the 
bad Spirit is permitted (occasionally) to revenge him- 
self on mankind thro the agency of bad medicine, poison- 
ous reptiles, killing horses, sinking canoes, etc., every 
accident that befalls them, they impute to the bad Spir- 
it's machinations, but at same time, conceive it is al- 
lowed to be so, in atonement for some part of their 
misdeeds. All Indians believe in ghosts, and when they 
imagine they have seen a ghost, the friends of the de- 
ceased immediately give a feast and hang up some 
clothing as an offering to pacify the troubled spirit of 
the deceased; they pray by singing over certain words 
before they lay down at night, they hum over a prayer 
also about sunrise in the morning. The Sauk and Fox 
Indians are very religious so far as ceremony is con- 
cerned, and even in pafsing any extraordinary cave, 
rock, hill, etc., they leave behind them a little tobacco 
for the munitoo, who they suppose lives there. There 
is a particular society among the Sauk and Fox Indians 
(and I believe among some other nations of Indians), 
the particulars of which, I understand is never divulged 
by any of the society. They hold their meetings in 
secret, and what ever pafses among them at their meet- 
ings, is never spoken of by any of them elsewhere, this 
society is composed of some of the best and most sen- 
cible men in the two nations. 85 I have given myself 

of spirits the Indian dwelt in perpetual fear. He feared to offend the spirits 
of the mountains, of the dark wood, of the lake, of the prairie." 

- HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

85 "Societies or brotherhoods of a secret and usually sacred character existed 
among very many American tribes, among many more, doubtless, than those 
from which there is definite information. On the plains the larger number of 


much trouble to find out the particulars of this society, 
but have been able to succeed in a very small part only. 
The Indians of this society are called the Great Medi- 
cine men, and when a young Indian wish to become 
one of the society, he applies to one of the members to 
intercede for him, saying "you can vouch for me as 

these were war societies, and they were graded in accordance with the age and 
attainments of the members. The Buffalo Society was a very important body 
devoted to healing disease. The Omaha and Pawnee seem to have had a great 
number of societies, organized for all sorts of purposes. There were societies 
concerned with the religious mysteries, with the keeping of records, and with 
the dramatization of myths, ethical societies, and societies of mirth-makers, who 
strove in their performances to reverse the natural order of things. We find 
also a society considered able to will people to death, a society of 'big-bellied 
men,' and among the Cheyenne a society of fire-walkers, who trod upon fires 
with their bare feet until the flames were extinguished." Hoffman describes 
the Grand Medicine society, or Mide'wiwin, and its four degrees ; "as a result 
of these initiations the spiritual insight and power, especially the power to 
cure disease, was successively increased, while on the purely material side the 
novitiate received instruction regarding the medicinal virtues of many plants. 
The name of this society in the form medeu occurs in Delaware, where it was 
applied to a class of healers." JOHN R. SWANTON, in Handbook Amer. In- 
dians> art. "Secret societies." 

W. J. Hoffman says in his paper on the above-named "Grand Medicine 
Society" of the Chippewa (or Ojibwa) which was published in the Seventh 
annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1885-1886), 143-299 in 
speaking of the opposition made by the medicine-men (often called sorcerers), 
from the outset, to the introduction of Christianity: "In the light of recent 
investigation the cause of this antagonism is seen to lie in the fact that the tra- 
ditions of Indian genesis and cosmogony and the ritual of initiation into the 
Society of the Mide' constitute what is to them a religion, even more powerful 
and impressive than the Christian religion is to the average civilized man. 
This opposition still exists among the leading classes of a number of the Algon- 
kian tribes, and especially among the Ojibwa, many bands of whom have been 
more or less isolated and beyond convenient reach of the church. The purposes 
of the society are twofold: first, to preserve the traditions just mentioned, and, 
second, to give a certain class of ambitious men and women sufficient influence 
through their acknowledged power of exorcism and necromancy to lead a com- 
fortable life at the expense of the credulous. The persons admitted into the 
society are firmly believed to possess the power of communing with various 
supernatural beings manidos and in order that certain desires may be 
realized they are sought after and consulted" (page 151). Hoffman made 
personal investigations among the Ojibwa during the years 1887-1889, at 
Leech Lake, Minn., to obtain data for this paper, and much of his information 
was furnished directly by the shamans ("medicine-men") themselves. ED. 


being a good Indian, etc.," the friend of the applicant 
mentions the circumstance to the headman of the so- 
ciety, who gives an answer in a few days after consulting 
others of the society, if the applicant is admitted, his 
friend is directed to prepare him accordingly, but what 
the preparation, etc., is, I never could find out, but no 
Indian can be admitted untill the expiration of one year, 
after application is made. This society or Great Medi- 
cine consists of four roads (or as we would call them, 
degrees) and it requires to do something to gain the 
first road, and so on to the second, third, fourth roads 
or degrees. It costs an Indian from forty to fifty dollars 
in goods, or other articles to be initiated or admitted 
into this society, and am told there are but few of them 
who can gain the end of the fourth road. A trader once, 
offered fifty dollars in goods to a particular Indian 
friend of his, who is the head or principal man of this 
society among the Sauk and Fox Indians, to be allowed 
to be present at one of their meetings, but was refused. 
Age has nothing to do with an applicant who wishes to 
become a member of this society, as I have been told the 
Minnominnie Indians admit boys of fourteen and fif- 
teen years of age, but the Sauk and Fox Indians will 
not admit any so young. The Sauk and Fox Indians 
believe in wizards and witches and none but their jug- 
glers have power to allay them. 

General Manners and Customs 

The Sauk and Fox Indians (like all other Indians) 
did formerly eat human flesh, and in their war excur- 
sions would always bring home pieces of the flesh of 
some of their enemies killed in battle, which they would 
eat, but for the last forty or fifty years they have aban- 
doned that vile practice, and sometimes will yet bring 
home a small piece of human flesh of their enemies for 


their little children to gnaw, to render them brave as 
they say. The Sauk and Fox and all other Indians that 
I am acquainted with have no particular salutation in 
meeting or parting from each other, with the whiteman 
they will shake hands in deference to our custom. The 
Sauk Indians pay great respect to their chiefs when 
afsembled in council, but the Fox Indians are quite to 
the contrary, they pay no respect to their chiefs at any 
time, except necefsity compels them, but as there are so 
much equality among all Indians, the chiefs seldom dare 
insult a private individual. 86 The Indians have no 
language like our profane cursing and swearing, they 
on emergencies appeal to the deity to witnefs the truth 
of their statements. They will say such a man is a 
worthlefs dog, a bad Indian, etc. Friendship between 
two Indians as comrades has no cold medium to it, an 
Indian in love is a silly looking mortal, he cannot eat, 
drink, or sleep, he appears to be deranged and with all 
the pains he takes to conceal his passion, yet it is so 
vifsible that all his friends know what is the matter with 

86 "Equality and independence were the cardinal principles of Indian society. 
In some tribes, as the Iroquois, certain of the highest chieftaincies were con- 
fined to certain clans, and these may be said in a modified sense to have been 
hereditary; and there were also hereditary chieftaincies among the Apache, 
Chippewa, Sioux, and other tribes. Practically, however, the offices within 
the limits of the tribal government were purely elective. The ability of the 
candidates, their courage, eloquence, previous services, above all, their personal 
popularity, formed the basis for election to any and all offices. Except among 
the Natchez and a few other tribes of the lower Mississippi, no power in any 
wise analogous to that of the despot, no rank savoring of inheritance, as we 
understand the term, existed among our Indians. Even military service was 
not compulsory, but he who would might organize a war party, and the courage 
and known prowess in war of the leader chiefly determined the number of his 
followers. So loose were the ties of authority on the war-path that a bad 
dream or an unlucky presage was enough to diminish the number of the war 
party at any time, or even to break it up entirely. . . The fact is that social 
and political organization was of the lowest kind ; the very name of tribe, with 
implication of a body bound together by social ties and under some central 
authority, is of very uncertain application." HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Hand- 
book Amer. Indians, art. "Popular fallacies." 


him. They never laugh at him but rather pity 
him. After an Indian returns home from hunting he 
will throw his game at the door of the lodge, enter in, 
put away his gun, undrefs his leggins and mocosins, and 
sit down without speaking a word with his head between 
his knees : immediately some thing to eat is placed be- 
fore him, after eating heartily he looks at his wife or 
friends, smiles, and enters into conversation with them 
about what he has seen extraordinary during the day a 
hunting. Their power of recollection don't seem to be 
as strong as ours, many circumstances that have occurred 
within my recollection they have totally forgot. The 
Indians have only one way of building their bark huts 
or summer residences, they are built in the form of an 
oblong, a bench on each of the long sides about three feet 
high and four feet wide, paralel to each other, a door at 
each end, and a pafsage thro the center of about six feet 
wide, some of those huts, are fifty or sixty feet long and 
capable of lodging fifty or sixty persons. Their winter 
lodges are made by driving long poles in the ground in 
two rows nearly at equal distances from each other, 
bending the tops so as to overlap each other, then cover- 
ing them with mats made of what they call puc-wy 87 a 
kind of rushes or flags, a Bearskin generally serves for 
a door, which is suspended at the top and hangs down, 
when finished it is not unlike an oven with the fire in the 

87 Puc-vuy: a corruption of Ojibwa apakwetashk, meaning "roof -mat grass;" 
the "cat-tail flag" (Typha latifolia) the leaves of which are used for making 
mats for covering wigwams (apahueiak, plural of apakwei, from a root mean- 
ing "to roof"). The rush used for making floor-mats (andkanak, from a root 
meaning "to spread out upon the ground") is the widely-distributed bulrush 
(Scirpus lacustris), called by the Ojibwa andkanashk, or "floor-mat grass." 
The root of this rush, in California called "tule" (from Mexican tolin) is much 
eaten by some Indians ; it affords a white, sweet, and very nutritious flour. 


Lake Puckaway, in Green Lake County, Wis., is evidently named for this 
plant. ED. 


center and the smoke omits thro the top. The Indians 
are acquainted with the various ways in which different 
nations of Indians encamp, and when they happen to 
come to an old encampment they can tell by the signs, 
the peculiar mode of making spits to roast their meat 
on, etc., whether it was their own people or whom and 
how many days old the encampment was, also which way 
they came and which way they went. The reasons that 
the Indians spare the lives of snakes is thro fear of of- 
fending them, they wish to be friendly with the whole 
family of snakes particularly the venemous kinds, they 
frequently throw them tobacco and to the dead ones 
they lay a few scraps of tobacco close to their heads. 

Food, Mode of Living, Cooking Meals, etc. 

There are few animals a hungry Indian will not eat, 
but the preference is always given to venison or bear's 
meat, and are the chief kinds of meat they eat, they feel 
always at a lofs without corn, even in the midst of meat. 
Corn with beans and dryed pumpkins well prepared, 
and sweet corn boiled with fat venison, ducks, or tur- 
kies, are delicious in the extreme. The Sauk and Fox 
Indians eat but few roasts, as they raise an immensity of 
corn, they sometimes make use of the wild potatoe a-pin, 
and the bear potatoe or Muco-co-pin also wah-co-pin or 
crooked root, Wab-bis-see-pin or Swan root. 88 They 

88 "The Indians put the roots and other valuable parts of plants to a 
greater variety of uses than they did animal or mineral substances, even in the 
arid region, though plants with edible roots are limited mainly to the areas 
having abundant rainfall. The more important uses of roots were for food, 
for medicine, and for dyes, but there were many other uses, as for basketry, 
cordage, fire-sticks, cement, etc., and for chewing, making salt, and flavoring. 
Plants of the lily family furnished the most abundant and useful root food of 
the Indians throughout the United States. . . The tubers of the arrowhead 
plant (Sagittaria arifolia and S. latifolia), wappatoo in Algonquian, were 
widely used in the northwest for food. . . The Chippewa and Atlantic 
coast Indians also made use of them. . . The Sioux varied their diet with 
roots of the Indian turnip, two kinds of water-lily, the water grass, and the 


do not make much use of wild rice, because they have 
little or none in their country, except when they pro- 
cure some from the Winnebagoes or Minnominnie In- 
dians. They most generally boil every thing into soup. 
I never knew them to eat raw meat, and meat seems to 
disgust them when it is not done thoroughly. They 
use fish only when they are scarce of tallow in summer, 
then they go and spear fish both by night and day, but 
it appears they only eat fish from necessity. The old 
women set the kettle a boiling in the night, and about 
day break all eat whatever they have got, they eat in the 
course of the day as often as they are hungry, the kettle 
is on the fire constantly suspended from the roof of the 
lodge, every one has his wooden dish or bowl and wood- 
en spoon 89 or as they call it Me-quen which they carry 

modo of the Sioux, called by the French pomme de terre, the ground-nut 
(Apios apios}. To these may be added the tuber of milkweed (Asclepias tube- 
rosa), valued by the Sioux of the upper Platte, and the root of the Jerusalem 
artichoke (Helianthus tuberosa), eaten by the Dakota of St Croix River. . . 
The Miami, Shawnee, and other tribes of the middle west ate the 'man of the 
earth' (Ipomcea pandurata] and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tub ero so). . . 
The Hopi, Zuni, and other tribes eat the tubers of the wild potato (Solatium 
jamesii} . The southern and eastern tribes also made use of the potato. Though 
this acrid tuber is unpalatable and requires much preparation to render it suit- 
able for food, many tribes recognized its value. The Navaho, especially, dug 
and consumed large quantities of it, and, on account of the griping caused by 
eating it, they ate clay with it as a palliative. . . Hariot mentions (Briefs 
and True Report, 1590) six plants the roots of which were valued as food by 
the Virginia Indians, giving the native name, appearance, occurrence, and 
method of preparation. . . Although the use of edible roots by the Indians 
was general, they nowhere practiced root cultivation, even in its incipient 
stages. In the United States the higher agriculture, represented by maize culti- 
vation, seems to have been directly adopted by tribes which had not advanced 
to the stages of root cultivation." WALTER HOUGH, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 
89 "With the Indian the bowl serves a multitude of purposes ; it is associated 
with the supply of his simplest needs as well as with his religion. The mate- 
rials employed in making bowls are stone (especially soapstone), horn, bone, 
shell, skin, wood, and bark. Bowls are often adapted to natural forms, as 
shells, gourds, and concretions, either unmodified or more or less fully re- 
modeled, and basket bowls are used by many tribes." They were used in pre- 
paring and serving food, for the drying, gathering, etc. of seeds in games of 
chance and divination, and in religious ceremonies; and "the most ancient 


along with them when they are invited to feasts. Their 
cooking are not very clean, they seldom wash their ket- 
tles, dishes or meat, the old women will sometimes by 
way of cleanlinefs wipe the dish with her fingers. 

Games, Dances, etc. 

The Sauk and Fox Indians have many games, such as 
the mocosin, the platter, etc. Their most active game is 
what they call Puc-a-haw-thaw-waw, it is not unlike 
what we call shinny or bandy, they make use of a yarn 
ball covered with leather, the women also play this 
game, also the platter which is exclusively theirs. Run- 
ing foot races and horses they are very fond of. The 
Sauk and Fox nations have dances peculiar to them- 
selves, also others they have adopted from other nations. 
The[y] dance the buffallow-dance and the otter dance, 
in dancing the buffallow-dance, they are drefsed with the 
pate of ,a buffallow skin with the horns, they imitate the 
buffallow by throwing themselves into different pos- 
tures, also by mimicing his groans, attempting to horn 
each other, keeping exact time with the drum, the 
women often join in these dances, but remain nearly in 
the same spot (while dancing) and singing in a shrill 
voice above the men. The medicine dance or Mit-tee- 
wee, all those who belong to that fraternity, are made 

permanent cooking utensil of the plains tribes was a bowl made by hollowing 
out a stone." - Handbook Amer. Indians. 

Spoons and ladles were used among all tribes of the United States; they 
were made of a great variety of materials stone, shell, bone, horn, wood, 
gourd, pottery, etc. and in size were larger than European utensils of this 
sort. Wood was the most usual material for these articles; and some of the 
tribes on the northwest coast made them of highly artistic form and decoration. 
Among the eastern and southern Indians from New York to Florida they were 
made with the pointed bowl, a form which occurs in no other part of the 
United States. "Gourds were extensively used and their forms were often 
repeated in pottery." Spoons of shell were common where shells were avail- 
able, and artistically wrought specimens have been found in the mounds. 

WALTER HOUGH, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


acquainted by some of the head persons, that on a cer- 
tain day, the whole will afsemble at a particular place; 
on the day appointed they make a shade, both males and 
females make their best appearance, they have two 
drums on the occasion, the businefs is opened with a 
prayer from one of the members, after which the drum- 
mers sing a doleful ditty, beating at same time on their 
drums, each person male and female are provided with 
a sac or pouch of the whole skin of some animal as the 
raccoon, mink, marten, fisher, and otter, but generally 
of the last mentioned : one of the elders get up and com- 
mence dancing round the inside of the lodge, another 
follows, and so on untill they are all in motion, as they 
pafs by each other, they point the nose of the sacs or 
pouches at each other blowing a whiff at the same time, 
the person so pointed at, will fall down on the ground 
apparently in pain, and immediately get up again and 
touch some other one in turn, who will do the same in 
succefsion, etc. The Sauk and Fox Indians play at 
cards, and frequently play high, they bet horses, wam- 
pum, silver works, etc. They frequently in the summer 
season have sham battles, a party of footmen undertake 
to conduct to their village some friends, they on their 
journey are attacked by a party of horsemen who rush 
on them from the woods and surround them, the foot- 
men throw themselves into the form of a hollow square, 
the horsemen are armed with pistols, the footmen re- 
ceive them with a volley, and beat them off, and are 
again attacked from another quarter and so on alter- 
nately untill they succeed in bringing their friends safe 
to their village. In those encounters many get thrown 
from their horses and sometimes, the footmen get 
trampled on by the horses, but during the whole of the 
transaction nothing like anger makes its appearance, 


they all retire on the best terms with each other, and it 
would be considered as shameful and to much like a 
woman for a man to become angry in play. 90 

International Law of Relations 

The Sauk and Fox Nations of Indians are in very 
strict alliance with each other, indeed their affinity are 

90 "When not bound down by stern necessity, the Indian at home was occu- 
pied much of the time with dancing, feasting, gaming, and story-telling. 
Though most of the dances were religious or otherwise ceremonial in character, 
there were some which had no other purpose than that of social pleasure. They 
might take place in the day or the night, be general or confined to particular 
societies, and usually were accompanied with the drum or other musical instru- 
ment to accentuate the song. The rattle was perhaps invariably used only in 
ceremonial dances. Many dances were of pantomimic or dramatic character, 
and the Eskimo had regular pantomime plays, though evidently due to Indian 
influence. The giving of presents was often a feature of the dance, as was 
betting of all athletic contests and ordinary games. . . From Hudson Bay 
to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the border of the plains, the 
great athletic game was the ball play, now adopted among civilized games 
under the name of 'lacrosse.' In the north it was played with one racket, and 
in the south with two. Athletes were regularly trained for this game, and 
competitions were frequently intertribal. The wheel-and-stick game in one 
form or another was well-nigh universal. . . Like most Indian institutions, 
the game often had a symbolic significance in connection with a sun myth. . . 
Target practice with arrows, knives, or hatchets, thrown from the hand, as 
well as with the bow or rifle, was also universal among the warriors and boys 
of the various tribes. The gaming arrows were of special design and orna- 
mentation, and the game itself often had a symbolic purpose. . . Games 
resembling dice and hunt-the-button were found everywhere and were played 
by both sexes alike, particularly in the tipi or the wigwam during the long 
winter nights. . . Investigations by Culin show a close correspondence be- 
tween these Indian games and those of China, Japan, Korea, and northern 
Asia. Special women's games were shinny, football, and the deer-foot game, 
besides the awl game already noted. . . Among the children there were 
target shooting, stilts, slings, and tops for the boys, and buckskin dolls and 
playing-house for the girls, with 'wolf or 'catcher,' and various forfeit plays, 
including a breath-holding test. Cats'-cradles, or string figures, as well as 
shuttlecocks and buzzes, were common. As among civilized nations, the chil- 
dren found the greatest delight in imitating the occupations of the elders. 
Numerous references to amusements among the various tribes may be found 
throughout the annual reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Consult 
especially 'Games of the American Indians,' by Stewart Culin, in the 24th 
Report, 1905." JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook Amer. Indians, art. "Amuse- 


doubly rivited by intermarriages, similarity of manners 
and customs as also in the similarity of language. I 
have never heard where their council fire is but believe 
it to be at the Sauk Village on the Rocky River, it may 
be elsewhere. The alliance between the Sauk and Fox 
Indians and the Ofsages was made at the Ofsage vil- 
lage on the Ofsage River which falls into the Mifsouri 
River. The alliance between the Sauk and Fox Na- 
tions and the Kicapoo Nation of Indians, was formed at 
the Sauk Village as above described. All those Nations 
of Indians except the Ofsages have long since joined the 
General Confederacy at Browns Town in Michigan 
Territory, and it still exists. The Sauk and Fox Indians 
have no national badge that I know, they call the Shawa- 
noes and Kicapoos their elder brothers. Every nation 
of Indians think themselves as great as any other, and I 
never heard of any relative rank among the different 
nations of Indians, except what has been said about the 
council fire at Browns town. 


About the middle of September (some years later) 
the Sauk and Fox Indians all begin to move from their 
villages to go towards the country the[y] mean to hunt 
during the ensuing winter, they generally go westwards 
in the interiour on the head waters of Ihoway and De- 
moine Rivers and some go beyond those rivers quite in 
the interiour of the country. There are some who have 
no horses as also many old people who descend the 
Mifsifsippi River in canoes as far as the Ihoway, Scunk 
and other rivers and ascend those rivers to the different 
places where they mean to pafs the winter a hunting. 
Those Indians who have a sufficiency of horses to trans- 
port their families and baggage go as far westward in 
their hunting excursions as the Mifsouri River and 


sometimes are invited by the Kansez and other Indians 
to crofs the Mifsouri River and hunt in this country as 
far westward on small streams that fall into Arkansaw 
River. They generally stop hunting deer when the 
winter begins to be severe and forms themselves into 
grand encampments to pafs the remainder of the winter 
or severe weather. They at this time are visited by 
their traders who go and receive their credits and also 
trade with them. 91 On opening of the spring those that 
have traps go to beaver hunting others to hunt bear 
and they generally finish their hunt about the io th of 
April. They formerly had general hunting parties or 
excursions before the buffaloe removed so far westward. 
It is customary to make a feast of the first animal killed 
by each party, the whole are invited with some cere- 
mony. In case of sicknefs they feast on dog's meat and 
sacrifice dogs by killing them with an axe, tying them to 
a sapling with their noses pointed east or west and 
painted with vermillion. When strangers of another 
nation visit their villages, the crier makes a long ha- 
rangue thro the village in a loud voice, to use the 
strangers well, while they stay, etc. The strangers may 
be invited to several feasts in the course of the same day, 
while the[y] remain at the village; however particular 
Indians give feasts to particular individuals, their par- 
ticular friends and relations, and the custom of feasting 
strangers is not so common now among the Sauk and 
Fox Indians as formerly, or as is at present among the 
Indians of Mifsouri. 

The Sauk and Fox Indians will on great emergencies 
hold a general feast throughout their nations, to avert 

91 In the Forsyth Mss. (vol. iii, doc. i) is a list of the licenses to traders 
granted by Forsyth at the Rock River agency, 1822-1827. Twenty-six licenses, 
sometimes more than one to the same person, are described, all issued for one 
year. The number of clerks for each varied from one to six; and the capital 
employed, from $518.16 to $6,814.71. ED. 


some expected general calamity, while the magicians are 
praying to the Great Spirit and making use of numer- 
ous ceremonies. 

It is a very mistaken idea among many of the white 
people to suppose, that the Indians have not hair on 
every part of their body, that they have both males and 
females : they pull it out with an instrument made of 
brafs wire in the form of a gun worm. They consider it 
indecent to let it grow. 

The Sauk and Fox Indians shave their heads except 
a small patch on the crown, which they are very fond of 
drefsing and plaiting, the[y] suspend several ornaments 
to it of horse or deer's hair died red as also silver orna- 
ments, feathers of birds, etc., they paint their faces red 
with vermillion, green with verdigrease and black with 
charcoal, their prevailing colour is red, except before or 
after coming from war, after returning from war they 
divest themselves of all their ornaments, wear dirt on 
their heads, and refrain from using vermillion for one 
year. The women tye their hair in a club with some 
worsted binding, red, blue, or green but the former is 
prefered leaving two ends to hang down their backs. 92 

92 "The motive of personal adornment, aside from the desire to appear at- 
tractive, seems to have been to mark individual, tribal, or ceremonial distinction. 
The use of paint on the face, hair, and body, both in color and design, gen- 
erally had reference to individual or clan beliefs, or it indicated relationship or 
personal bereavement, or was an act of courtesy. It was always employed in 
ceremonies, religious and secular, and was an accompaniment of gala dress 
donned to honor a guest or to celebrate an occasion. The face of the dead was fre- 
quently painted in accordance with tribal or religious symbolism. The prac- 
tice of painting was widespread and was observed by both sexes. Paint was 
also put on the faces of adults and children as a protection against wind and 
sun," Other forms of adornment consisted in plucking out the hairs on the face 
and body, head-flattening, tattooing, the use of fat, and that of perfumes; and 
the wearing of earrings, labrets, and nose-rings. Garments were often elab- 
orately ornamented among the inland tribes largely with porcupine and 
feather quills, which were later replaced by beads of European manufacture 
and sometimes were painted. Such work was not only decorative, but often 
symbolic, ceremonial, or even historical. - ALICE C. FLETCHER, in Handbook 
Amer. Indians. 


The Indians admire our manufactories but more par- 
ticularly guns and gunpowder, but many old Indians 
say they were more happy before they knew the use of 
fire arms, because, they then could kill as much game 
as they wanted, not being then compelled to destroy 
game to purchase our merchandise as they are now 
oblidged to do. 

They say that the white people's thirst after land is 
so great that they are never contented untill they have a 
belly full of it, the Indians compare a white settlement 
in their neighbourhood to a drop of raccoon's grease 
falling on a new blanket the drop at first is scarcely 
perceptible, but in time covers almost the whole blanket. 
The Sauk and Fox Indians do almost all their carrying 
on horseback and in canoes, if any carrying is oblidged 
to be done for want of horses, the women have to 
shoulder it. Among the Sauk and Fox Indians the 
young men are most generally handsome, well made, 
and extreamely modest. 

The young men and women, when they begin to think 
of marrying use vermillion. I have observed in the 
course of my life, that Indians are not now so stout and 
robust as formerly, in general they are very atheletic 
with good constitutions, yet whatever may be the cause, 
they have not the strength we have. Their general 
heighth is about five feet, eight inches, a great many of 
the old people are much taller, however they are not 
in my opinion degenerating. It is impofsible to ascer- 
tain the proportion of births to the deaths but it is well 
known they are on the increase. 93 In a conversation I 
had with Keeocuck the most intelligent Indian among 

93 "It has been supposed that, in his physiologic functions the Indian differs 
considerably from the white man, but the greater our knowledge in this direction 
the fewer the differences appear; there is, however, a certain lack of uni- 
formity in this respect between the two races." The development and life of 


the Sauk and Fox Indians (and a Sauk by birth) last 
summer (1826) he told me the Sauk Nation could fur- 
nish twelve hundred warriours, three fourths of which 
were well armed with good rifles and remainder with 
shot guns and some few with bows and arrows. The 
Sauk and Fox Indians encourage polygamy and the 
adoption of other Indians in their nations, which serves 
to augment their nations rapidly. All belts of wampum 
are presented in council (after speaking) by the prin- 

the Indian infant are quite similar to those of the white child. The period 
of puberty is notably alike in the two races. Marriage takes place earlier 
among the Indians than among the whites; "only few girls of more than 
eighteen years, and few young men of more than twenty-two years, are un- 
married," and sometimes girls marry at thirteen to fifteen years. "Indian 
women bear children early, and the infants of even the youngest mothers seem 
in no way defective. The birth rate is generally high, from six to nine births 
in a family being usual. . . The adult life of the Indian offers nothing 
radically different from that of ordinary whites. The supposed early aging 
of Indian women is by no means general and is not characteristic of the race; 
when it occurs, it is due to the conditions surrounding the life of the indi- 
vidual. . . But few of them know their actual age. . . The longevity of 
the Indian is very much like that of a healthy white man. There are in- 
dividuals who reach the age of one hundred years and more, but they are 
exceptional. Among aged Indians there is usually little decrepitude. Aged 
women predominate somewhat in numbers over aged men." 

"Among the more primitive tribes, who often pass through periods of want, 
capacity for food is larger than in the average whites. Real excesses in eating 
are witnessed among such tribes, but principally at feasts. On the reservations, 
and under ordinary circumstances, the consumption of food by the Indian is 
usually moderate. All Indians readily develop a strong inclination for and 
are easily affected by alcoholic drinks. The average Indian ordinarily passes 
somewhat more time in sleep than the civilized white man ; on the other hand, 
he manifests considerable capacity for enduring its loss." 

"Dreams are frequent and variable. Illusions or hallucinations in healthy 
individuals and under ordinary conditions have not been observed. . . 
The sight, hearing, smell, and taste of the Indian, so far as can be judged from 
unaided but extended observation, are in no way peculiar. . . The physical 
endurance of Indians on general occasions probably exceeds that of the whites. 
The Indian easily sustains long walking or running, hunger and thirst, severe 
sweating, etc.; but he often tires readily when subjected to steady work. His 
mental endurance, however, except when he may be engaged in ceremonies or 
games, or on other occasions which produce special mental excitement, is but 
moderate; an hour of questioning almost invariably produces mental fatigue." 

Handbook Amer. Indians. 


cipal chiefs, the principal brave or chief of the soldiers 
also delivers his speech and wampum in public council 
when it is a national affair or that they wish to do any 
thing permanent. They make use of no heiroglyphicks 
except painting on a tree or rock or on a post at the head 
of graves, 94 the representation of the tribe the person 
belong to, the number of scalps and prisoners taken from 
the enemy, etc. Strings or belts of white wampum are 
occasionally sent with a piece of tobacco tied to the end 

9 * "Pictography may be defined as that form of thought-writing which 
seeks to convey ideas by means of picture-signs or marks more or less sug- 
gestive or imitative of the object or idea in mind. Significance, therefore, is 
an essential element of pictographs, which are alike in that they all express 
thought, register a fact, or convey a message. Pictographs, on the one hand, 
are more or less closely connected with sign language, by which they may have 
been preceded in point of time;" and, on the other hand, "with every varying 
form of script and print, past and present, the latter being, in fact, derived 
directly or indirectly from them." Picture-signs have been employed by all 
uncivilized peoples, but "it is chiefly to the American Indian we must look for 
a comprehensive knowledge of their use and purpose, since among them alone 
were both pictographs and sign language found in full and significant em- 
ploy. Pictographs have been made upon a great variety of objects, a favorite 
being the human body. Among other natural substances, recourse by the picto- 
grapher has been had to stone, bone, skins, feathers and quills, gourds, shells, 
earth and sand, copper, and wood, while textile and fictile fabrics figure 
prominently in the list. . . 

"From the earliest form of picture-writing, the imitative, the Indian had 
progressed so far as to frame his conceptions ideographically, and even to 
express abstract ideas. Later, as skill was acquired, his figures became more 
and more conventionalized till in many cases all semblance of the original was 
lost, and the ideograph became a mere symbol. While the great body of In- 
dian glyphs remained pure ideographs, symbols were by no means uncommonly 
employed, especially to express religious subjects, and a rich color symbolism like- 
wise was developed, notably in the southwest." Usually the Indian glyphs "are 
of individual origin, are obscured by conventionalism, and require for their 
interpretation a knowledge of their makers and of the customs and events of the 
times, which usually are wanting" hence the need of great caution, and fre- 
quent failure, in trying to explain them. Nevertheless, "their study is im- 
portant. These pictures on skin, bark, and stone, crude in execution as they 
often are, yet represent the first artistic records of ancient, though probably not 
of primitive man. In them lies the germ of achievement which time and effort 
have developed into the masterpieces of modern eras. Nor is the study of 
pictographs less important as affording a glimpse into the psychological work- 
ings of the mind of early man in his struggles upward." HENRY W. HENSHAW, 
in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


of it as a friendly mefsage or invitation from one nation 
to another for the purpose of opening the way to an 
adjustment of differences or any other subject of impor- 
tance. Blue wampum painted red, with tobacco in the 
same manner denotes hostility or a solicitation to join 
in hostility against some other power. Those strings or 
belts of wampum are accompanied by speeches to be 
repeated verbatim or presenting them to the person or 
persons to whom they are sent, should the terms offered 
or the purport of the mefsage be acceeded to the parties 
accepting the wampum smoke of the tobacco thus tied 
to it and return their answer in a similar way. A belt 
of wampum sent to a neighboring nation for afsistance 
in war, is made of blue wampum, at one end is wrought 
in with white grains the figure of a tomyhawk, presented 
towards a dimond of white grains also both painted red 
with vermillion. Should the nation accept the mefsage, 
they work their dimond of white grains of wampum 
in the same way. 


The Sauk and Fox languages are guttural and nosal 
the following letters are made use in their language as 
well as other sounds that cannot be represented by any 
letters in an alphabet -A, B, C, H, I, K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, 
S, T, U, w, Y, Z, are letters of our alp [h] abet that are 
sounded in their language : the accent is generally placed 
on the second syllable and often on the first. They place 
a very strong emp[h]asis on the superlative degree of 
their ajectives also their adverbs of quality and inter- 
jections. They designate the genders thus- 


Man, Ninny Woman, Hequa 

Men, Ninnywuck Women, Hequa-wuck 

Buck, lawpe Doe, A-co 

Deer [plural?], Pay-shakes-see 


The genders of all other animals are formed by plac- 
ing the word [for] male or female before them. The 
plurals of substantives are formed by the termination of 
uck or <wuck 


Child, A-pen-no Children, A-pen-no-wuck 

Chief, O-ke-maw Chiefs, O-ke-maw-wuck 

Indian, Me-thu-say-nin-ny Indians, Me-thu-say-nin-ny-wuck 

also the termination of y or wy to the name of an animal 
is the proper name of its Skin. 


Buckskin, I-aw-pe-wy Buckskins, I-aw-pe-wy-uck 

Muskrat [skin], Shusk-wy Muskratskins, Shusk-wy-uck 


American, 95 Muc-a-mon Englishman, Sog-o-nosh 

French, Mith-o-cosh Blanket, Mi-co-say 

95 Derivation of the Indian names for American, English and French 
people It is very well known, that the first white people the Indians saw in 
North America, were the French, who landed in Canada at an early day. The 
Indians say, that the French wore long beards in those days, from which cir- 
cumstance, the Indians called them Wa-bay-mish-e-tome, i.e., white people with 
beards, and Wem-ty-goush is an abbreviation of the former Indian words of 

Sog-o-nosh, appears to be derived from the gallic word Sasenaugh, which 
as I am well informed, means Saxon. The manner in which the Indians became 
acquainted with this word is as follows. At an early period, perhaps, in the 
latter part of the seventeenth, or the beginning of the eighteenth century, the 
British were about to make an attack on Quebeck; some Scotchmen who were 
officers in the French army, at that place, told the Indians to be strong, and 
they, combined with the French, would kill all those bad Sasenaghs (meaning 
the British Army) who dared come against them. The Indians took the word, 
and pronounced it as now spoken, Sog-o-nosh. Both words as Wem-ty-goush 
and Sog-o-nosh originated with the lake Indians. 

Kit-chi-mo-co-maun or Big Knife is of a more recent origin, than the two 
former names. In some one of the many battles between the settlers of the 
then province (now State) of Virginia, the Indians were attacked by a party 
of white men on horseback, with long knives (swords), and were ever after 
called Big Knives by the Indians in that quarter, which name reached the more 
northern Indians, and the name of Big Knife has ever since been given by the 
Indians to every American. The Indians in Lower Canada used to call the 
New England people Pos-to-ney which I presume was borrowed from the 
French Bostone, but at the present day and for many years back, all Indians 


Powder (gun), Muck-i-tha Sun, Keeshis 

Flint, Sog-o-cawn Otter, Cuth-eth-tha 
Whiskey or rum, Scho-ta-wa-bo Beaver, Amic-qua 

Cow, Na-no-ee Elk, Mesh-shay-way 

Cat, Caw-shu Bear, Muc-qua 

Cat (wild), Pis-shew Wild goose, Alick-qua 

Fowls, Puck-a-ha-qua Duck, She-sheeb 

Looking glafs, Wa-ba-moan Eagle, Mick-is-seou 

Silver, Shoo-ne-aw Owl, We-thuc-co 

Knife, Mau-thifs Swan, A-ha-wa 

Dog, A-lem-mo Pidgeon, Mee-mee 

Saddle, Tho-me-a-cul Eye, Os-keesh-oc-qua 
Bridle, So-ke-the-na-pe-chu-cun Hand, Neek 

Canoe, It-che-maun Mouth, Thole 

Paddle, Up-we Nose, co-mouth 

Water, Neppe Teeth, Wee-pee-thul 

call alJ Americans, Kit-chi-mo-co-raaun, i.e., Big Knives. T. FORSYTH (among 
memoranda following his memoir). 

Many curious names were given by the aboriginal peoples to the white 
men, "appellations referring to their personal appearance, arrival in ships, 
arms, dress, and other accouterments, activities, merchandise and articles 
brought with them, as iron, and fancied correspondence to figures of aboriginal 
myth and legend." In some cases the term for men of one nation was after- 
ward extended to include all white men whom they met. Thus, "the Chippe- 
wa term for 'Englishman,' shaganash (which probably is connected with 'spear* 
man,' or the 'contemptible spearman.' WM. JONES, 1906) has been extended to 
mean 'white man.'" The Americans (i.e., the inhabitants of the English 
colonies which are now part of the United States) were called, in and after the 
Revolutionary period, various names by the Indians to distinguish them from 
the British and French. "Probably from the swords of the soldiery several 
tribes designated the Americans as 'big knives,' or 'long knives.' This is the 
signification of the Chippewa and Nipissing chimo'koman. . . The prom- 
inence of Boston in the early history of the United States led to its name being 
used for 'American' on both the Atlantic and the Pacific coast. Another Al- 
gonquian term for Frenchman is the Cree wemistikojiw, Chippewa wemittgosht, 
probably akin to the Fox wa'me'tego'whita, one who is identified with something 
wooden, probably referring to something about clothing and implements. The 
Fox name for a Frenchman is ivdme'tegoshia (WM. JONES, 1906) ; Menorainee, 
vvameqtikosiu; Missisauga, wamitigushi, etc. The etymology of this name is 
uncertain." - A. F. CHAMBERLAIN, in Handbook Amer. Indians, art. "Race 

In a letter to the editor, Dr. F. W. Hodge says: "Forsyth's Wem-ty-goush 
is from the Chippewa wemitigosht, meaning 'people of the wooden canoes.'" 





Legs, Cau-then 

Arms, Nitch 

Head, Weesh 

Foot, Couth 

Hair (of the head), We-ne-sis 

Hair (of animals), We-se-an 

Corn, Thaw-meen 

Tree, Ma-thic-quai 

Moon, Kee-shis 

Stars, A-law-queek 

Day, Keesh-o-co 

Night, Tip-pic-quoc 

Father, Oce 

Mother, Kea 

Sister, Ni-thuc-quame 

Brother (elder), Si-say 

Brother (younger), Se-ma 

Sister (elder), Ne-mis-sa 

Sister (younger), Chu-me-is-sum 

Son, Quis 

Daughter, Thaunis 

Grandfather, Mish-o-mifs 

Grandmother, Co-mifs 

Friend, Cawn 

Yesterday, O-naw-co 

To-day, He-noke 

Tomorrow, wa-buck 

Warriour, Wa-taw-say 

Spring, Man-no-cum-me 

Rock, As-sen 

Sand, Na-kow 

Wood, Ma-thi-a-cole 

Mifsifsippi, Mes-is-se-po 

Wind, No-then 

Snow, Ac-coen 

Rain, Kee-me-a 

Thunder, An-a-mee-kee 

Dance, Ne-mee 

Path, Me-ow 

God, Man-nit-too 

Devil, Mache-man-nit-too 

Fire, Scho-tha 

Boy, Qui-es-ea 

Girl, Squa-cy 

Tobacco, Say-maw 

Sail, Caw-tha-sum 

Thought, Es-she-thai 

Courage, A-e-qua-me 

Hatred, Es-m-a-wa 

Fear, Co-suc-kea 

Love, Tip-pawn-nan 

Eternity, Caw-keek 

Happinefs, Men-we-pem-au-this- 


Strength, We-shic-is-see 
Beauty, Wa-wan-is-see 
Insanity, Waw-wen-au-this-se-ow 
Revenge, Ash-e-tho-a-caw-no 
Cowardice, Keesh-kee-tha-hum 
Hunger, Wee-shaw-pel 
Round, PTa-we-i-au 
White, Wa-bes-kiou 
Black, Muck-et-tha-wa 
Yellow, As-saow 
Green, Ski-buc-ki-a 
Red, Mus-quaou 
Blue, We-pec-qua 
Song, Nuc-a-moan 
Feast, Kay-kay-noo 
Salt, See-wee-thaw-gun 
Sugar, Sis-sa-bac-quat 
White Oak, Mec-she-mish 
Red Oak, Ma-thic-wa-mish 
Cedar, Mus-qua-aw-quck 
Pine, Shin-qua-quck 
Cottonwood, Me-thew-wuck 
Sycamore, Keesh-a-wock-quai 
Grafs, Mus-kis-kee 
Hill, Mes-is-sauk 
Island, Men-nefs 


River, Seepo 

Flat, Puc-puc-kfs-kia 

Alive, Pematifs 

Dead, Nippo 

Sick, Oc-co-muth 

Well, Nes-say 

Tired, je-qua 

Lazy, Naw-nee-kee-tho 

Early, Maw-my 

Late, A-maw-quas 

Handsome, Waw-won-nifs-see 

Ugly, Me-aw-nifs-see 

Rich, O-thai-wifs-see 

Poor, Kitch-a-moc-is-see 
Good, Wa-wun-nitt 
Better, Na-kai-may-wa-won-nitt 
Best, One-wak-men-we-wa-won- 


Bad, Me-aw-nith 
Worse, A-ne-kai-may-me-aw-nith 
Worst, A-me-kaw-she-me-aw- 

nith 96 

Boat, Mis-se-gock-it-che-man 
Flute, Paw-pe-guen 
Boards, Mifs-see-gock 

I, Neen 

Thou or you, Keene 
He, she, or it, Weene 



We, Neenwaw 
Ye, Keenwaw 
They, Weenwaw 


Mine or my, Nichi Enim 97 
Thy or thine, Kiche Enim 
His or hers, O-thi-Enim 



Ours, Neen-ane-i-thi-enim 
Yours, Keen-ane-othi-enim 
Theirs, Ween-waw-othi-enim 



I love, ne-neen-wen-a-maw 
Thou lovest, Ke-men-wen-a-maw- 

He loved, O-men-wen-a-maw-kia 

One, Necouth 
Two, Neesh 
Three, Nefs 


We love, Neen-wa-ke-men-a-kia 
Ye or you love, Keen-wa, etc. 
They love, Ween-wa, etc. 
Loved, Men-a-wa-kia-pie 
Loving, Men-wen-a-meen 


Four, Ne-a-we 
Five, Nee-aw-neen 
Six, Ne-coth-wa-sick 

96 These comparisons of "bad," as also the specimens of plural formation 
for substantives (page 240) have been transposed to their present and logical 
position because in the Ms. they were evidently misplaced by some forgetful- 
ness or oversight of Forsyth's. ED. 

97 The termination enim has reference to things. T. FORSYTH (in marginal 


Seven, No-wuck 12, Mittausway Neshway nifscc 

Eight, Nip-wash-ick 13, Mittausway Nefs-way Nifsee 

Nine, Shauck 20, Neesh Wap-pe-tuck 

Ten, Mit-taus 30, Nefs Wap-pe-tuck 

II, Mittausway Necouth a nifsee 100, Necouth-wock-qua 
1,000, Mittaus wock-qua or necouth kichi wock 
10,000, Mit-taus Kichi wock or ten great hundreds 

The Sauk and Fox and I believe all other Indians 
count decimally. 


Come with me Ke-we-thay-me 

Go to him E-na-ke-haw-loo 

I will fight for you Ke-me-caw-thu-it-thum-one 

Come in with me Pen-the-kay-thaun 

Let us wade thro the water Pee-than-see-e-thawn 


He shoots badly Me-awn-os-show-whai 

He eats much Kichu-o-we-sen-ne 

The River rises rapidly Kichu-mos-on-hum-o-see-po 

Come here Pe-a-loo 

Go there E-tip-pe-haw-loo 

Behave well Muc-quache-how-e-wa 

Not you but me A-qua-kun-neen 

Neither you nor I A-qua-necoth I-O 

The above is submitted to your better Judgment of 
Indian Manners and Customs by your obedient servant 

St Louis, 1 5th January, 1827 
[Addressed:] GENERAL WILLIAM CLARK," Sup td of In. 

affs, St. Louis. 

98 Thomas Forsyth was of Scotch-Irish origin, his father, William Forsyth, 
coming to America in 1750, and entering military service here; after the French 
and Indian War he was stationed at Detroit, where Thomas was born, Dec. 5, 
1771. When but a youth, Thomas entered the Indian trade; he spent several 
winters at Saginaw Bay, and as early as 1798 spent a winter on an island in 
the Mississippi River, near Quincy, 111. About 1802 he, with Robert Forsyth 
and John Kinzie, established a trading-post at Chicago, and later settled as a 
trader at Peoria. April i, 1812, he was appointed a sub-agent of Indian affairs 
(with a salary of $6co a year, and three rations a day), under Gen. William 


Clark, and for many years (until a short time before the Black Hawk War) 
was agent at first for the Illinois district, and then among the Sauk and Fox 
tribes. He died at St. Louis, Oct. 29, 1833, leaving four children. Forsyth's 
letter-books, covering the period from 1812 to his death, with many letters re- 
ceived by him from prominent men of his time, copies of his official accounts 
rendered to the government, and several memoirs on the Indians forming a 
collection of original documents of great value and interest for western and 
Indian history of that period are in the possession of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society. Forsyth was a man of great ability, and was generally con- 
sidered one of the most competent among the early Indian agents; he had 
much influence with the Indians, and did much to retain them on the side of 
the Americans in the war of 1812-18x5. See biographical and other information 
regarding him in Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. vi, 188, and vol. xi, 316. ED. 

"General Clark was heard to say that this account of the manners and 
customs of the Sauk and Fox Indians was "tolerable." It was so tolerable that 
he nor any of his satelites could equal it, and I should be glad to see some 
of their productions on this head. -T. FORSYTH (marginal note). 


A. Biographical sketch of Nicolas Per- 
rot; condensed from the notes of Father 

B. Notes on Indian social organization, 
mental and moral traits, and religious 
beliefs; and accounts of three remark- 
ably religious movements among In- 
dians in modern times. Mainly from 
writings of prominent ethnologists; the 
remainder by Thomas Forsyth and 
Thomas R. Roddy. 

C. Various letters, etc., describing the 
character and present condition of the 
Sioux, Potawatomi, and Winnebago 
tribes; written for this work by mission- 
aries and others who know these peoples 


[The following sketch of Perrot's life is condensed from Tail- 
han's notes on the explorer's narrative, pages 257-279, 301-308 (see 
present work, volume i, note 171), and 319-336, of the original publi- 
cation. This account is given as far as possible in Tailhan's own 
language, and includes all his statements of facts; but his long cita- 
tions from La Potherie and others are omitted, as also various unim- 
portant comments and details.] 

"We would know [from his memoirs] absolutely nothing about 
the family of our author, the year and the place of his birth, his youth, 
and his first expeditions among the savages of the west, if Charle- 
voix and La Potherie had not, at least in part, made amends for his 
silence. In this note I have brought together the somewhat scanty 
records for which we are indebted to them, and of which they too 
often leave us in ignorance of the exact date. Nicolas Per rot, born 
in 1644, came (I know not in what year) to New France. He be- 
longed to a respectable but not wealthy family; accordingly, after he 
had obtained some smattering of knowledge he found that he must 
break off his studies, in order to enter the service of the missionaries. 
The Jesuits, at that time dispersed afar among the savage peoples 
whom war and famine vied in destroying, had soon realized that they 
could not without rashness place themselves, as regards their sub- 
sistence, at the mercy of the poor Indians in the midst of whom they 
were living. It was therefore necessary for them, as well as for 
their neophytes, to seek their daily food from hunting, fishing, and 
agriculture. These toils, to which their earlier education had left 
them strangers, were besides incompatible with the functions of their 
ministry. The few European coadjutor brethren who were included 
in their number being almost as unskilled in these pursuits as were 
the missionaries themselves, the latter took as associates some young 
men of the country, who, either gratuitously or for a salary, consented 
to share their dangers, fatigues, and privations, and made provision 
for their needs. Fathers Mesnard (Relation of 1663, chap, viii), 
Allouez (id. of 1667, chap, xvi), Marquette (Recit, chap, i), and 

250 APPENDIX A [Vol. 

many others before or after them, had for companions of their apos- 
tolic journeys a certain number of these donnes or engages. It is 
among these latter that Perrot was enrolled, which gave him the 
opportunity to visit most of the indigenous tribes and to learn their 
languages (Charlevoix, Histoire, vol. i, 437). What was the exact 
duration of this sort of apprenticeship? I do not know, but it could 
not have lasted very long. We know, indeed, through La Potherie 
(Histoire, vol. ii, 88, 89) that Perrot was the first to visit the Poute- 
ouatamis, in order to trade with them in 'iron' - that is, in arms and 
munitions of war. At that time, therefore, he had already quitted 
the service of the missionaries. But this voyage could not have been 
made later than 1665; since, on the one hand, Perrot went from the 
Pouteouatamis and arrived among the Outagamis in the very year 
following the settlement of this latter tribe in the neighborhood of 
the Sakis and the Bay (La Potherie, Histoire, vol. ii, 99), and, on the 
other, this migration of the Outagamis was accomplished by the year 
1665 (Relation of 1667, chap. x). We are then necessarily led to 
assign to Perrot's engagement a length of only four or five years at 
most (from 1660 to 1664 or 1665) ; for we can hardly suppose that 
Perrot became companion to the missionaries before his sixteenth 
year." The statement that he was the first Frenchman to visit the 
Pouteouatamis (who had been settled at the entrance to Green Bay 
since 1638) seems to conflict with the other one (Relation of 1660, 
chap, iii) that they had been visited by two Frenchmen in 1654; but 
La Potherie may refer to only one of the villages of that tribe, the 
one farthest up the bay. But, however that may be, "it is certain 
that before 1670 Perrot made several journeys among the various 
tribes of the Bay of Puans and of Wisconsin. . . Perrot was not 
a common trader, occupied solely with his own interests and those of 
his employers. From the beginning of his career he realized how im- 
portant it was to the Colony and to France to see all the peoples of 
the west united together against their common enemy, the Iroquois. 
Accordingly, having learned on his arrival among the Pouteouatamis 
that hostilities had already broken out between those Indians and 
their neighbors the Maloumines or wild-rice people, from whom his 
hosts feared an attack all the more to be dreaded just then because 
all their warriors were at Montreal trading -he offered to go in 
person to negotiate peace with their enemies. This proposition was 
welcomed with gratitude by the old men of the tribe, and Perrot im- 
mediately set out to execute his mission." (See La Potherie's His- 


toire, vol. ii, 90-98, for account of this embassy and its success, and 
Perrot's welcome by the grateful Pouteouatamis. ) "These attentions, 
these marks of honor, and these enthusiastic demonstrations were not 
as disinterested as might be supposed. Perrot somewhere observes 
that in their traffic with Europeans the savages are such only in 
name, and can employ more skilfully than they the means most cer- 
tain for securing their own ends. The object which in this case they 
proposed to attain was to gain the confidence of Perrot and the 
merchants of the colony, to bring the French among themselves to 
the exclusion of other peoples, and thus to become the necessary 
middlemen for the commerce of New France with all the Indians of 
the west. It was with this purpose that they sought to prevent, as 
far as possible, the establishment of direct relations between Perrot 
and the more remote tribes, by hastening to send deputies to those 
tribes, commissioned to inform them of the alliance of the Pouteou- 
atamis with the French, the voyage of the former to Montreal, and 
their return with a great quantity of merchandise for which they 
invited those distant peoples to come and exchange their furs. But 
if they had an object Perrot had also his own, from which he did not 
allow himself to turn aside. His patriotism and his adventurous 
spirit urged him on to visit for himself the various tribes of the Bay 
and of adjoining regions; and in dealing with them personally he 
endeavored to attach them to himself and to France, and he accom- 
plished this in the course of the following years. 

"The Outagamis or Renards, driven from their ancient abodes by 
fear of the Iroquois, had taken refuge at a place called Ouestatinong, 
twenty-five or thirty leagues from the Bay of Puans, toward the 
southwest (Relation of 1670, chap. xii). The exact time of this 
migration is not known to us. What is certain is, that (i) it took 
place after 1658, since the Outagamis do not figure in the enumera- 
tion of the peoples of the Bay and of Mechingan given in the Relation 
of that year (chap, v) ; and (2) that it was already made at the end 
of 1665 (cf. supra). This tribe, of Algonquin race, were relatives 
and allies of the Sakis, whose language they spoke (Relation of 1667, 
chap, x; id. of 1670, chap, xii; Perrot, 154). This is why they sent, 
in the spring of the year which followed their new settlement, depu- 
ties commissioned to announce to the latter tribe their arrival. The 
Sakis, in their turn, resolved to despatch some chiefs as ambassadors 
to congratulate the Outagamis on their coming to that region, and to 
entreat them not to move any farther. Perrot did not let slip this 

252 APPENDIX A [Vol. 

opportunity to visit a tribe which until then had had no intercourse 
with the French (La Potherie, Histoire, vol. ii, 99, 173). It will 
be easy for us to follow him, thanks to Fathers Allouez and Dablon, 
who soon afterward made the same voyage, and have given us a 
curious and circumstantial narrative of their itinerary (Relation of 
1670, chap, xii; id. of 1671, 3rd part, chap, v)." This voyage was 
up the Fox River to Lake Winnebago, thence up the upper Fox and 
the Wolf Rivers to the Outagami village. Perrot also made a 
journey to the Maskoutens and Miamis, who had fled for refuge to 
the upper Fox River, above the Wolf. "It is to be believed that, in 
the course of these few years, Perrot made still other voyages; but 
the two which I have just narrated are the only ones on which the 
old historians of Canada have furnished me any information. I will 
content myself, therefore, with adding to what has gone before the 
fact that when Perrot returned to the colony with the Ottawa fleet 
[1670], he had already visited the greater number of the savage 
tribes of the west ; and that he had gained their confidence so far that 
he persuaded them to do whatever he wished (Charlevoix, Histoire y 
vol. i, 436). The Algonquins loved and esteemed him (Perrot, 
119) ; and the various tribes of the bay honored him as their father 
(La Potherie, Histoire, vol. ii, 173, 175). In a word, he was the 
man best prepared in all New France for discharging the mission 
which Monsieur de Courcelles was soon to entrust to him (Charle- 
voix, ut supra)." 

"After this very inglorious campaign [1684] Perrot actually re- 
turned to the Puante River, in the seigniory of Becancourt, where 
from 1 68 1 (as the census of that year shows us) he had possessed a 
dwelling and a land-grant of eighteen arpents. At that same time 
Perrot had been married about ten years, since the eldest of his six 
children was then fully nine years old. Although Perrot had in- 
herited, in right of his wife, Madeleine Raclos, a considerable amount 
of property, his affairs were none the less much embarrassed in the 
present year 1684. We allow him to explain the matter himself, in 
a letter to Monsieur de Saint Martin, one of his creditors, and 
notary-royal at Cap de la Madeleine: 

From the Puante River, this twentieth of August, 1684. 
MONSIEUR: I have received your letter, by which I see that you 
demand what is quite just. I would not have delayed so long to visit 
you and all those to whom I am indebted, if I had brought in the peltries 
which I left behind on account of the orders given me to come to the 
war . . . if I had those in my possession, I would be bolder than I 


am to go to find my creditors; but as I brought back nothing, even to pay 
for the merchandise [that I carried out], for fear of being punished for 
disobedience, I am ashamed. That will not prevent me from going down 
to Quebec to procure merchandise; if I bring back goods that suit you, 
you will dispose of them ; if not, I will try to satisfy your claim in some 
other way, if I can. I am not the only one who has come down without 
bringing back anything. I expected to go to the Cap [de la Madeleine], 
in order to give you proof of what I am writing to you; but Monsieur 
de Villiers is sending me with some letters to Quebecq, which obliges me 
to give up going to see you until after my return. Believe me, I intend 
to give you satisfaction, or I could not do so. Your very humble ser- 
vant, N. PERROT. 

In the course of the following years, the condition of affairs caused 
only more troubles for Perrot and for many others. The Iroquois 
closed all the passages, and no longer permitted the fleets of the Otta- 
was and the Canadian voyageurs to come down to the colony with 
their peltries, from which sprang universal poverty and misery. Mon- 
sieur de Champigny, intendant of New France, wrote in his despatch 
of August 9, 1688 (in the archives of the Marine) : 'The merchants 
are still in a most deplorable condition; all their wealth has been in 
the woods for the last three or four years. It is impossible for them 
to avoid being considerably indebted in France; and, in a word, when 
the fur-trade fails for one year, very fortunate is he who has bread.' 
While awaiting a favorable opportunity for transporting to Mon- 
treal the produce of his trading, Perrot had deposited it in the buildings 
of St. Frangois Xavier mission, at the Bay of Puans; but while he 
followed the Marquis de Denonville in his expedition against the 
Tsonnontouan Iroquois, a fire consumed the church, the adjoining 
buildings, and the 40,000 livres' worth of peltries which Perrot had 
left there (La Potherie, Histoire, vol. ii, 209)." [For Perrot's ac- 
tivities in 1685-1686, see volume i, note 171. -ED.] 

On returning to the colony, Perrot endeavored to retrieve his 
ruinous losses of property by a new trading voyage to the west ; and he 
obtained from Denonville the same office, with nearly the same 
authority, as that which La Barre had conferred on him. Probably 
in the autumn of 1687, he went to Green Bay, and thence to the 
upper Mississippi, to the fort which he had built there a few years 
before. While there, he traded with the Dakotas, and persuaded them 
to permit his taking possession of that region for France ( 1 689 ) . He 
returned to Montreal, on the way stopping at Michillimakinak and 
procuring the release of some Iroquois prisoners whom the Ottawas 
were about to burn at the stake ; and the latter sent with him one of 

254 APPENDIX A [Vol. 

their chiefs to deliver the rescued captives to the governor. But soon 
after their arrival at Montreal an Iroquois army surprised (Aug. 25, 
1689) the village of Lachine, massacred or captured its inhabitants, 
and ravaged Montreal Island. The French and the friendly Indians 
were overcome with fear, and the savages of the upper country were 
filled with contempt for the French, and the desire to protect them- 
selves from danger by concluding a peace with the Iroquois and the 
English; knowing that this would be ruinous to the French colony, 
La Durantaye and the Jesuit missionaries at Michillimakinak labored 
to retain the Indians in the French alliance. Fortunately at this 
crisis, Count de Frontenac arrived at Quebec (Oct. 12, 1689), and 
immediately formed a plan to draw all the Algonquian tribes into an 
offensive alliance with the French against the Iroquois; to gain over 
to this the tribes of the northwest, he sent Perrot (May 22, 1690) 
with presents as his envoy to them - an undertaking in which the latter 
was successful. Frontenac sent armies against the Iroquois, into their 
own country, and thus broke up their previous mastery of the St. Law- 
rence route; so that in 1693 a fleet of two hundred Ottawa canoes 
brought down to Montreal 800,000 livres worth of peltries. In 1692, 
Perrot received orders to go to reside among the Miamis of the Mara- 
meg River, at the same time, however, apparently retaining his author- 
ity over the tribes about Green Bay; he was sent thither "on account of 
its being important to maintain that post against the new expeditions 
which the Iroquois might make in that quarter" (Letter of Callieres, 
Oct. 27, 1695). Indeed, in that very year a band of Iroquois had 
endeavored to surprise the Miamis there; but the latter, with the aid 
of the French at the post (under command of Courtemanche) had 
repulsed the enemy. In the summer of the same year Perrot had 
gone to Montreal with chiefs of the various tribes under his control, 
who were received in audience by Frontenac. The governor urged 
the Miamis of the Marameg to unite with their tribesmen on the St. 
Joseph ; under the influence of Frontenac and Perrot they seem to have 
consented, although somewhat reluctantly, to this removal. During 
the next few years Perrot had much to do with the western tribes, and 
encountered many adventures and even dangers. "The principal oc- 
cupation of our author was, as before, to maintain harmony and peace 
among those tribes, always ready to tear one another in pieces, and to 
urge them to wage war against the Iroquois. That was a work as 
thankless as difficult, because it was hardly accomplished when it be- 
came necessary to begin it again on some new ground, so inconstant 


and fickle is the will of those peoples, whose 'wild young men, who 
are braves without discipline or any appearance of subordination, at 
the first glance or the first brandy debauch overthrow all the delibera- 
tions of the old men, who are no longer obeyed' (Letter of Denonville, 
May 8, 1686)." This fickleness was often displayed against even 
Perrot, whose property was seized by them, and who even was in 
danger of being burned at the stake by the Maskoutens (about 1693) 
and again by the Miamis (in 1696). In the latter case, chiefs from 
the other tribes offered their services to Frontenac to avenge the injuries 
of Perrot; but he knew their hatred to the Miamis, and discreetly 
declined this proposal. The governor was a firm friend of Perrot, 
and if he had lived would doubtless have enabled him to recoup his 
losses; but the death of Frontenac (November 28, 1698) deprived 
Perrot of a protector, and about the same time the court of France 
abolished the trading permits and ordered that the posts at Michilli- 
makinak and St. Joseph be abandoned, and all the French soldiers and 
traders recalled to the colony (Letter of Champigny, Oct. 15, 1698; 
in archives of the Marine). As a result, Perrot was "completely 
ruined, and harassed by numerous creditors;" and his appeals to both 
the colonial and the royal governments were rejected - although Cal- 
lieres suggested that the latter grant a small pension to relieve the 
poverty of the unfortunate explorer, a request which seems to have 
been entirely ignored. But the same neglect was experienced by other 
faithful servants of the French cause -for instance, La Durantaye 
and Jolliet, who were reduced to the same extremity (see Raudot's 
"List of those interested in the Company of Canada," 1708; in ar- 
chives of the Marine). 

In the summer of 1701 Perrot was called to act as interpreter at a 
general conference of the Indian tribes that was held there. On this 
occasion those of the west who had been under his command entreated 
the governor to send him back to them, and displayed the utmost 
esteem and affection for him ; this request was made by the Potawatomi 
chief, Ounanguisse, the Outagami chief, Noro, and the orator of the 
Ottawas and their allies, but was met only by vague promises, which 
were never fulfilled. See La Potherie, Histoire, vol. iv, 212-214, 257. 
The Marquis de Vaudreuil, who succeeded Callieres as governor, was 
fortunately always a warm friend of Perrot and his family, and seems 
to have conferred on the former a command in the militia of the 
seigniories on the St. Lawrence, which carried with it a small salary 
and comparatively light duties. The leisure thus obtained by Perrot 


was spent largely in writing his various memoirs. He was still living 
in 1718, as is evident from his allusion at the end of chap, xxvii to 
Louvigny's expeditions (1716, 1717) to punish and afterward pacify 
the Outagamis. Further information regarding Perrot's later years 
is not available. "In his humble sphere, he always proved himself 
brave, loyal, and devoted; and as a writer he was, although without 
doubt unpolished and unskilful, yet honest -one who has in his 
memoirs known how to speak of himself without boasting, and of 
others without fawning, without jealousy, and without vilification." 
"The memoir that we have just published is the only one of all Per- 
rot's writings which has reached us." From allusions therein, it is 
evident that he also wrote ( I ) a memoir on the Outagamis, addressed 
to Vaudreuil; and (2) several memoirs on the wars between the 
Iroquois and the western tribes, and on the various acts of treachery 
committed by the Indians, especially by the Hurons and Ottawas. 


An interesting and well-written sketch of Perrot's life forms no. I 
of the Parkman Club Papers (Milwaukee, 1896); it was prepared 
by Gardner P. Stickney. He has based it mainly on Tailhan's notes, 
but has collected other mention and minor details from Charlevoix, 
Parkman, Neill, and other writers. - ED. 



[Here is presented information on various topics regarding Indian 
society, character, and religious beliefs, which seems more appropriately 
grouped here than scattered through the work, especially as some of 
the subjects are inconveniently long or general for footnotes. These 
articles are chiefly taken from the Handbook of Amer. Indians, vol. ii; 
the exceptions are obtained, as indicated, from excellent authorities. 
As will be noted, they are arranged in logical sequence, as far as 
possible. - ED.] 

Social Organization 

"North American tribes contained (i) subdivisions of a geo- 
graphic or consanguineal character; (2) social and governmental 
classes or bodies, especially chiefs and councils, with particular powers 
and privileges; and (3) fraternities of a religious or semi-religious 
character, the last of which are especially treated under article 'Secret 
Societies.' Tribes may be divided broadly into those in which the 
organization was loose, the subdivisions being families or bands and 
descent being counted prevailingly from father to son ; and those which 
were divided into clearly defined groups called gentes or clans, which 
were strictly exogamic and more often reckoned descent through the 
mother. Among the former may be placed the Eskimo," the Cree, 
Montagnais, and Cheyenne, of Algonquian tribes, the Kiowa, etc. ; in 
the latter divisions are the Pueblos, Navaho, and the majority of tribes 
in the Atlantic and Gulf States, and some others. "Where clans exist 
the distinctive character of each is very strongly defined and a man can 
become a member only by birth, adoption, or transfer in infancy from 
his mother's to his father's clan, or vice versa. Each clan generally 
possessed some distinctive totem from which the majority of the per- 
sons belonging to it derived their names, certain rights, carvings, and 
ceremonies in common, and often the exclusive right to a tract of land. 
Although the well-defined caste system of the north Pacific coast, based 
on property and the institution of slavery, does not seem to have had 
a parallel elsewhere north of Mexico except perhaps among the 

258 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

Natchez, bravery in war, wisdom in council, oratorical, poetical, or 
artistic talents, real or supposed psychic powers in short, any variety 
of excellence whatever served in all Indian tribes to give one prom- 
inence among his fellows, and it is not strange that popular recognition 
of a man's ability sometimes reacted to the benefit of his descendants. 
Although it was always a position of great consequence, leadership in 
war was generally separate from and secondary to the civil chieftain- 
ship. Civil leadership and religious primacy were much more com- 
monly combined. Among the Pueblos all three are united, forming a 
theocracy. Councils of a democratic, unconventional kind, in which 
wealthy persons or those of most use to the tribe had the greatest in- 
fluence, were universal where no special form of council was estab- 
lished. . . The tribes possessing a well-defined clan system are 
divided into three groups - the north Pacific, southwestern, and east- 
ern. . . Among the Plains Indians the Omaha had a highly organ- 
ized social system. The tribe was divided into ten gentes called 
Villages,' with descent through the father, each of which had one 
chief. Seven of these chiefs constituted a sort of oligarchy, and two of 
them, representing the greatest amount of wealth, exercised superior 
authority. The functions of these chiefs were entirely civil; they 
never headed war parties. Below them were two orders of warriors, 
from the higher of which men were selected to act as policemen dur- 
ing the buffalo hunt. Under all were those who had not yet attained 
to eminence. During the buffalo hunts and great ceremonials the 
tribe encamped in a regular circle with one opening, like most other 
plains tribes. In it each gens and even each family had its definite 
position. The two halves of this circle, composed of five clans each, 
had different names, but they do not appear to have corresponded to 
the phratries of more eastern Indians. A man was not permitted to 
marry into the gens of his father, and marriage into that of his mother 
was rare and strongly disapproved. Other plains tribes of the Siouan 
family probably were organized in much the same manner and reck- 
oned descent similarly. The Dakota are traditionally reputed to have 
been divided into seven council fires, each of which was at one time 
divided into two or three major and a multitude of minor bands. 
Whatever their original condition may have been their organization is 
now much looser than that of the Omaha. . . The social organiza- 
tion of the western and northern Algonquian tribes is not well known. 
The Siksika [more commonly known as Blackfeet] have numerous 
subdivisions. which have been called gentes; they are characterized by 


descent through the father, but would appear to be more truly local 
groups. Each had originally its own chief, and the council composed 
of these chiefs selected the chief of the tribe, their choice being gov- 
erned rather by the character of the person than by his descent. The 
head chief's authority was made effective largely through the volun- 
tary cooperation of several societies. The Chippewa, Potawatomi, 
Menominee, Miami, Shawnee, and Abnaki in historic times have had 
gentes, with paternal descent, which Morgan believed had developed 
from a material stage; but this view must be taken with caution, in- 
asmuch as there never has been a question as to the form of descent 
among the Delawares, who were subjected to white influences at an 
earlier date than most of those supposed to have changed. . . The 
most advanced social organization north of the Pueblo country was 
probably that developed by the Iroquois confederated tribes. Each 
tribe consisted of two or more phratries, which in turn embraced one 
or more clans, named after various animals or objects, while each clan 
consisted of one or more kinship groups called ohwachira. When the 
tribes combined to form the confederacy called the Five Nations they 
were arranged in three phratries, of two, two, and one tribes respec- 
tively. There were originally forty-eight hereditary chieftainships in 
the five tribes, and subsequently the number was raised to fifty. Each 
chieftainship was held by some one ohwachira, and the selection of a 
person to fill it devolved on the child-bearing women of the clan to 
which it belonged, more particularly those of the ohwachira which 
owned it. The selection had to be confirmed afterward by the tribal 
and league councils successively. Along with each chief a vice-chief 
was elected, who sat in the tribal council with the chief proper, and 
also acted for a leader in time of war, but the chief only sat in the 
grand council of the confederacy."- J. R. SWANTON, in Handbook 
Amer. Indians. 


' 'Totem" is a corruption by travelers and traders of the Chippewa 
nind otem or kitotem, meaning "my own family," "thy own family" - 
thence, by extension, "tribe," or "race." "The totem represented an 
emblem that was sacred in character and referred to one of the ele- 
ments, a heavenly body, or some natural form. If an element, the 
device was symbolic; if an object, it might be represented realistically 
or by its known sign or symbol. An animal represented by the 'totem' 
was always generic; if a bear or an eagle, no particular bear or eagle 
was meant. The clan frequently took its name from the 'totem' and 

2 6o APPENDIX B [Vol. 

its members might be spoken of as Bear people, Eagle people, etc. 
Variants of the word 'totem' were used by tribes speaking languages 
belonging to the Algonquian stock, but to all other tribes the word was 
foreign and unknown." The use of this term is too often indiscrim- 
inate and incorrect, which has obscured its real meaning. "As the 
emblem of a family or clan, it had two aspects: (i) the religious, 
which concerned man's relations to the forces about him, and involved 
the origin of the emblem as well as the methods by which it was se- 
cured; and (2) the social, which pertained to man's relation to his 
fellow-men and the means by which an emblem became the hereditary 
mark of a family, a clan, or society. There were three classes of 
'totems:' the individual, the society, and the clan 'totem.' Research 
indicates that the individual 'totem' was the fundamental." This 
personal "totem" was most often selected from the objects seen in 
dreams or visions, since there was a general belief that such an object 
became the medium of supernatural help in time of need, and for this 
purpose would furnish a man, in his dream, with a song or a peculiar 
call by which to summon it to his help. The religious societies were 
generally independent of the clan organization; but sometimes they 
were in close connection with the clan and the membership under its 
control. The influence of the "totem" idea was most developed in 
the clan, "where the emblem of the founder of a kinship group became 
the hereditary mark of the composite clan, with its fixed, obligatory 
duties on all members. . . The idea of supernatural power was 
attached to the clan 'totem.' This power, however, was not shown, 
as in the personal 'totem,' by according help to individuals, but was 
manifested in the punishment of forgetf ulness of kinship. . . While 
homage was ceremonially rendered to the special power represented by 
the 'totem' of the clan or of the society, the 'totem' itself was not an 
object of worship. Nor was the object symbolized considered as the 
actual ancestor of the people; the members of the Bear clan did not 
believe they were descended from a bear, nor were they always pro- 
hibited from hunting the animal, although they might be forbidden to 
eat of its flesh or to touch certain parts of its body. The unification 
and strength of the clan and tribal structure depended largely on the 
restraining fear of supernatural punishment by the 'totemic' powers, a 
fear fostered by the vital belief in the potency of the personal 'totem/ " 
- ALICE C. FLETCHER, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


Mode of Life 

It is a popular fallacy that the Indians were generally nomadic, 
having no fixed place of abode; "the term nomadic is not, in fact, 
properly applicable to any Indian tribe." With some few exceptions, 
every tribe or group of tribes "laid claim to and dwelt within the 
limits of a certain tract or region, the boundaries of which were well 
understood, and were handed down by tradition and not ordinarily 
relinquished save to a superior force." There were some debatable 
areas, owned by none but claimed by all, over which many disputes and 
intertribal wars arose. "Most or all of the tribes east of the Missis- 
sippi except in the north, and some west of it, were to a greater or less 
extent agricultural and depended much for food on the products of 
their tillage. During the hunting season such tribes or villages broke 
up into small parties and dispersed over their domains more or less 
widely in search of game; or they visited the seashore for fish and 
shellfish. Only in this restricted sense may they be said to be no- 
madic." Even the plains Indians, who wandered far in hunting the 
buffalo, had a certain hold on their tribal territories and recognized the 
rights of their neighbors. The natives of the far north, owing to en- 
vironment and geographical conditions, most nearly approached the 
nomadic life. - HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. Indians, 
art. "Popular fallacies." 

"Each North American tribe claimed a certain locality as its hab- 
itat, and dwelt in communities or villages about which stretched its 
hunting grounds. As all the inland people depended for food largely 
on the gathering of acorns, seeds, and roots, the catching of salmon 
when ascending the streams, or on hunting for meat and skin clothing, 
they camped in makeshift shelters or portable dwellings during a con- 
siderable part of the year. These dwellings were brush shelters, the 
mat house and birch-bark lodge of the forest tribes, and the skin tent 
of the plains. . . Hunting, visiting, or war parties were more or 
less organized. The leader was generally the head of a family or of 
a kindred group, or he was appointed to his office with certain cere- 
monies. He decided the length of a day's journey, and where the 
camp should be made at night. As all property, save a man's personal 
clothing, weapons, and riding horses, belonged to the woman, its care 
during a journey fell upon her. . . When a camping place was 
reached the mat houses were erected as was most convenient for the 
family group, but the skin tents were set up in a circle, near of kin 
being neighbors. If danger from enemies was apprehended, the ponies 

262 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

and other valuable possessions were kept within the space inclosed by 
the circle of tents. Long journeys were frequently undertaken for 
friendly visits or for intertribal ceremonies. . . When the tribes of 
the buffalo country went on their annual hunt, ceremonies attended 
every stage, from the initial rites (when the leader was chosen), 
throughout the journeyings, to the thanksgiving ceremony which closed 
the expedition. The long procession was escorted by warriors selected 
by the leader and the chiefs for their trustiness and valor. They acted 
as a police guard to prevent any straggling that might result in personal 
or tribal danger; and they prevented any private hunting, as it might 
stampede a herd that might be in the vicinity. When on the annual 
hunt the tribe camped in a circle and preserved its political divisions, 
and the circle was often a quarter of a mile or more in diameter. 
Sometimes the camp was in concentric circles, each circle representing 
a political group of kindred. . . The tribal circle, each segment 
composed of a clan, gens, or band, made a living picture of tribal organ- 
ization and responsibilities. It impressed upon the beholder the rela- 
tive position of kinship groups and their interdependence, both for the 
maintenance of order and government within and for defense against 
enemies from without; while the opening to the east and the position 
of the ceremonial tents recalled the religious rites and obligations by 
which the many parts were held together in a compact whole." 

- ALICE C. FLETCHER, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

Mental and Moral Traits 

"The mental functions of the Indian should be compared with 
those of whites reared and living under approximately similar circum- 
stances. On closer observation the differences in the fundamental 
psychical manifestations between the two races are found to be small. 
No instincts not possessed by whites have developed in the Indian. His 
proficiency in tracking and concealment, his sense of direction, etc., are 
accounted for by his special training and practice, and are not found in 
the Indian youth who has not had such experience. The Indian lacks 
much of the ambition known to the white man, yet he shows more or 
less of the quality where his life affords a chance for it." 

"The emotional life of the Indian is more moderate and ordinarily 
more free from extremes of nearly every nature, than that of the white 
person. The prevalent subjective state is that of content in well-being, 
with inclination to humor. Pleasurable emotions predominate, but 
seldom rise beyond the moderate; those of a painful nature are oc- 
casionally very pronounced. Maternal love is strong, especially during 


the earlier years of the child. Sexual love is rather simply organic, 
not of so intellectual an order as among whites ; but this seems to be 
largely the result of views and customs governing sex relations and 
marriage. The social instinct and that of self-preservation are much 
like those of white people. Emotions of anger and hatred are infre- 
quent and of normal character. Fear is rather easily aroused at all 
ages, in groups of children occasionally reaching a panic; but this is 
likewise due in large measure to peculiar beliefs and untrammeled 

"Modesty, morality, and the sense of right and justice are as natural 
to the Indian as to the white man, but, as in other respects, are modi- 
fied in the former by prevalent views and conditions of life. Trans- 
gressions of every character are less frequent in the Indian. Memory 
(of sense impressions as well as of mental acts proper) is generally 
fair. Where the faculty has been much exercised in one direction, as 
in religion, it acquires remarkable capacity in that particular. The 
young exhibit good memory for languages. The faculty of will is 
strongly developed. Intellectual activities proper are comparable with 
those of ordinary healthy whites, though on the whole, and excepting 
the sports, the mental processes are probably habitually slightly 
slower. Among many tribes lack of thrift, improvidence, absence of 
demonstrative manifestations, and the previously mentioned lack of am- 
bition are observable; but these peculiarities must be charged largely, 
if not entirely, to differences in mental training and habits. The 
reasoning of the Indian and his ideation, though modified by his views, 
have often been shown to be excellent. His power of imitation, and 
even of invention, is good, as is his aptitude in several higher arts and 
in oratory. An Indian child reared under the care of whites, edu- 
cated in the schools of civilization, and without having acquired the 
notions of its people, is habitually much like a white child trained in a 
similar degree under similar conditions." ALES HRDLICKA, in Hand- 
book Amer. Indians, art. "Physiology." 

"The idea of the Indian, once popular, suggests a taciturn and 
stolid character, who smoked his pipe in silence and stalked reserved 
and dignified among his fellows. Unquestionably the Indian of the 
Atlantic slope differed in many respects from his kinsmen farther west ; 
it may be that the forest Indian of the north and east imbibed some- 
thing of the spirit of the primeval woods which, deep and gloomy, 
overspread much of his region. If so, he has no counterpart in the 
regions west of the Mississippi. On occasions of ceremony and re- 
ligion the western Indian can be both dignified and solemn, as befits 

264 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

the occasion ; but his nature, if not as bright and sunny as that of the 
Polynesian, is at least as far removed from moroseness as his dispo- 
sition is from taciturnity. The Indian of the present day has at least 
a fair sense of humor and is by no means a stranger to jest, laughter, 
and even repartee." - HENRY W. HENSHAW, in Handbook Amer. 
Indians ', art. "Popular fallacies." 

"The specific question of psychological differences between Indians 
and other races is still an unsolved problem," on account of the lack of 
adequate data as a basis for conclusions. Some work has been done in 
the study and comparison of these differences, but the results are insuf- 
ficient for definite general statements. Conflicting theories are in 
vogue among anthropologists one that "the existence of cultural dif- 
ferences necessitates the existence of psychological differences;" an- 
other, that those "cultural differences are not due to psychological 
differences, but to causes entirely external, or outside of the conscious 
life," and "considers culture as the sum of habits into which the vari- 
ous groups of mankind have fallen." But thus far neither theory has 
been satisfactorily proved. "In conclusion, it appears that we have no 
satisfactory knowledge of the elemental psychological activities among 
Indians, because they have not been made the subjects of research by 
trained psychologists. On the other hand, it may be said that in all 
the larger aspects of mental life they are qualitatively similar to other 
races." Handbook Amer. Indians, art. "Psychology." 

Religious Beliefs 

"Religious views and actions are not primarily connected with 
ethical concepts. Only in so far as in his religious relations to the 
outer world man endeavors to follow certain rules of conduct, in order 
to avoid evil effects, is a relation between primitive religion and ethics 
established. The religious concepts of the Indians may be described 
in two groups - those that concern the individual, and those that con- 
cern the social group, such as tribe and clan. The fundamental con- 
cept bearing upon the religious life of the individual is the belief in 
the existence of magic power, which may influence the life of man, and 
which in turn may be influenced by human activity. In this sense 
magic power must be understood as the wonderful qualities which are 
believed to exist in objects, animals, men, spirits, or deities, and which 
are superior to the natural qualities of man. This idea of magic 
power is one of the fundamental concepts that occurs among all In- 
dian tribes. It is what is called manito by the Algonquian tribes; 
wakanda, by the Siouan tribes; orenda, by the Iroquois," etc. "The 


degree to which the magic power of nature is individualized differs 
considerably among various tribes. Although the belief in the powers 
of inanimate objects is common, we find in America that, on the 
whole, animals, particularly the larger ones, are most frequently con- 
sidered as possessed of such magic power. Strong anthropomorphic 
individualization also occurs, which justifies us in calling these powers 
deities. It seems probable that among the majority of tribes besides 
the belief in the power of specific objects, a belief in a magic power that 
is only vaguely localized exists. In cases where this belief is pro- 
nounced, the notion sometimes approaches the concept of a deity or of 
a great spirit, which is hardly anthropomorphic in its character. This 
is the case, for instance, among the Tsimshian of British Columbia 
and among the Algonquian tribes of the great lakes, and also in the 
figure of the Tirawa of the Pawnee. . . The whole concept of the 
world - or, in other words, the mythology of each tribe enters to a 
very great extent into their religious concepts and activities. The 
mythologies are highly specialized in different parts of North America ; 
and, although a large number of myths are the common property of 
many American tribes, the general view of the world appears to be 
quite distinct in various parts of the continent." In the explanation 
of the world, the Indian view is quite different from that of the 
Semitic mind. The former "accepts the eternal existence of the 
world, and accounts for its specific form by the assumption that events 
which once happened in early times settled for once and all the form 
in which the same kind of event must continue to occur. For in- 
stance, when the bear produced the stripes of the chipmunk by scratch- 
ing its back, this determined that all chipmunks were to have such 
stripes ; or when an ancestor of a clan was taught a certain ceremony, 
that same ceremony must be performed by all future generations. 
This idea is not by any means confined to America, but is found among 
primitive peoples of other continents as well, and occurs even in Se- 
mitic cults." 

In considering American mythologies five great areas may be dis- 
tinguished: (i) The Eskimo area, its mythology characterized by 
many purely human hero-tales, and a very few traditions accounting 
for the origin of animals (and these mainly in human setting) ; (2) 
the North Pacific, "characterized by a large circle of transformer 
myths, in which the origin of many of the arts of man are accounted 
for, as well as the peculiarities of many animals; (3) the similar tra- 
ditions of the western plateau and of the Mackenzie basin area, in 
which animal tales abound, many accounting for the present conditions 

266 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

of the world; (4) the Californian, "characterized by a stronger em- 
phasis laid upon creation by will-power than is found in most other 
parts of the American continent;" and (5) the great plains, the east- 
ern woodlands, and the arid southwest, where the tendency to "sys- 
tematization of the myths under the influence of a highly developed 
ritual. This tendency is more sharply defined in the south than in the 
north and northeast," and has made most progress among the Pueblo 
and the Pawnee. "The religious concepts of the Indians deal largely 
with the relation of the individual to the magic power mentioned 
above, and are specialized in accordance with their general mythologi- 
cal concepts, which determine largely the degree to which the powers 
are personified as animals, spirits, or deities. 

"Another group of religious concepts, which are not less important 
than the group heretofore discussed, refers to the relations of the in- 
dividual to his internal states, so far as these are not controlled by the 
will, and are therefore considered as subject to external magic influ- 
ences. Most important among these are dreams, sickness, and death. 
These may be produced by obsession, or by external forces which 
compel the soul to leave the body. In this sense the soul is considered 
by almost all the tribes as not subject to the individual will; it may be 
abstracted from the body by hostile forces, and it may be damaged and 
killed. The concept of the soul itself shows a great variety of forms. 
Very often the soul is identified with life, but we also find commonly 
the belief in a multiplicity of souls. . . The soul is also identified 
with the blood, the bones, the shadow, the nape of the neck. Based on 
these ideas is also the belief in the existence of the soul after death. 
Thus, in the belief of the Algonquian Indians of the great lakes, the 
souls of the deceased are believed to reside in the far west with the 
brother of the great culture-hero [Nanabozho]. Among the Kutenai 
the belief prevails that the souls will return at a later period, accom- 
panying the culture-hero. Sometimes the land from which the an- 
cestors of the tribe have sprung, which in the south is often conceived 
of as underground, is of equal importance. 

"Since the belief in the existence of magic powers is very strong 
in the Indian mind, all his actions are regulated by the desire to retain 
the good-will of those friendly to him and to control those that are 
hostile." In order to secure the former, the strict observance of a 
great variety of proscriptions is needed, many of which fall under the 
designation of taboos - especially those of food and of work ; also social. 
There are also found, all over the continent, numerous regulations 


intended to retain the good-will of the food animals, and which are 
essentially signs of respect shown to them ; these are especially in vogue 
in their hunting. "Respectful behavior toward old people and gener- 
ally decent conduct are also often counted among such required acts. 
Here also may be included the numerous customs of purification that 
are required in order to avoid the ill-will of the powers. These, how- 
ever, may better be considered as a means of controlling magic power, 
which form a very large part of the religious observances of the Amer- 
ican Indians." 

"The Indian is not satisfied with the attempt to avoid the ill-will 
of the powers, but he tries also to make them subservient to his own 
needs. This may be attained in a variety of ways. Perhaps the most 
characteristic of all North American methods of gaining control over 
supernatural powers is that of the acquisition of one of them as a per- 
sonal protector. Generally this process is called the acquiring of a 
manito ; and the most common method of acquiring it is for the young 
man during the period of adolescence to purify himself by fasting, bath- 
ing, and vomiting, until his body is perfectly clean and acceptable to 
the supernatural beings. At the same time the youth works himself 
by these means, by dancing, and sometimes also by means of drugs, into 
a trance, in which he has a vision of the guardian spirit which is to 
protect him through life. These means of establishing communica- 
tion with the spirit world are in very general use also at other periods 
of life. The magic power that man thus acquires may give him 
special abilities; it may make him a successful hunter, warrior, or 
shaman ; or it may give him power to acquire wealth, success in gam- 
bling, or the love of women." 

Magic power may also, in the belief of many tribes, be attained by 
inheritance; or it may be purchased; or it may be "transmitted by 
teaching and by bodily contact with a person who controls such 
powers." Another means of controlling the powers of nature is by 
prayer; also may be used charms or fetishes. "The charm is either 
believed to be the seat of magic power, or it may be a symbol of such 
power, and its action may be based on its symbolic significance ; of the 
former kind are presumably many objects contained in the sacred 
bundles of certain Indians, which are believed to be possessed of sacred 
powers." Symbolic actions and divinations are also used for the same 

"Still more potent means of influencing the powers are offerings 
and sacrifices. On the whole, these are not as strongly developed in 

268 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

North America as they are in other parts of the world. In many 
regions human sacrifices were common for instance, in Mexico and 
Yucatan - while in North America they are known only in rare in- 
stances, as among the Pawnee. However, many cases of torture, par- 
ticularly of self-torture, must be reckoned here. Other bloody sacri- 
fices are also rare in North America." On the other hand, sacrifices 
of tobacco smoke, of corn, and of parts of food, of small manufactured 
objects, and of symbolic objects, are very common." 

Another method is "by incantations, which are in a way related to 
prayers, but which act rather through the magic influence of the 
words. . . In the same way that incantations are related to prayer, 
certain acts and charms are related to offerings. We find among al- 
most all Indian tribes the custom of performing certain acts, which 
are neither symbolic nor offerings, nor other attempts to obtain the 
assistance of superior beings, but which are effective through their 
own potency. Such acts are the use of lucky objects intended to secure 
good fortune; or the peculiar treatment of animals, plants, and other 
objects, in order to bring about a change of weather. There is also 
found among most Indian tribes the idea that the supernatural powers, 
if offended by transgressions of rules of conduct, may be propitiated by 
punishment. Such punishment may consist in the removal of the of- 
fending individual, who may be killed by the members of the tribe, or 
the propitiation may be accomplished by milder forms of punish- 
ment. . . Other forms of punishment are based largely on the idea 
of purification by fasting, bathing, and vomiting." 

Protection against disease is also sought by the help of superhuman 
powers. These practices have two distinct forms, according to the 
fundamental conception of disease. Disease is conceived of principally 
in two forms either as due to the presence of a material object in the 
body of the patient, or as an effect of the absence of the soul from 
the body. The cure of disease is intrusted to the shamans or medi- 
cine-men, who obtain their powers generally by the assistance of 
guardian spirits, or who may be personally endowed with magic 
powers. It is their duty to discover the material disease which is 
located in the patient's body, and which they extract by sucking or 
pulling with the hands; or to go in pursuit of the absent soul, to re- 
cover it, and to restore it to the patient. Both of these forms of 
shamanism are found practically all over the continent;" but in some 
regions one of these theories of the cause of sickness predominates, in 
some the other. 


"The belief that certain individuals can acquire control over the 
powers has also led to the opinion that they may be used to harm 
enemies. The possession of such control is not always beneficial, but 
may be used also for purposes of witchcraft. Hostile shamans may 
throw disease into the bodies of their enemies, or they may abduct their 
souls. They may do harm by sympathetic means, and control the 
will-power of others by the help of the supernatural means at their 
disposal. Witchcraft is everywhere considered as a crime, and is so 

"Besides those manifestations of religious belief that relate to the 
individual, religion has become closely associated with the social struc- 
ture of the tribes ; so that the ritualistic side of religion can be under- 
stood only in connection with the social organization of the Indian 
tribes. Even the fundamental traits of their social organization 
possess a religious import. This is true particularly of the clans, so 
far as they are characterized by totems. . . Also in cases where 
the clans have definite political functions, like those of the Omaha or 
the Iroquois, these functions are closely associated with religious con- 
cepts, partly in so far as their origin is ascribed to myths, partly in so 
far as the functions are associated with the performance of religious 
rites. The position of officials is also closely associated with definite 
religious concepts. Thus, the head of a clan at times is considered as 
the representative of the mythological ancestor of the clan, and as 
such is believed to be endowed with superior powers ; or the position as 
officer in the tribe or clan entails the performance of certain definite 
religious functions. In this sense many of the political functions 
among Indian tribes are closely associated with what may be termed 
'priestly functions.' The religious significance of social institutions 
is most clearly marked in cases where the tribe, or large parts of the 
tribe, join in the performance of certain ceremonies which are intended 
to serve partly a political, partly a religious end. Such acts are some 
of the intertribal ball-games," the sun-dance and the performances of 
the warrior societies of the plains, and the secret societies in so many 
tribes. "It is characteristic of rituals in many parts of the world that 
they tend to develop into a more or less dramatic representation of 
the myth from which the ritual is derived. For this reason the use of 
masks is a common feature of these rituals, in which certain individ- 
uals impersonate supernatural beings. . . It would seem that the 
whole system of religious beliefs and practices has developed the more 
systematically the more strictly the religious practices have come to be 

270 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

in the charge of priests. This tendency to systematization of relig- 
ious beliefs may be observed particularly among the Pueblo and the 
Pawnee, but it also occurs in isolated cases in other parts of the conti- 
nent; for instance, among the Bellacoola of British Columbia, and 
those Algonquian tribes that have the Midewiwin ceremony fully de- 
veloped. In these cases we find that frequently an 1 elaborate series of 
esoteric doctrines and practices exist, which are known to only a small 
portion of the tribe, while the mass of the people are familiar only 
with part of the ritual and with its exoteric features. For this reason 
we often find the religious beliefs and practices of the mass of a tribe 
rather heterogeneous as compared with the beliefs held by the priests. 
Among many of the tribes in which priests are found we find distinct 
esoteric societies, and it is not by any means rare that the doctrines of 
one society are not in accord with those of another. All this is clearly 
due to the fact that the religious ideas of the tribe are derived from 
many different sources, and have been brought into order at a later 
date by the priests charged with the keeping of the tribal rituals. . . 
It would seem that, on the whole, the import of the esoteric teachings 
decreases among the more northerly and northeasterly tribes of the 

"On the whole, the Indians incline strongly toward all forms of 
religious excitement. This is demonstrated not only by the exuberant 
development of ancient religious forms, but also by the frequency with 
which prophets have appeared among them, who taught new doctrines 
and new rites, based either on older religious beliefs, or on teachings 
partly of Christian, partly of Indian origin. Perhaps the best known 
of these forms of religion is the ghost-dance, which swept over a large 
part of the continent during the last years of the nineteenth century. 
But other prophets of similar type and of far-reaching influence were 
quite numerous. One of these was Tenskwatawa, the famous brother 
of Tecumseh; another, the seer Smohallah, who founded the sect of 
Shakers of the Pacific Coast; and even among the Eskimo such pro- 
phets have been known, particularly in Greenland." - FRANZ BOAS, in 
Handbook Amer. Indians, art. "Religion." 

"In their endeavors to secure the help of the supernatural powers, 
the Indians, as well as other peoples, hold principally three methods: 
( I ) The powers may be coerced by the strength of a ritualistic per- 
formance; (2) their help may be purchased by gifts in the form of 
sacrifices and offerings; or (3) they may be approached by prayer. 
Frequently the coercing ritualistic performance and the sacrifice are 


accompanied by prayers; or the prayer itself may take a ritualistic 
form, and thus attain coercive power. In this case the prayer is called 
an incantation. Prayers may either be spoken words, or they may be 
expressed by symbolic objects, which are placed so that they convey 
the wishes of the worshiper to the powers. . . Very often prayers 
accompany sacrifices. . . Prayers of this kind very commonly ac- 
company the sacrifice of food to the souls of the deceased, as among 
the Algonquian tribes, Eskimo, and N.w. coast Indians. The custom 
of expressing prayers by means of symbolic objects is found principally 
among the southwestern tribes. ["The so-called prayer stick of the 
Kickapoo was a mnemonic device for Christian prayer." - WALTER 
HOUGH.] Prayers are often preceded by ceremonial purification, 
fasting, the use of emetics and purgatives, which are intended to make 
the person praying agreeable to the powers. Among the North 
American Indians the prayer cannot be considered as necessarily con- 
nected with sacrifice or as a substitute for sacrifice, since in a great 
many cases prayers for good luck, for success, for protection, or for 
the blessing of the powers, are offered quite independently of the idea 
of sacrifice. While naturally material benefits are the object of prayer 
in by far the majority of cases, prayers for an abstract blessing and for 
ideal objects are not by any means absent. . . The Indians pray 
not only to those supernatural powers which are considered the pro- 
tectors of man like the personal guardians or the powers of na- 
ture but also to the hostile powers who must be appeased." 

- FRANZ BOAS, in Handbook Amer. Indians 
Tawiskaron was "an imaginary man-being of the cosmogonic philos- 
ophy of the Iroquoian and other tribes, to whom was attributed the 
function of making and controlling the activities and phenomena of 
winter. He was the Winter God, the Ice King, since his distinctive 
character is clearly defined in terms of the activities and phenomena 
of nature peculiar to this season. As an earth-power he was one of 
the great primal man-beings belonging to the second cosmical period 
of the mythological philosophy of the Iroquoian, Algonquian, and 
perhaps other Indians." According to the legends, he was a grandson 
of Awe n 'ha'i (the Ataentsic of Huron mythology), or Mother Earth; 
and at his birth his body was composed of flint, and he caused the 
death of his mother by violently bursting through her armpit - a fault 
which he cast on his twin brother, Teharonhiawagon (or Jouskeha of 
the Hurons), who in consequence was hated by the grandmother. 
Teharonhiawagon was the embodiment or personification of life; he 

272 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

was the creator and maker of the animals, birds, trees, and plants, 
and finally of man. From his father of mysterious origin he had 
learned the art of fire-making, and that of agriculture, and how to 
build a house; and these arts he communicated to mankind. In all 
his beneficent endeavors he was opposed by Awe n 'ha'i and Tawiskaron, 
who continually strove to thwart his plans; but by the counsels of his 
father and his superior magic power he was able to gain the ascendency 
over them and became (at a contest in playing the game of bowl) the 
ruler of the world. "The great and most important New Year cere- 
mony among the Iroquois who still hold to their ancient faith and 
customs, at which is burned a purely white dog as a sacrifice, is held 
in honor of Teharonhiawagon for his works, blessings, and goodness, 
which have been enjoyed by the people." - J. N. B. HEWITT, in Hand- 
book Amer. Indians. 

Tawiskaron is practically identical with Chakekenapok in Algon- 
quian mythology, a younger brother of Nanabozho. 


"From time to time in every great tribe and every important crisis 
of Indian history we find certain men rising above the position of 
ordinary doctor, soothsayer, or ritual priest to take upon themselves 
an apostleship of reform and return to the uncorrupted ancestral be- 
lief and custom as the necessary means to save their people from im- 
pending destruction by decay or conquest. In some cases the teaching 
takes the form of a new Indian gospel, the revolutionary culmination 
of a long and silent development of the native religious thought. As 
the faithful disciples were usually promised the return of the earlier 
and happier conditions, the restoration of the diminished game, the 
expulsion of the alien intruder, and reunion in earthly existence with 
the priests who had preceded them to the spirit world -all to be 
brought about by direct supernatural interposition - the teachers have 
been called prophets. While all goes well with the tribe the religious 
feeling finds sufficient expression in the ordinary ritual forms of tribal 
usage, but when misfortune or destruction threatea the nation or the 
race, the larger emergency brings out the prophet, who strives to avert 
the disaster by molding his people to a common purpose through in- 
sistence upon the sacred character of his message and thus furnishes 
support to the chiefs in their plans for organized improvement or re- 
sistance. Thus it is found that almost every great Indian warlike 
combination has had its prophet messenger at the outset, and if all the 


facts could be known we should probably find the rule universal. 
Among the most noted of these aboriginal prophets and reformers with- 
in our area are: Pope, of the Pueblo revolt of 1680; the Delaware 
prophet of Pontiac's conspiracy, 1762; Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee 
prophet, 1805; Kanakuk, the Kickapoo reformer, 1827; Tavibo, the 
Paiute, 1870; Nakaidoklini, the Apache, 1881 ; Smohalla, the dreamer 
of the Columbia, 1870-1885 ; and Wovoka or Jack Wilson, the Paiute 
prophet of the Ghost Dance, 1889 and later." (Consult Mooney, 
"Ghost Dance Religion," in I4th Annual Report of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, part ii, 1896.) - JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook 
Amer. Indians. 

The Shawnee Prophet 

You are very well acquainted with the residence of the Shawnoe 
Prophet, 100 at or near the mouth of the Tipicanoe, we may date our 
difficulties with the Indians from the time he and his followers first 

100 Tenskwatawa, "the Shawnee Prophet," was a twin brother of Tecumseh. 
When quite a young man he apparently died; but when his friends assembled 
for the funeral he revived from his trance, and told them that he had re- 
turned from a visit to the spirit world. In November, 1805, when he was 
hardly more than thirty years of age, he called around him his tribesmen and 
their allies, and announced himself as the bearer of a new revelation from the 
Master of Life, which he had received in the spirit world. He denounced the 
witchcraft and juggleries of the medicine-men, and the "fire-water" obtained 
from the whites as poison and accursed ; and warned his hearers of the misery 
and punishment which would follow all these evil practices. He advocated 
more respect for the aged, community of property, the cessation of intermar- 
riages between the whites and Indian women ; and urged the Indians to discard 
all clothing, tools, and customs introduced by the whites, and to return to their 
primitive mode of life. Then they would be received into Divine favor, and 
regain the happiness that they had known before the coming of the whites. 
He claimed that he had received power to cure all diseases and avert death in 
sickness or battle. This preaching aroused great excitement and a crusade 
against all who were supposed to practice witchcraft. The Prophet fixed his 
headquarters at Greenville, Ohio, where many persons came from various 
tribes of the northwest to learn the new doctrines. To lend these authority, he 
announced various dreams and revelations, and in 1806 predicted an eclipse of 
the sun; the fulfilment of this brought him great prestige, and enthusiastic 
acceptance as a true prophet. The movement spread far to the south and the 
northwest; it added many recruits to the British forces in the War of 1812, 
and occasioned the bloody Creek War of 1813. But the influence of the Pro- 
phet and his doctrines were destroyed by the battle of Tippecanoe ; after the war 
came to an end Tenskwatawa received a pension from the British government 
and resided in Canada until 1826. Then he rejoined his tribe in Ohio, and 
soon afterward removed with them to Kansas; he died there in November, 


settled at that place, not that I believe that his first intention was 
inimical to the views of the United States, but when he found, he had 
got such influence over the different Indians he immediately changed 
his discourse and from the instructions he occasionally received from 
the British, he was continually preaching up the necefsity of the In- 
dians to have no intercourse with the Americans; as you will see in 
his form of prayers that he learnt to all his followers. I was informed 
by a very intelligent young man who has been often at the Prophet's 
village, and who has conversed with the Prophet and Tecumseh, he 
gave me the following history of the Prophet. 

The Prophet with all his brothers are pure Indians of the Shawa- 
noe nation, and when a boy, was a perfect vagabond and as he grew 
up he w* not hunt and became a great drunkard. While he lived near 
Greenville in the State of Ohio, where spirituous liquor are plenty he 
was continually intoxicated ; having observed some preachers 101 who 
lived in the vicinity of Greenville a preaching or rather the motions, 
etc., in preaching (as he cannot understand a word of English) it had 
such an effect on him, that one night he dremt that the Great Spirit 
found fault with his way of living, that he must leave of [f] drinking, 
and lead a new life, and also instruct all the red people the proper way 
of living. He immediately refrained from drinking any kind of spir- 
ituous liquor, and recommended it strongly to all the Indians far 
and near to follow his example, and laid down certain laws that was 
to guide the red people in future. I shall here give you as many of 
those laws or regulations as I can now remember, but I know I have 
forgot many. 

I st Spirituous liquor was not to be tasted by any Indians on any 
account whatever. 

2 nd No Indian was to take more than one wife in future, but 
those who now had two three or more wives might keep them, but it 
would please the Great Spirit if they had only one wife. 

3 d No Indian was to be runing after the women; if a man was 
single let him take a wife. 

1837, at the present town of Argentine. "Although his personal appearance 
was marred by blindness in one eye, Tenskwatawa possessed a magnetic and 
powerful personality; and the religious fervor he created among the Indian 
tribes, unless we except that during the recent 'ghost dance' disturbance, has 
been equaled at no time since the beginning of white contact." JAMES MOONEY, 
in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

101 These were Shaker missionaries to the Indians, according to Forsyth (see 
his sketch of Tecumseh and the Prophet in vol. iv of Forsytk Papers). Eo. 



4 th If any married woman was to behave ill by not paying proper 
attention to her work, etc., the husband had a right to punish her 
with a rod, and as soon as the punishment was over, both husband 
and wife, was to look each other in the face and laugh, and to bear no 
ill will to each other for what had pafsed. 

5 th All Indian women who were living with whitemen was to be 
brought home to their friends and relations, and their children to be 
left with their fathers, so that the nations might become genuine 

6 th All medicine bags, and all kinds of medicine dances and songs 
were to exist no more; the medicine bags were to be destroyed in 
presens of the whole of the people collected for that purpose, and at 
the destroying of such medicine, etc., every one was to make open 102 
confefsion to the Great Spirit in a loud voice of all the bad deeds that 
he or she had committed during their lifetime, and beg for forgivenefs 
as the Great Spirit was too good to refuse. 

7 th No Indian was to sell any of their provision to any white 
people, they might give a little as a present, as they were sure of get- 
ting in return the full value in something else. 

8 th No Indian was to eat any victuals that was cooked by a White 
person, or to eat any provisions raised by White people, as bread, beef, 
pork, fowls, etc. 

9 th No Indian must offer skins or furs or any thing else for 
sale, but ask to exchange them for such articles that they may want. 

io th Every Indian was to consider the French, English, and Span- 
iards, as their fathers or friends, and to give them their hand, but they 
were not to know the Americans on any account, but to keep them at 
a distance. 

II th All kind of white people's drefs, such as hats, coats, etc., 
were to be given to the first whiteman they met as also all dogs not of 
their own breed, and all cats were to be given back to white people. 

12 th The Indians were to endeavour to do without buying any 
merchandise as much as pofsible, by which means the game would be- 
come plenty, and then by means of bows and arrows, they could hunt 
and kill game as in former days, and live independent of all white 

13 th All Indians who refused to follow these regulations were to 
be considered as bad people and not worthy to live, and must be put to 

102 "Indians who have been present at some of these confessions, have re- 
peated them to me, and certainly they were ridiculous in the extreme." 

T. FORSYTH (marginal note). 

278 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

death. (A Kickapoo Indian was actually burned in the spring of the 
year 1809 at the old Kickapoo Town for refusing to give up his med- 
icine bag, and another old man and old woman was very near sharing 
the same fate at the same time and place). 

14 th The Indians in their prayers prayed to the earth, to be fruit- 
ful, also to the fish to be plenty, to the fire and sun, etc., and a certain 
dance was introduced simply for amusement, those prayers were re- 
peated morning and evening, and they were taught that a diviation 
from these duties would offend the Great Spirit. There were many 
more regulations but I now have forgot them, but those above men- 
tioned are the principal ones. 

The Prophet had his disciples among every nation of Indians, from 
Detroit in Michigan Territory, to the Indians on the Mifsifsippi and 
[I] have since been informed, that, there were disciples of the Prophet, 
among all the Indians of the Mifsouri and as far north as Hudson Bay 
(see Tanner's narrative) always reserving the supreme authority to 
himself, viz, that he (the Prophet) might be considered the head of 
the whole of the different nations of Indians, as he only, could see and 
converse with the Great Spirit. As every nation was to have but one 
village, by which means they would be always together in case of dan- 
ger. The Pottawatimie Indians in the course of one season got tired of 
this strict way of living, and declared off, and joined the main poque, 103 
as he never would acknowledge the Prophet as his superiour, seeing 
perfectly that he the Prophet was seeking enfluence among the differ- 
ent Indian nations. Many Indians still follow the dictates of the 
Prophet in a great measure. The Prophet's plan in the first instance 
was to collect by fair means all the Indians he could, to live in the 
same village with him, and when he thought his party sufficiently 
strong, he would oblidge the others to come into measures by force, 
and when so afsembled in great numbers, that he would be able to 
give laws to the white people. Tecumseh 104 has been heard to say, 

103 "The Main Poque was a pure Pottawatimie Indian, and a great juggler, 
and made the credulous Indians believe every thing he said, he had great 
influence among the Chipeways, Ottawas, Pottawatimies, Kicapoos, Sauks, Fox 
and other Indians. He died along Lake Michigan in summer of 1816." 

-T. FORSYTH (marginal note). 
See note 76 for sketch of this chief.- ED. 

104 Tecumseh (properly Tikamthi or Tecumtha) was a celebrated Shawnee 
chief, born in 1768 at the Shawnee village of Piqua (which was destroyed by 
the Kentuckians in 1780) ; his father and two brothers were killed in battle 
with the whites. "While still a young man Tecumseh distinguished himself 


"We must not leave this place" (meaning Tipicanoe) 105 "we must 
remain stedfast here, to keep those people who wear hats, in check;" 
he also observed to the Indians, "no white man who walks on the 
earth, loves an Indian, the white people are made up with such ma- 
terials, that they will always deceive us, even the British who says 
they love us, is because they may want our services, and as we yet 
want their goods, we must, therefore, shew them some kind of 
friendship." - THOMAS FORSYTH, in unpublished letter to Gen. Wil- 
liam Clark (St. Louis, Dec. 23, 1812) ; in Forsyth Papers, vol. ix. 

in the border wars of the period, but was noted also for his humane character, 
evinced by persuading his tribe to discontinue the practice of torturing prisoners. 
Together with his brother Tenskwatawa the Prophet, he was an ardent oppon- 
ent of the advance of the white man, and denied the right of the government to 
make land purchases from any single tribe, on the ground that the territory, 
especially in the Ohio valley country, belonged to all the tribes in common. On 
the refusal of the government to recognize this principle, he undertook the 
formation of a great confederacy of all the western and southern tribes for 
the purpose of holding the Ohio River as the permanent boundary between the 
two races. In pursuance of this object he or his agents visited every tribe from 
Florida to the head of the Missouri River. White Tecumseh was organizing 
the work in the south his plans were brought to disastrous overthrow by the 
premature battle of Tippecanoe under the direction of the Prophet, Nov. 7, 
x8ix." He fought for the British in the War of 1812, and was created by them 
a brigadier-general, having under his command some 2,000 warriors of the 
allied tribes. Finally, at the battle on Thames River (near the present 
Chatham, Ontario), the allied British and Indians were utterly defeated by 
General Harrison, Oct. 5, 1813 ; and in this contest Tecumseh was killed, being 
then in his forty-fifth year. He may be considered the most extraordinary 
Indian character in United States history. JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook Amer. 

105 Tippecanoe was a noted village site on the west bank of the Wabash 
River, just below the mouth of Tippecanoe River, Indiana. "It was origin- 
ally occupied by the Miami, the earliest known occupants of the region, and 
later by the Shawnee, who were in possession when it was attacked and de- 
stroyed by the Americans under Wilkinson in 1791, at which time it contained 
one hundred and twenty houses. It was soon after rebuilt and occupied by 
the Potawatomi, and finally on their invitation became the headquarters of 
Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet, with their followers, whence the 
name Prophetstown." Gen. W. H. Harrison marched against them with nine 
hundred men, and near the town his army was attacked by the Indians (Nov. 
7, 1811), under command of the Prophet. The battle of Tippecanoe resulted 
in the complete defeat and dispersion of the Indians, with considerable loss 
on both sides. The site was reoccupied for a short time a few years later. 

JAMES MOONEY, in Handbook Amer. Indians. 

28o APPENDIX B [Vol. 

The Kickapoo Prophet 

Sometime last month (October, 1832) a party of Kicapoo Indians 
were encamped near the River des Peres, and about a mile from my 
place of residence (my farm). Curiosity led me to go and see them, 
as I was formerly acquainted with some of their old people. I found 
them to be the Prophet or Preachers 106 party, in going into their 
camp I was much surprised to find their dogs so quiet and peaceable, 
in every camp or lodge of every individual, a piece of flat wood hung 
up about three inches broad and twelve or fifteen inches long on 
which were burned with a hot iron (apparently) a number of straight 
and crooked marks, this stick or board so marked they called their 
Bible. Those Indians told me that they worked six days and the 
seventh they done no kind of work, but prayed to the Great Spirit, 
that no men of their community were allowed to have more than one 
wife, that none, either young or old, male or female, were allowed 
to paint themselves, that they never made, or intended to make, war, 
against any people that they never stole, tell lies or do any thing bad, 
that those who would not learn their prayers according to the direction 
of the Preacher, he or she was punished with a whip by a man ap- 
pointed for that purpose, that spirituous liquor was not to be tasted 
by any one belonging to the community on pain of death but they 
were to do unto all people, as they wished to be done by. The Kic- 
apoo nation is divided into two parties, one party under the Prophet 
or Preacher the other, (which is the largest party) are under their 
chiefs now living west of this State (Mifsouri) where the party under 
the Prophet is on their way to join them, and no doubt will try and 
bring them all under his control. I should not be surprised, if this 

ice This is evidently a reference to Kanakuk, a prophet who arose among 
the Kickapoo after they ceded their lands (1819) to the United States, and 
part of the tribe migrated to Spanish territory. Kanakuk exhorted the re- 
mainder of his people to remain in Illinois, to lead moral lives, to abandon 
their old superstitions, to live in peace with one another and with the white 
men, and to avoid all use of intoxicating liquors. Those of his people who 
remained in Illinois accepted him as their chief, and "many of the Potawatomi 
of Michigan became his disciples. He displayed a chart of the path, leading 
through fire and water, which the virtuous must pursue to reach the 'happy 
hunting grounds,' and furnished his followers with prayer-sticks [described 
above by Forsyth] graven with religious symbols. When in the end the 
Kickapoo were removed to Kansas he accompanied them and remained their 
chief, still keeping drink away from them, until he died of smallpox in 1852." 
(See Mooney's account in Fourteenth Report of Bureau of American Ethnology 
[1896], 692-700.) -Handbook Amer. Indians. 


preaching of the Prophet of the Kicapoo Indians, is the commencement 
of a religion which will take place among all the different Indian 
nations, who are, and are to be settled, in a country west of this State 
(Mifsouri) and my present impression is, that it ought to be encour- 
aged by the government as it inculcates peace and good will to all 
men. I have been informed that the above party on their way to 
their place of destination, were seen punishing several of their people 
with a whip, for something they done wrong. THOMAS FORSYTH 
(memorandum at end of vol. ix of Forsyth Papers). 

The Winnebago Mescal-eaters 

In this connection, the following note is of especial interest. It is 
furnished by Mr. Thomas R. Roddy (also known as "White Buf- 
falo" ) . Among that tribe considerable progress has been made in late 
years by a "new religion," popularly designated as that of the "mescal- 
eaters," or the "mescal-button." Our readers are indeed fortunate in 
having this interesting account of its history and results, from so au- 
thoritative a source ; it is sent to the editor by Mr. Roddy from Winne- 
bago, Neb., under date of April 15, 1909. - ED. 

I enclose a short history of the Mescal-eaters of the Winnebago 
tribe, as I know them from personal experience among them, and 
from conversations with the leading members of the cult. The name 
of Mescal-eaters is generally used, and its members call themselves 
by it, in their talk ; but it is erroneous, as these people never used the 
mescal-bean in any form. This is a small red bean, nearly round, and 
similar in shape to the common navy bean; while what the Winne- 
bagoes and many other tribes use is called "peyote," 107 which is a 

107 Peyote (a name of Nahuatl origin) : a kind of cactus (Lophophora wil- 
liamsii, Coulter; also named Anhalonium lewinii), found along the lower Rio 
Grande and in Mexico, which long has been used for ceremonial and medicinal 
purposes by the southern and Mexican tribes; it has been incorrectly confused 
by the whites with the maguey cactus, from which the intoxicant mescal is 
prepared. "The peyote plant resembles a radish in size and shape, the top 
only appearing above ground. From the center springs a beautiful white 
blossom, which is later displaced by a tuft of white down. North of the Rio 
Grande this top alone is used, being sliced and dried to form the so-called 
'button.' In Mexico the whole plant is cut into slices, dried, and used in de- 
coction, while the ceremony also is essentially different from that of the northern 
tribes." This plant has been examined and tested at Washington, and "tests 
thus far made indicate that it possesses varied and valuable medicinal proper- 
ties, tending to confirm the idea of the Indians, who regard it almost as a 
panacea." Among the Mexican tribes, the chief feature of the ceremony is a 

282 APPENDIX B [Vol. 

cactus growth, found in southern Texas and Mexico. It is a round, 
flat pod, one to two inches in diameter; it is used in their church ser- 
vices, being eaten and also made into tea, which is passed to the mem- 
bers at intervals during services. These services are usually held 
Saturday nights, beginning about eight o'clock, and lasting till about 
the same hour Sunday morning ; and are of a very religious and solemn 
nature. God is their guide, and they use the Bible and quotations 
from it all through the services; they have short speeches by the mem- 
bers, singing of sacred songs, and playing on the small medicine drum ; 
and they use the sacred gourd rattle, on which are traced drawings of 
Christ, the cross and crown, the shepherd's crook, and other religious 
emblems. The drawings or carvings are done with great skill and 
show the work of an artist. Each member on joining is presented 
with one of these musical gourds, which he uses during services. 
Speeches are usually made in their native Indian tongue, but when 
whites are present the speech is interpreted into the English language. 
On this reservation the membership is about three hundred, and they 
have a very comfortable church. When they visit where there is no 
church they erect a large cloth tepee, and hold services here for win- 
ning converts. Their altar is in the shape of a heart, about eight 
feet in length, and is built of cement ; the members sit around this altar. 
Medicine-eating can be traced back in this country about 200 years ; 
it was first introduced by the Miskarora [i.e., Mescaleros], a tribe of 
old Mexico, among the Apaches and Timgas of Oklahoma - the 
Apaches introducing it among the Comanches, Kiowas, Cheyennes, 
Arapahoes, and Otoes. Twelve years ago the Otoes brought the new 
religion to the Winnebagoes and Omahas of Nebraska, where now 
about one-third of each tribe are members ; and they are the most pros- 
perous people of the tribe. In talking with Albert Hensley, one of the 
prominent leaders, he said : "The mescal was formerly used improper- 
ly, but since it has been used in connection with the Bible it is proving 
a great benefit to the Indians. Now we call our church the Union 
Church, instead of Mescal-eaters. Our ways may seem peculiar to 

dance; but among the northern Plains tribes "it is rather a ceremony of prayer 
and quiet contemplation. It is usually performed as an invocation for the 
recovery of some sick person. . . The number of 'buttons' eaten by one 
individual during the night varies from ten to forty, and even more, the drug 
producing a sort of spiritual exaltation differing entirely from that produced by 
any other known drug, and apparently without any reaction." JAMES MOONEY, 
in Handbook Amer. Indians. 


some people, but our worship is earnest, and [we address] the same 
God as others do. We are doing this not to protect this medicine, but 
for God, as others do, and are not trying to deceive other Christian 
people. In doing so we would destroy ourselves and our God. Some 
try to stop our worshiping, but it is the work of God and cannot be 
stopped." Medicine-eating is praised highly by the members, and op- 
posed as bitterly by the other faction. I have attended several of the 
meetings, and have also experienced the eating and drinking of the 
"peyote" medicine, with no bad effects. It is very surprising, the way 
the Indians have become familiar with the Bible, and how closely they 
try to follow the teachings of Jesus. By using the medicine in con- 
nection with the Bible, they are able to understand the Bible. Many 
members I have known twenty-five or thirty years, who formerly had 
been greatly addicted to the use of liquors and tobacco, and other 
vices; all have quit these bad habits and live for their religion. I 
cannot see wherein their minds have become impaired, as many talk 
and write, but I can see great improvements and advancement among 
the members. They are the best business men among this tribe, and 
their credit is good wherever they are known. John Rave, the leader, 
is one of the old-type Indians, of fine personal appearance, and has used 
the medicine twelve years; and any one would be pleased to engage 
him in conversation and hear his explanations of the Bible, and talk 
on the benefits and happiness enjoyed through this new religion. One 
wrong and misleading fact is the name "Mescal-eaters," which seems 
to cling to the minds of the general public. The Winnebagoes have 
the credit of being the first to use the Bible in conjunction with this 


From a mass of correspondence incident to the preparation of the 
present work, the editor has selected the following extracts from letters, 
etc., written by persons who know from actual observation and expe- 
rience the facts regarding what they state, and who are reliable and 
competent observers. Rev. Henry I. Westropp is a Jesuit missionary 
among the (Oglala) Sioux at Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. Franklin 
W. Calkins is the author of various books and magazine stories of 
Indian and frontier life; he has seen much of the Indians, and at one 
time lived among some of the Sioux and was adopted into their tribe. 
Rev. William Metzdorf (a secular priest), of St. Francis, Wis., was 
formerly a missionary among the Potawatomi of Kansas. Rev. J. 
Stucki is a Protestant missionary among the Winnebago of Wisconsin, 
at Black River Falls, Wis.; and Thomas R. Roddy is (as mentioned 
on page 281). These letters are used here, to give some idea of the 
character and present condition or status of the above tribes. ED. 

The Sioux 

The Sioux have always been a religious-minded people, and -it seems 
that even before the advent of the white men they believed in one God, 
whom they called the "Great Holy One" - great, as compared to a 
numerous band of other "holy ones" that they had. With such fruit- 
ful soil to work in, it was easy for the Christian missionary to sow the 
seed of the gospel. Their ideas of morality had always been strict, and 
these ideas still remain today. The Indian maidens are exceedingly 
bashful; they will run at the approach of a stranger, or, if that is 
impossible, hide their faces in their shawls ; they dare not speak to any 
one in public, and at times refuse to answer even necessary questions. 
None of the Indians, as a rule, manifest their feelings in the way that 
white people do. Usually the Indian does not thank you for any bene- 
fit; he cannot blush, or if he does no one can see it; his code of honor 
is the contrary of the white man's, and his etiquette is very simple. 
This has led many to believe that he is taciturn, impassive, and un- 


emotional; and yet nothing is more false. Conversation, social din- 
ners, and smokes are the Indian's life. Two never talk at once ; each 
one has his turn. Their inclination to curiosity may be estimated by 
the fact that they will recognize any one passing their house, a mile 
away, and perhaps tell him a year afterward what kind of a horse he 
was riding - something that they certainly could not do unless they 
were accustomed to scrutinize everything most curiously. When any 
one of their kindred is sick, they must travel miles and miles to show 
their sympathy; and if he dies, this event (as also his burial) is the 
occasion for all kinds of expressions of their sympathy and regret. To 
indicate this, they often cut their hair and dress in black for a year or 
more. Often they give away, at the death of a dear relative, all they 
possess calico, food, blankets, ponies ; and even the house is torn down. 
This idea of giving away everything, of doing "the big thing," is 
doubtless a beautiful trait, but it prevents progress. On the occasion 
of an Omaha dance or a Fourth of July celebration, the generous Sioux 
will stand up and give away anything and everything. An Indian can 
exercise no self-control in this respect; if he feels sad, he would give 
away the globe, if he owned it. In all his dealings he presents the 
figure of a grown-up child ; and yet there is scarcely a white man who 
will not cheat this child wherever he can. It is a mistaken policy to 
treat them as grown-up persons. They have land, cattle, and every- 
thing imaginable issued to them; but as long as there is not an over- 
seer with them to hold them down, and teach them how to use the 
land and implements they get, these are useless. Like a set of boys, 
when tired of work they run off and play ; they cast everything aside, 
cattle, family, and all ; they join a Buffalo Bill show, go off to another 
tribe on a visit, and so on. If one man gets a good start, there will 
be so many visitors around that he is scarcely to be envied. They are 
great visitors ; that is their principal occupation. Their horses are run 
down to skin and bone, their places neglected, and everything thrown 
to the wind, so that they may go and visit their relatives, or other 
tribes. The weekly dance, the semi-monthly trip for rations, and trips 
to the store and the railroad, leave them but little remaining time for 
work. Under these circumstances, acquiring wealth or even support- 
ing themselves is out of the question. Their miserable huts are hot- 
beds of disease ; dirty clothes and blankets, ditto. Food of all and any 
kind, or none at all; carelessness in wet and cold seasons; lack of 
knowledge how to take care of themselves; lack of medical attend- 
ance - all these are working frightful havoc among them. Although 

286 APPENDIX C [Vol. 

they are scattered over so immense a territory, the missionary is doing 
what he can to teach them, and urging them to work and stay at home. 
He helps them out of his own pocketbook, tries to secure by foresight 
their seed in time, and procures for them the means to aid themselves ; 
but this work is nothing to what it could be, since we so greatly lack 
the necessary means, ourselves living on charity. There is no reason 
why this great and noble tribe should not be saved, if we had the 
means. The missionary has great influence over them, and so has the 
religion which they embrace. The tribe ought to double its numbers 
every few years, for their fertility is great. The number of twins 
born among them surpasses belief, and every Indian woman gives birth 
to eight or ten children. Where are they? you ask; go find them in 
the graveyard. 

There seems to be an impression in many quarters that the Indian 
is a liar and a thief; but nothing is farther from the truth. In- 
dians are, like children, very unreliable, and I never take them too 
seriously. They are liable to say anything that comes into their heads, 
and their language is full of exaggerations. If they mean to say that 
a man laughed, or was frightened, or hungry, they will say that he 
died of laughter, or fright, or hunger. Burglary is unknown among 
them. When one of them leaves his tent, he puts a stick of wood in 
front of the flap, and no one will enter while he is gone. Knocking a 
man on the head for the sake of his money is unknown. If the Indian 
steals from the white man, he is practically taking back what belongs 
to him ; and if, when at times he feels the gnawing pangs of hunger, he 
goes out and kills whatever cattle he may find, what wonder is it? 
Wilful murder is also very, very uncommon; and when Indians are 
brought before the courts their troubles are usually caused by drink, 
the worst enemy of these people. Drink is certainly the king of all 
the evils existing out here. The Indian will pawn his last shirt for a 
drink of "holy water," as he calls it. The Indians here (at Pine 
Ridge) being far removed from the railroad, liquor has not wrought 
such ravages here as among some other tribes; but unless the govern- 
ment takes strong measures against whisky-sellers the evil will be the 
same here as on other reservations for the Indians are nothing else 
but children, and cannot resist a seducer. 

- REVEREND HENRY I. WESTROPP, S J., Pine Ridge, S. Dak. 

You will find in my latest book, The Wooing of Tokala, a clear 
statement of my impressions regarding Indian character. Although 


this bpok is in the form of a novel, or story, it is primarily expository. 
In its dealings with Siouan sociology and, I may boldly add, psychology, 
it is endorsed by all educated Sioux, and by all its readers who have 
known the Sioux tongue and tribal life. It is in fact an intimate study 
of the Indians at first hand, and in it I have given conscientiously my 
best studies of the Dakota people. In the character of Tokala may be 
seen the chaste Sioux maiden - not at her best, because I haven't the 
ability to present her at her best; nor do I know of any one who is 
able to set forth fully the subtle nuances of Indian character. But I 
have in that book dealt as amply as I could with the moral character 
of the Dakota. Their standards of morality are very high, and their 
children are trained in accordance with these. When I lived among 
them there were only a very few disorderly or bad characters in the 
entire tribe ; and these were regarded in precisely the same light as such 
persons are in any moral and well-regulated community of white 
people. - FRANKLIN WELLES CALKINS, Maine, Minn. 

The Pottawatomi 

Out on the bare prairies of Kansas I lived with the Pottawatomi 
Indians for four years, and became as one of their tribe; and what I 
here relate is based mostly on my own observations, or on traditions 
preserved in the tribe and told to me by the Indians. When the Pot- 
tawatomis first came into contact with the whites they occupied lands 
in southern Michigan and Wisconsin; about the time of the Revolu- 
tionary War they gradually left Michigan entirely and settled on their 
Wisconsin lands. About 1850 most of them went across the Missis- 
sippi, following the trail of the buffalo, and dispersed over the great 
western plains; a smaller number remained in the Wisconsin woods. 
Later, the government gave those of the plains a reservation on the 
Kansas River; but part of these lands were sold, and now the remnant 
of the tribe, about 1,200 in number, are living on their reservation in 
the northeastern corner of Kansas - besides a band who settled on the 
Pottawatomie reservation in Oklahoma, and those who now live on 
reservations in the northern part of Wisconsin. At times the latter 
Indians receive visits from their tribesmen in the south, who like to 
revisit their old Wisconsin home, which some of them still remember. 

Their language is very like that of the Ojibwa, the Ottawas, and 
the Kickapoos; and its soft and harmonious, but brief and clear-cut, 
sounds tell us that we are dealing with a race of fine feeling, and manly 
but peaceable character. In many respects it is a beautiful language ; 


it is the very embodiment of system and regularity, and is very eu- 
phonic, with no harsh, grating sounds. The general rule is, that after 
each consonant a vowel follows; and when two or more consonants 
meet they readily combine and flow together. It is a language of 
verbs, almost four-fifths of its words being of that class ; and it abounds 
in inflections, every phase of being, thought, or action being expressed 
by some termination. In it the letters n, f, 1, r, v, x, y, z are lacking, 
except in words of foreign origin; and every written letter is pro- 
nounced. There are nine conjugations in this language, and each one 
can be used affirmatively, negatively, and dubitatively ; moreover, a 
verb can be used to express any phase of thought. There is to-day a 
considerable literature in the Ojibwa language, including even a news- 
paper, the Anishinabe Enamiad (i.e., The Catholic Indian), which is 
published weekly by the missionaries in Harbor Springs, Mich., and is 
read by many of the Pottawatomis. I began the preparation of a 
Pottawatomi grammar, the first attempt at such a book (and in their 
dialect nothing has yet been published except a prayer-book) ; but I 
was called to another field, and did not finish it. 

The idea that some people have of these Indians, that they are 
wild, cruel savages, or a race who can not be civilized, is entirely 
wrong and false. On the contrary, we find that with their bad habits - 
which I am sorry to say were taught to them mostly by white 
men they have many very good qualities. If they are not quite as 
friendly toward the whites as we could wish, we must attribute this 
to the fact that they have not been treated right by the whites. The 
side of their life that I most admire is the quiet and peaceful family 
life. They very seldom quarrel in their homes, and the women do 
their work quietly and take care of their children, whom they love with 
greater affection than do many of the white women. I have never 
seen an Indian cruel to his children, and their patience with the faults 
of the children is astonishing. The curse of divorce is hardly known 
among them; they really believe in the indissolubility of the marriage 
bond, and, if the married pair have differences and become angered at 
each other, one of the two goes to stay with some neighbor until the 
other asks him or her to return and promises to be good again. 

They dislike water, even for mere hygienic purposes, and their 
passion for strong drink has become proverbial; but they know their 
weakness, and I had in my congregation a great many Indians who 
belonged to the Temperance League and never touched a drop of any 
intoxicant. Their dislike for hard work is a characteristic which they 

PECHECHO (Potawattomi) 


have in common with many other races. But a peculiar feature which 
I often notice is hard to explain : the Indian man seems to have an ab- 
horrence for sickness. If a member of his family is sick he usually 
leaves the house, goes to stay with some neighbor, and sends the neigh- 
bor's wife to his home to take care of his sick wife or child. Thus I 
often arrived at a sick-bed and found the poor family alone, because the 
neighbor had not yet come. 

A very large part of the Pottawatomis are still heathens, and stick 
to their old religion with the same tenacity which the Christian con- 
verts show in their new faith. The former are less civilized, and never 
use the English language in their conversation, even when they are 
able to speak it. Naturally they sometimes show that they consider 
the Christians as renegades, and too great friends of the white men, 
and will not take part in any of their doings unless the whole tribe is 
interested in it. They believe in a Supreme Being, Kitchi Manito, 
the creator and benefactor of all mankind ; they honor and adore him 
in the sun, and therefore they often call him Kisis, which means "the 
sun," or "month." They worship this God through their so-called 
dances, which are really religious ceremonies. Especially among this 
tribe, there are three great dances, each one lasting from two to three 
weeks: the first one, called the "green bean dance," is celebrated early 
in the summer, when the bean, one of their staple products, is ready 
for the table. The second, the most elaborate of all, the "green corn 
dance," 108 is celebrated when the corn is in its milk, in the right stage 
of growth to rejoice every Indian's heart. First, they all stack up as 
much hay as they need to feed their horses over winter, and as soon 
as the last haystack is completed they pack up their tents and travel to 
their dancing-ground, where they will stay until all celebrations are 
over. Later on, in the fall, they usually have a "Powou," a celebra- 
tion corresponding to our Thanksgiving, the turkey being the central 
figure at the dancing-ground. This is a circular field prepared for 
that purpose; it is in the neighborhood of the chief's house, on the 
border of Big Soldier Creek, surrounded by trees and woods; the 
outer circle of this ground is raised a little, thus forming natural 
benches, which the women occupy. In the neighborhood a great dance- 
hall has been erected, built of boards; and in this they continue their 
dances, if storms or heavy rains interfere with the outdoor programme. 

108 Cf. the dance of this name (more commonly known as "busk") among 
the Creeks, their solemn annual festival, one of rejoicing over the first fruits 
of the year. See account of this feast in Handbook Amer. Indians. ED. 

292 APPENDIX C [Vol. 

They consider their dancing-ground a sacred place. For their great 
dances invitations are sent out to their relatives and to neighboring 
tribes ; and thus many strangers are present on those occasions, as well 
as Pottawatomis from Wisconsin who go to attend the ceremonies 
and also to draw money due them on allotments which they had re- 
ceived on the Kansas reservation. Catholics do not usually take part 
in these dances, except that some of the young fellows are drawn in 
when they hear the drums, and finally join in the dancing. These 
dancing feasts also include speeches, singing, and smoking - the latter 
being done with one pipe by perhaps a hundred persons ; to this prac- 
tice may be traced the spread of some diseases among them. They do 
not like to have their pictures taken, and any attempts to photograph 
them at these ceremonies have usually ended in the destruction of the 
camera. In the center of the dancing-ground is a large red cross, at 
the foot of which the eatables are deposited when they have their din- 
ner. This cross is a peculiar feature in the Indian camps. I often 
inquired for its meaning, but could get no further information than 
that this custom was as old as the Indians. I think, however, that it 
is an old tradition of the Christian instruction which they received 
from the first missionaries among them, which they did not fully 
understand and have adopted into their ceremonial. At these feasts 
they thank the sun for the crops which he has given them, and the 
warm weather which has enabled these to grow, and they praise Kitchi 
Manito. On the last day they have a special ceremony over the sacred 
dog, which has been killed and cooked. Its skull is placed before the 
cross, and the meat is distributed among the dancers; singing their 
songs loudly, they dance around the skull, and finally jump over it. 
On one occasion, toward the end of the ceremony I saw an Indian step 
into the middle of the ring, and confess a crime which he had com- 
mitted and for which the tribe had disowned him. He received par- 
don from the chief, and as a sign of reconciliation he was given a cup 
of milk by the chief, after which they crossed the pipes of peace. Out- 
side of their dances the non-Christian Indians show hardly any sign of 
religion, except at their funerals. They place their dead in a sitting 
posture above the ground, the back of the corpse leaning against a 
stone or a tree. Others deposit their dead in hollow trees, which they 
cut off at the top, lowering the body into this hollow amidst plaintive 
songs and the monotonous beating of drums. I have seen such hollow 
trees that were actually filled with skeletons from top to bottom. 
Generally the body is only partly covered with logs or stones or earth. 


They then tie a dog near the grave, to keep watch over it. If he is 
able to get loose before he starves to death, and goes home, it is con- 
sidered a good omen, a sign that the deceased has arrived happily at 
the great hunting-grounds, and does not need the dog any more. 
Often, in passing by new graves, I made both dog and people happy, 
by cutting the rope. 

No orphan asylums are needed among these people. If a mother 
loses one of her children she tries to soothe her sorrow by adopting an 
orphan or waif of about the same age ; and all such children are well 
cared for. Such an adoption is a great feast for the tribe, the central 
figure being the adopted child; it is well dressed, and, according to 
the wealth of the new mother, receives many and fine presents. I al- 
ways enjoyed these occasions, on account of the friendly and kind 
spirit which I always observed, and with which they treated me. 

The Christians in this tribe were converted by the renowned Jesuit, 
Father Galligan, about fifty years ago; and although after his death 
they were left entirely to themselves, because no priest spoke their 
language, they adhered loyally to their adopted faith. Once or twice 
a week, throughout the long period of twenty-five years, groups of 
them met together, and said their prayers in common, and listened to 
the teaching of some of the older and better-instructed men. Their 
services consisted in reciting prayers and especially in singing the old 
religious songs, which had been translated for them into their language 
by Father Galligan and Bishop Baraga ; 109 these gatherings lasted 
until a late hour, and were concluded by an elaborate meal. In this 
way the faith of the Christians was preserved, and, although many of 
them were poorly instructed, none of them fell away from their 
adopted faith ; and when I first went to stay with them I found that 
they all were practical Catholics, and that they believed in their re- 
ligion. The missionary who labors among them has no reason to 
complain about neglect of religious duty on the part of the Indians; 
and I could always point to them as exemplary church-goers. They 
receive the sacraments often, attend religious services regularly, and 
respond willingly to every demand of the priest. There is, of course, 
a little side-attraction connected with the divine services, as they all, 
after these are ended, partake of a sumptuous meal; thus every church 

109 Rev. (afterward Bishop) Frederic Baraga, a native of Austria, began 
a Catholic mission at La Pointe, on Chequamegon Bay, in 1835. He spent the 
rest of his life in missionary labors in northern Michigan and Wisconsin, dying 
in 1868. See Wis. Hist. Colls., vol. xii, 445, 446, 451. ED. 


day is for them a kind of feast day. Peace, unity, and a spirit of good- 
fellowship prevail among them, and recall to us the love-feasts of the 
first Christians. 

Among these Pottawatomis are persons, both of pure and of mixed 
blood, who are some of my best friends, and their friendship I appre- 
ciate as much as that of white people; and they are in every respect 
equal to our white men and women. Among them is the reverend 
Father Negauquetl, a full-blood Indian ; he pursued his studies in the 
Sacred Heart College in Oklahoma and later at the Propaganda in 
Rome, where he was ordained a priest in 1905 ; and he is now working 
among his own people and the whites in the Indian Territory. He is 
the first Catholic priest of his race, and speaks both English and Ital- 
ian perfectly, besides the different Indian dialects. Another is a Miss 
Blandin (now Mrs. Graham), the daughter of an English father and 
a full-blooded Indian mother; she is highly accomplished, an excellent 
musician, and a graduate from the University of Hoi ton, Kans. Many 
of these Indians are highly esteemed by their white neighbors, and 
move in the best society. Along the two Soldier Creeks may be seen 
beautiful residences, with large barns, the property of wealthy Indians. 
The finest cattle and horses are shipped to market by them, and the 
checks that they sign are honored at any bank in Kansas. They dress 
in style and good taste, and they and their families appear in citizen 
clothes; they speak the English language well, and are in every re- 
spect true Americans. There is another but poorer class of Christians 
on that reservation who have no land of their own, and, not being able 
to acquire any land on the reservation, they rent land from other In- 
dians. These are thrifty farmers, save their money, and are the best 
of Catholics. I wish that I could speak as highly of those who are 
non-Christians ; their progress in civilization is slow, and most of them, 
at least the women, do not know the English language at all. They 
have struck a compromise in clothing, and appear only partly in cit- 
izen's dress; clinging to the blanket as if it were a part of their re- 
ligion. Many years will be needed to civilize them fully, and it is to 
be feared that not many of them will be left for that ; for every year 
diseases, especially consumption, erysipelas, and smallpox, carry many 
of them to the grave. The government makes great efforts to be just 
to the Indians, but even this fact is, I think, an explanation of their 
slow advance. Every Pottawatomi man, woman, and child receives 
from the government one hundred and sixty acres of land, and some- 
times much more; as this is good hay land, it is rented, through the 

O-CHEK-KA (Winnebago) 


agent, for two dollars an acre, to white people, for cutting the hay. 
This secures to an Indian family for instance, the father and mother, 
and five children an income of about two thousand dollars, which is 
sufficient for them to live on without doing a stroke of work. If the 
Indian does not work, we cannot expect him to become a useful cit- 
izen ; he needs both a teacher and a taskmaster, who will teach him at 
once the principles of Christianity and the love of labor, and show him 
that it is a blessing. Injustice, bloody persecutions, and wars of ex- 
termination did much to make the Indian that crafty and bloodthirsty 
savage whom we so often meet in story and history ; but such is not his 
real nature. And now when truthful and sympathetic historians are 
looking up the records of the Indians, and studying their history, char- 
acter, customs, and beliefs, we must deeply regret that in the past they 
were not given more sympathy and greater opportunities, and that the 
unfortunate conditions which tend to cause their extermination still 
continue. - Rev. WILLIAM METZDORF, St. Francis, Wis. (from an 
unpublished lecture given by him in Milwaukee, Jan. 21, 1907). 

The Winnebago 

As a rule, these Indians are very sociable among themselves, and 
with outsiders whom they have proved to be their friends. Toward 
strangers they are very reserved, and this may especially be said of the 
women. Very seldom a family lives alone ; usually two or more fam- 
ilies live close together. They are peaceable except when under the 
influence of liquor. They are hospitable even to excess. As a rule, 
diligence and cleanliness are not their strongest points ; but their way 
of living (in tents), and their land being unfit for cultivation, will to 
some extent account for both. Their morals are not all one could 
wish, especially among the younger generation. "Firewater" is the 
great enemy of these Indians, and there are always unscrupulous whites 
who for the sake of gain will furnish it to them. Some of the In- 
dians are bad, but there are also some who are highly deserving of 
respect, who might be pointed out as examples for others to follow. 
The greatest drawback to the elevation of these people is the poor soil 
on which they are located; they can not make their living on it, and 
are consequently compelled to scatter in all directions, in order to 
seek work by which to make a living; and thus they often come into 
contact with a class of whites whose influence is anything but edify- 
ing. The "new religion" (the use of the "mescal button") when first 
brought to these Indians found quite a number of adherents; but it 


seems to have lost ground gradually, and many of the Indians were 
very much opposed to it. - REV. J. STUCKI, Black River Falls, Wis. 
The Wisconsin Winnebagoes have very poor sandy lands, and are 
not far advanced in farming, especially as they receive but little en- 
couragement from the government or its employees. The Winne- 
bagoes are naturally bright, intelligent people, more so than the average 
of Indian tribes; they are more intelligent than the ordinary white 
people, or the corn-eating natives of Nebraska. Those who live in 
Wisconsin earn their living by hunting and trapping, berry-picking, 
gathering ginseng, husking corn, digging potatoes, cutting wood, etc. 
Under the present methods, they waste considerable time waiting for 
the payment of the government annuities. I look for great advance- 
ment among the several tribes when the trust funds are paid, and the 
Indians are made to mingle more with the whites, and go out into the 
world to do the best they can; they will then reach the top of the 
ladder. Good education is all right for them if only they have some- 
thing to do when their school days are over ; but at the present day there 
is nothing for them except to go back to the wigwam. A Winnebago 
from Nebraska has recently won high honors in oratory at Yale Uni- 
versity. In regard to the "mescal eating" among the Winnebagoes, 
those in Nebraska sent (in the summer of 1908) a delegation of about 
one hundred persons to Wisconsin, to introduce the new religion 
among their brothers there. They held three or four meetings, and 
made fifteen or twenty converts; but there was so much opposition to 
the movement that most persons held back from joining it. 

- THOMAS R. RODDY, Black River Falls, Wis. 


Documents forming the text of this work 

1'Amerique Septentrionale (Paris, 1722). 4 vols. Illustrated. 

This work was approved by the royal censor at Paris in 1702, but was 
not published until 1716 probably on account of the war between Eng- 
land and France (1701-1713), which only ended with the treaty of Utrecht, 
and the undesirability of publishing at that time a work regarding Canada, 
which was in danger of attack by the English. The edition of 1716 is 
mentioned by only Fevret de Fontette; the next one (1722), the edition 
best known to bibliographers, was issued at both Paris and Rouen; and a 
third edition appeared at Amsterdam in 1723. The work was published in 
four small volumes; it is the second of these, devoted to the history of the 
Indian tribes who were allies of the French in Canada, which is here pre- 
sented (for the first time in English translation). A fourth edition was 
issued in Paris in 1753; a careful comparison shows that this is an exact 
reproduction of the 1722 edition, save for a few unimportant variations, 
chiefly in the color of the ink used on the title-pages. It is a curious fact 
that La Potherie's Histoire is not mentioned in the Memoires de Trevoux, 
a publication of that period which aimed to record the names of all printed 
books relating to America. This information is chiefly obtained from the 
interesting paper of J. Edmond Roy on La Potherie and his works, in 
Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, series ii, vol. 
iii, 27-41 in which the reader will find fuller bibliographical details, and 
a brief synopsis of the Histoire. 

It is of interest to note the gradual increase in the prices quoted by 
booksellers for this work. An early issue (undated) of Dufosse's Amer- 
icana prices the Histoire (no. 13857) at twenty-five francs for edition of 
1753; and later (no. 62174), at thirty-five francs, edition of 1722; while 
in his "new series" that of 1753, it is quoted at forty francs (nos. 15851 and 
17181). In Chadenafs Catalogues may be noted the following: Catalogue 
ii (1893), no. 11457, edition 1722, 40 francs; the same in Catalogue 22 
(1898), no. 21991, edition "1722 or 1753;" for the same edition, in Cat- 
alogue 26 (1900), no. 26414, 50 francs (and in same catalogue the same 
price for the Amsterdam edition of 1723) ; in Catalogue 29 (1902), no. 
29697, edition of 1722 (Paris, Nyon et Didot; "original edition of this very 
rare work"), 80 francs; the same price for the Amsterdam edition, in 
Catalogue 33 (1904), no. 34394; while in Catalogue 41 (1908), no. 44096, 
and Catalogue 44 (1910), no. 48816, the price is quoted at 125 francs. 


PERROT, NICOLAS. Memoire sur les moeurs coustumes et relligion des 
sauvages de 1'Amerique septentrionale. Pub. pour la premiere fois 
par le R. P. J. Tailhan (Leipzig and Paris, 1864). 

So much information in regard to Perrot's manuscript writings as was 
then available was collected by his editor, Father Tailhan, when he pub- 
lished the above work in 1864; for this, see his preface at the beginning of 
the Memoire. Since then, no farther discoveries seem to have been made, 
unless the promised "Inventaire sommaire" of MM. Nicolas and Wirth, 
of Mss. in the archives of the Ministere des Colonies at Paris, has succeeded 
in unearthing some of the lost memoirs of Nicolas Perrot. It is more 
probable, however, that these writings were lost or destroyed (unless some 
duplicate copies found their way into the government archives) in their 
passage through many hands in the eighteenth century; for they were used 
by La Potherie, Charlevoix, and Golden, and possibly other writers some 
of them being apparently preserved to us in La Potherie's second volume. 

For prices on the Memoire, the catalogues of the French booksellers 
should be consulted, as it is seldom offered by those in the United States. 
In Dufosse's Bulletin de Bouquiniste this book appears occasionally: no. 
15180, at 12 francs; no. 36982, at 10 francs; and no. 60896, at 7.50 francs. 
Chadenat quoted it higher: from 10 to 12 francs in the years since 1890; 
and reaches 15 francs in Catalogue 43 (1909), no. 48011; while in two of 
his Catalogues 23 (1899), no. 23659; and 41 (1908), no. 45118 he 
mentions a copy of the Memoire on large paper, printed from a large format 
in large quarto size, "a few copies only," quoted at 20 francs. O'Leary in 
Catalogue n (1907), quoted at $2.50 an unbound copy. 

MARSTON, MAJOR MORRELL, U.S.A. Letter to Reverend Dr. Jedi- 
diah Morse, Fort Armstrong, 111., Nov., 1820. Ms. 

This report on the Indian tribes in the district under Major Morrell's 
command was prepared by him in November, 1620, at the request of Rev. 
Dr. Jedidiah Morse, a special agent sent by the government to visit the 
Indian tribes of the United States and obtain all available information 
about their condition and needs for the use of the Indian Bureau in its 
dealings with them. Dr. Morse's report was published in 1822 (see title 
below), and is a most valuable document for the study of Indian history at 
that period; but it was long ago out of print, and is practically unknown 
to the general public. For the present work, the text of Marston's report 
is obtained not from the printed book, but from a copy of Marston's orig- 
inal Ms. which is preserved in the Draper Collection of the Wisconsin 
Historical Society; it is document no. 58 in vol. I of the Forsyth Papers 
(pressmark, "i T 58"). The document is written, apparently by some 
copyist, on fifteen leaves of paper about foolscap size; the last paragraph 
and the subscription and signature are in Marston's autograph writing. 
The list of Indian tribes to which he alludes gives the names of each tribe 
in English, French, and ten Indian dialects; this paper has been by some 
oversight bound in the second volume of the Forsyth Papers. 


FORSYTH, THOMAS. Manners and customs of the Sauk and Fox 
tribes of Indians. Ms., dated January 15, 1827. 

This document is a memoir on the above-named tribes, written by the 
noted Indian agent, Thomas Forsyth, and sent by him to Gen. William 
Clark, then superintendent of Indian affairs; so far as is now known, it has 
never before been published. This manuscript, written throughout by For- 
syth's own hand, is contained in volume ix of the Forsyth Papers (see pre- 
ceding title) ; it fills thirty-four long pages, written in a small but very 
legible hand. It is followed by various other writings by Forsyth: mis- 
cellaneous memoranda, containing scraps of information (largely etymologi- 
cal) about tribal and place names in the northwest, bits of tribal history, 
etc.; a copy of a letter (dated St. Louis, Dec. 23, 1812) sent by Forsyth to 
Clark, which contains an interesting description of the region extending 
from Vincennes to Mackinaw and Green Bay, and from the Wisconsin and 
Mississippi Rivers to Lakes Erie and Huron ; several anecdotes copied from 
printed books of the day; an interesting account of the Black Hawk War 
by Forsyth (whose official position, and contemporaneous residence in the 
region affected, render him a prime authority on that subject), entitled 
"Original causes of the trouble with a party of Sauk and Fox Indians under 
the direction or command of the Black Hawk, who was no chief;" and a 
note by him describing the religious character and practices of some Kicka- 
poo Indians whom he encountered in Missouri, who were adherents of the 
noted "Kickapoo Prophet." The above letter of 1812 not only describes 
the topographical features of the region named, but enumerates and char- 
acterizes the various tribes inhabiting it, and gives an interesting sketch of 
the character and methods of the "Shawnee Prophet" and outline of the 
so-called "religion" inculcated by him among the Indians of the northwest 

General list of printed books and manuscript 


ABEL, ANNIE HELOISE. The history of events resulting in Indian 
consolidation west of the Mississippi River (Washington, 1908). 

In Annual Report of Amer. Hist. Association, 1906, vol. i, 233-454. 
Covers the period 1803-1840; at the end is a good bibliography of the 
subject, aiming to evaluate the various writings cited. 

ADAMS, CHARLES F., editor. Memoirs of J. Q. Adams (Phila- 
delphia, 1874-1877). 12 vols. 

"Strictly speaking, this is an edition of J. Q. Adams's Diary, and is 
very valuable for tracing the United States Indian policy from 1825 to 
1829." ABEL. 

ADAMS, HENRY. History of the United States of America, 1801- 
1817 (New York, 1889-1891). 9 vols. 


ALLEN, JOEL A. History of the American bison (Washington, 1875). 
In Annual Report of U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the 
Territories, 1875, pp. 443-587- 

vols. Illustrated. 

Established (1878) at Ashtabula, O., by Stephen D. Feet, who remained 
its editor until the close of 1910; now edited by J. O. Kinnaman. It has 
been published successively at Beloit, Wis., Chicago, Salem, Mass., and 
now (1911) at Benton Harbor, Mich. Contains many papers of arch- 
aeological and ethnological value, by competent authorities; those concern- 
ing the old northwest are found chiefly in the earlier volumes. Among 
them may be noted: Volume I, "Location of Indian tribes in the North- 
west Territory at the date of its organization" (pp. 85-98). In recent 
volumes: xxvi, S. D. Peet, "Races and religions in America" (pp. 34.5-360; 
illustrated) ; Warren Upham, "Mounds built by the Sioux in Minnesota" 
(pp. 217-222) ; xxvii, C. Staniland Wake, "Asiatic ideas among the North 
American Indians" (pp. 153-161, 189-196) ; xxvm, S. D. Peet, "The copper 
age in America" (pp. 149-164), and "Pottery in its distribution and va- 
riety" (pp. 277-292) ; xxxi, J. O. Kinnaman, "Chippewa Legends" (pp. 
96-101, 137-143)- 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. Transactions and collections 
(Worcester, 1820; Cambridge, 1836). Vols. i, ii. 
Largely devoted to Indian antiquities. 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGIST. Vols. i-n (Columbus, O., 1897-1898). 

mission monthly (New York, 1879-1910 +). Vols. 1-32. Illus- 

missionary herald (Boston, 1803-1910+). Vols. 1-106. Illus- 
trated (after 1865). 

Begun under title of Massachusetts Missionary Magazine] united (June, 
1809) with The Panoplist, begun three years before; after 1820 styled 
The Missionary Herald. 

AMERICAN FOLK-LORE SOCIETY. The journal of American folk- 
lore (Boston and New York, 1888-1910+). Vols. i-xxii. 

Devoted mainly to folk-lore, but contains much other ethnological in- 
formation; includes many articles and notes on our Indian tribes; its 
editors and contributors include the leading authorities in its field. Not- 
able papers in recent volumes: Volume xv "Memorials of the Indian," 
A. F. Chamberlain; "Sac and Fox tales," Mrs. Mary Lasley (a daughter 
of the noted chief Black Hawk) ; "Algonkian words in American Eng- 
lish," A. F. Chamberlain. Volume XVIH "Mythology of the Indian stocks 


north of Mexico," A. F. Chamberlain; "The Algonkian Manitou," Wil- 
liam Jones; "Who was the medicine-man?" Francis LaFlesche; "The 
Seneca White Dog Feast;" "Sioux Games," J. R. Walker (completed in the 
following volume). Volume XIX "Ojibwa myths and traditions," Harlan 
I. Smith. Volume xx-."Some Dakota myths," Clark Wissler. Volume 
xxi "The test-theme in N. American mythology," Robert H. Lowie. 

1891). 5 vols. 

Annual reports, 1889-1907 (Washington, 1890-1908). 


York, 1857-1910+). Vols. 1-64. Illustrated (after 1899). 
AMERICAN STATE PAPERS. Indian affairs, 1789-1827 (Washington, 
1832-1834). 2 vols. 

Selected documents from the archives of the Indian Office, published 
under authority of Congress; highly valuable for the study of political 
relations between the Indians and United States, especially as some of 
the original documents from which these volumes are compiled are ap- 
parently no longer in existence. 

ANNALES DE LA PROPAGATION DE LA Foi pour les provinces de Que- 
bec et de Montreal (Montreal, 1877-1893). Nos. 1-50. 

Published by the Canadian branch (established 1836) of the Association 
de la Propagation de la Foi a missionary society of world-wide member- 
ship in the Roman Catholic Church, which has published its Annals since 
1827 (in various languages), as a successor to the well-known Lettres 
edifiantes. The Canadian Annales was a successor to Rapport sur les 
missions du diocese de Quebec, published at intervals from 1839 to *874; 
both devoted chiefly to missions among the Indians. 

pologist (Washington, 1888-1898). n vols. Illustrated. 

Id., new series (New York, 1899-1911+). Vols. i-xiii. 

This valuable periodical is also the organ of the Amer. Ethnological 
Society, and its contributors include the leading scientists and thinkers in 
this branch of knowledge. Among notable papers in the new series are 
the following: Volume i, "Aboriginal American zootechny," Otis T. 
Mason (pp. 45-81) ; in, "Rare books relating to the American Indians," 
Ainsworth R. Spofford (pp. 270-285) ; "Significance of certain Algonquian 
animal names," Alexander F. Chamberlain (pp. 669-683) ; "Aboriginal 
copper mines of the Isle Royale, Lake Superior," W. H. Holmes (pp. 684- 
696) ; vi, "Some principles of Algonquian word-formation;" William 
Jones (pp. 369-412) ; Vli, "Popular fallacies respecting the Indian," Henry 
W. Henshaw (pp. 104-182) ; vm, "Recent progress in American anthro- 
pology, 1902-1906" (pp. 441-558) ; x, "The tomahawk," papers by W. H. 
Holmes and W. R. Gerard (pp. 264-280) ; "Wooden bowls of the Algon- 
quian Indians," C. C. Willoughby (pp. 423-504; illustrated); xi, "Tat- 


tooing of the North American Indians," A. T. Sinclair (pp. 362-400) ; 
"The various uses of buffalo hair by the Indians," D. I. Bushnell (pp. 
401-425); XH, "Clan organization of the Winnebago," Paul Radin (pp. 

ARMSTRONG, BENJAMIN G. Early life among the Indians (Ashland, 
Wis., 1892). 

Reminiscences, dictated by Armstrong to Thos. P. Wentworth; relate 
chiefly to the Indians of northern Wisconsin, the treaties of 1835-1854, etc. 

ARMSTRONG, PERRY A. The Sauks and the Black Hawk War 
(Springfield, 111., 1887). Illustrated. 

Compiled from the best printed sources, and from interviews with old 
pioneers, etc. Contains much information regarding the Sauk tribe, and 
biographical sketches of noted Indian chiefs. 

The piasa, or, the devil among the Indians (Morris, 111., 1887). 

AUPAUMUT, HENDRICK. Narrative of an embassy to the western 

Indians (Philadelphia, 1826). 

"From the original manuscript, with prefatory remarks by Dr. B. H. 
Coates;" in Memoirs of the Penn. Historical Society, vol. ii, 61-131. The 
author was a chief of the N.Y. Stockbridge tribe, and was sent in 1792 
by the U.S. secretary of war on the mission above mentioned. He in- 
fluenced the western tribes against Tecumseh, and aided Gen. Harrison in 
the campaign wherein Tecumseh was defeated. In 1821 the Stockbridges 
removed to Wisconsin, and Aupaumut died there, some time after 1825. 
(Wis. Hist. Collections, vol. xv, 40, 41.) 

AVERY, ELROY McK. A history of the United States and its people, 
from their earliest records to the present time (Cleveland, 1904- 
1910+). 15 vols. Illustrated. 

Its special feature is in the valuable and elegant illustrations which 
abound in every volume maps and plans, portraits, views of historical 
scenes and buildings, reproductions of celebrated paintings, etc. Volumes 
I and IV are of interest in connection with the present work. 

AVER, EDWARD E. Collection of historical documents. 

One of the finest collections of Americana (both printed and Ms.) in the 
United States ; it has long been in charge of the Newberry Library, Chicago. 
It includes most of the printed works of value relating to the Indians, and 
many manuscripts; among the latter are a considerable number relating 
to the Indians of the old northwest, especially as connected with the fur trade. 

BARBER, EDWIN A. Indian music. 

Catlinite : its antiquity as a material for tobacco pipes. 

These articles appeared in the Amer. Naturalist, vol. xvii, 267-274 and 
745-764 respectively. 

BARROWS, WILLIAM. The Indian's side of the Indian question (Bos- 
ton, 1887). 


BEACH, W. W. The Indian miscellany: containing papers on the 
history, antiquities, arts, languages, religions, traditions, and super- 
stitions of the American aborigines (Albany, 1877). 

Contains many valuable articles regarding the Indians; reprinted "from 
magazines and other ephemera," in order to preserve the information they 

BEAUCHAMP, REV. W. M. The Iroquois trail, or foot-prints of the 
Six Nations, in customs, traditions, and history ( Fayetteville, N.Y., 

Includes the "Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations" (Lewiston, 
N.Y., 1826) by David Cusick, a Tuscarora Indian; and notes and com- 
ments thereon by Beauchamp, long a missionary among the Iroquois, and 
an acknowledged authority on Iroquois lore, history, and antiquities. 

[Various papers relating to the N.Y. Iroquois tribes - their his- 
tory, arts and industries, etc.] 

These are published as Bulletins of the N.Y. State Museum (1897- 
1907), nos. 16, 18, 32, 41, 50, 73, 78, 89, 108; they are valuable contribu- 
tions to our knowledge of those tribes. 

BECKWITH, HIRAM W. The Illinois and Indiana Indians (Chicago, 


This is no. 27 of the Fergus Hist. Series', the author was a prominent 
antiquarian of Illinois. 

BIGGS, W. Narrative, while he was a prisoner with the Kickapoo 
Indians (s.L, 1826). 

BLACKBIRD, ANDREW J. History of the Ottawa and Chippewa In- 
dians of Michigan; a grammar, and personal and family history 
of the author (Ypsilanti, Mich., 1887). 

Written by an Indian chief well known in Southern Michigan. 

BLACK HAWK. Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak (Boston, 1834). 

This purports to be the story of his life, as dictated by him to Antoine 
Leclaire (a half-breed government interpreter), and edited by J. B. Patter- 
son; not considered, by well-informed students, as altogether trustworthy. 

BLANCHARD, RUFUS. Discovery and conquests of the Northwest, 
with the history of Chicago (Wheaton, 111., 1879). 

Written by a pioneer antiquarian, who did much to preserve records 
of early Chicago and Northwestern history; in that work the maps pub- 
lished by him made a prominent feature. 

BLOOMFIELD, JULIA K. The Oneidas (New York, 1907). Illus- 

Treats mainly of the missionary enterprises conducted among the Oneidas, 
especially those of the Protestant Episcopal Church on the Oneida reserva- 
tion in Wisconsin. 


BOYD, GEORGE. Papers, 1797-1846. Ms. 8 vols. 

These papers are in the possession of the Wisconsin State Historical 
Society. Col. Boyd was U.S. Indian agent at Mackinac during 1818-1832, 
and at Green Bay 1832-1840. 

BRINTON, DANIEL G. American hero-myths: a study in the native 
religions of the western continent (Philadelphia, 1882). 

The American race: a linguistic classification and ethnographic 

description of the native tribes of North and South America (New 
York, 1891). 

Essays of an Americanist (Philadelphia, 1890). 

Classed under these heads: "ethnologic and archaeologic; mythology and 
folk-lore; graphic systems, and literature; and linguistic." 

Myths of the New World: a treatise on the symbolism and 

mythology of the red race of America (New York, 1868). 

A third edition, revised, was issued at Philadelphia in 1896. The 
works of this able and scholarly investigator that are here mentioned are 
those of more general interest; besides these, he edited or wrote numerous 
others, of great value on certain special topics. 

BROWER, J. V. Memoirs of explorations in the basin of the Missis- 
sippi (St. Paul, 1898-1903). 7 vols. 

Written by a learned Minnesota antiquarian, long a prominent officer 
in the Minn. State Historical Society. 

BRUNSON, REV. ALFRED. Journals and letter-books. Ms. 

Brunson was a pioneer Methodist preacher in Wisconsin, and an Indian 
agent. These papers are in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical 

BUCK, DANIEL. Indian outbreaks (Mankato, Minn., 1904). Illus- 

Written by a former judge of the Minnesota supreme court, a resident 
of that state since 1857. He claims "to treat all questions with judicial 
fairness," and says that "the Indian side of the trouble has been given a 
hearing" in his book. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. Annual reports to the secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1879-1908). 
26 vols. Illustrated. 

These publications contain monographs, written by the trained experts 
on the staff of the Bureau, on the history, character, mode of life, customs, 
mythology and religion, etc., of the North American Indians ; and on various 
general and special aspects of the science of ethnology. They constitute a 
mass of data and scientific theory quite indispensable for the thorough 
study of these subjects, and of the utmost value to all students therein. 
Among the papers of especial interest for the field covered by this work are 
the following: "On the evolution of language . . . from the study of In- 


dian languages," and "Wyandot government: a short study of tribal so- 
ciety," J. W. Powell (First Report} ; "Sign language among the N. 
American Indians," Garrick Mallery (ibid) ; "Animal carvings from 
mounds of the Mississippi valley," H. W. Henshaw, and "Art in shell of 
the ancient Americans," W. H. Holmes (Second Report) ; "On masks, lab- 
rets, and certain aboriginal customs," W. H. Dall, and "Omaha sociology," 
J. Owen Dorsey (Third Report) ; "Ancient pottery of the Mississippi 
valley," and "Origin and development of form and ornament in ceramic 
art," W. H. Holmes (Fourth Report) ; "Burial mounds of the northern sec- 
tion of the United States," Cyrus Thomas (Fifth Report) ; "A study of the 
textile art in its relation to the development of form and ornament," W. H. 
Holmes (Sixth Report) ; "Indian linguistic families of America north of 
Mexico," J. W. Powell, and "The Mide'wiwin or 'grand medicine society' 
of the Ojibwa," W. J. Hoffman (Seventh Report) ; "Picture writing of the 
American Indians," Garrick Mallery (Tenth Report) ; "A study of Siouan 
cults," J. Owen Dorsey (Eleventh Report) ; "The Menomini Indians," W. J. 
Hoffman, and "The Ghost-dance religion and the Sioux outbreak of 1890," 
James Mooney (Fourteenth Report) ; "The Siouan Indians," W. J. McGee, 
and "Siouan sociology," J. Owen Dorsey (Fifteenth Report) ; "Indian land 
cessions in the United States," C. C. Royce (Eighteenth Report) ; "The 
wild-rice gatherers of the upper lakes," A. E. Jenks (Nineteenth Report) ; 
"Iroquois cosmogony," J. N. B. Hewitt ( Twenty-first Report) ; "American 
Indian games," Stewart Culin (Twenty-fourth Report). 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. Bulletins (Washington, 1887- 
1910). 45 vols. Illustrated. 

Of the same character as the papers in the Reports, save that they more 
often are bibliographical and linguistic in scope, or devoted to subjects of 
more limited interest Among these are bibliographies of the Siouan, 
Iroquoian, and Algonquian languages, by J. C. Pilling (nos. 5, 6, and 13, 
respectively) ; "The problem of the Ohio mounds," and "Catalogue of pre- 
historic works east of the Rocky Mountains," Cyrus Thomas (nos. 8 and 
12) ; "Handbook of the Indians north of Mexico," edited by Frederick 
W. Hodge (no. 30) ; "Tuberculosis among certain tribes of the United 
States" [among which are the Oglala Sioux and the Menomini], Ales 
Hrdlicka (no. 42). 

(Washington, 1900-1910+). 

Annals of the Catholic Indian missions of America (Washing- 
ton, 1878, 1880, 1881). 

BURTON, C. M. Collections of documents relating to the early 
history of Michigan. Ms. 

Mr. Burton, a resident of Detroit, has been collecting these docu- 
ments during some forty years, "covering more than two centuries in the 
history of Michigan and the region of the Great Lakes." They include 
many originals, as well as many transcripts from French and Canadian 
archives; and consist of letters, diaries, military order-books, Indian and 


French deeds and contracts, records of old Catholic churches, fur-trade 
accounts, etc. Of special interest regarding Indian affairs are the papers 
of LaMothe Cadillac, the founder of Detroit (published in the Collections 
of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, vols. xxxiii and xxxiv) ; 
the Montreal papers, 1682-1804, copied from notarial records in Montreal; 
the papers of John Askin, a prominent fur-trader before 1813; and those 
of John R. Williams and William Woodbridge (for a time, superintendent 
of Indian affairs). 

BURTON, FREDERICK R. American primitive music, with especial at- 
tention to the songs of the Ojibways (New York, 1909). Illus- 

A careful study of Indian music, in both its technique and its meaning 
and use. Burton collected among the Ojibwas a large number of songs, 
which are here presented with their original words and music, and the 
story and meaning of each. At the end, twenty-eight of these are harmon- 
ized for pianoforte accompaniment, and have an English translation. 

CALKINS, FRANKLIN W. The wooing of Tokala (New York and 
Chicago, 1907). 

Although in the form of a story, this book was intended rather as a 
study of Indian character; it depicts life among a group of Dakota Indians, 
and "primitive conditions as they existed among the Sioux previous to and 
during the American Civil War." Adopted into one of their tribes, with 
whom he lived a considerable time, the author has obtained his material 
from personal experience and observation. 

Indian tales (Chicago [1893]). Illustrated. 

Accounts of various experiences of the author and other white persons 
among Indians in Iowa and Nebraska, 1860-1880. 

CAMPBELL, HENRY C., and others. Wisconsin in three centuries, 
1634-1905 (New York [1906]). 4 vols. Illustrated. 

CANFIELD, W. W. The legends of the Iroquois told by "The Corn- 
planter" (New York, 1902). 

A highly interesting collection of legends related, toward the end of the 
eighteenth century, by the noted Seneca chief Cornplanter to a white 
friend whose notes of these conversations are here reproduced, with much 
information obtained from other prominent Iroquois chiefs, by Mr. Can- 

CARR, LUCIEN. The food of certain American Indians, and their 
methods of preparing it (Worcester, 1895). 

In Proceedings of Amer. Antiquarian Society, vol. x, part i. 

Dress and ornaments of certain American Indians (Worcester, 


Id., vol. xi, 381-454. 


CARR, LUCIEN. The Mascoutins. 

Proceedings of American Antiquarian Society, vol. xiv, 448-462. 

Mounds of the Mississippi Valley, historically considered 

(Frankfort, 1883). 

In Memoirs of Geol. Survey of Kentucky, vol. ii. 

CARVER, JONATHAN. Travels through the interior parts of North 
America, 1766-1768 (London, 1778). Illustrated. 

An account of travels in the region of the Great Lakes and upper 
Mississippi River; it obtained great favor with the public, appearing, 
during some eighty years, in thirty editions and reissues, and in several 
foreign languages. Some parts of this narrative are plagiarized from 
Hennepin, Charlevoix, and other early writers, a fact which has caused 
Carver's veracity, and the genuineness of his account, to be discredited by 
some critics even to the extent of supposing him to be illiterate, and in- 
capable of writing such a book. The controversy is summarized by John T. 
Lee in his "Bibliography of Carver's Travels" (Proceedings of Wis. Hist. 
Soc., 1909, pp. 143-183) ; he adduces evidence to show that Carver must 
have been the author of the Travels, and a man of respectable character and 

CASEY, M. P. Indian contract schools. 

In Catholic World, Aug., 1900. 

CASS, LEWIS. Considerations on the present state of the Indians, and 
their removal to the west of the Mississippi. 

Remarks on the policy and practice of the United States and 

Great Britain in their treatment of the Indians. 

These articles appeared in the North Amer. Review, January, 1830, 
and April, 1827, respectively. 

CATLIN, GEORGE. Illustrations of the manners, customs, and con- 
dition of the North American Indians, with letters and notes writ- 
ten during eight years of travel and adventure, tenth edition ( Lon- 
don, 1866). 2 vols. Illustrated. 

A work of prime importance, especially as it shows the Indian tribes of 
the west and south at a time (1832-1838) when they still retained much of 
their primitive mode of life. Catlin relates his adventures while traveling 
among them, and adds a wealth of information on their customs, character, 
beliefs, etc. which are illustrated by three hundred and sixty drawings from 
his original paintings. 

Adventures of the Ojibbeway and loway Indians in England, 

France, and Belgium, third edition (London, 1852). 2 vols. in I. 

Catlin's "notes of eight years' travels and residence in Europe with his 


North American Indian collection" which contained nearly six hundred 
paintings, made by Catlin during eight years' residence among the Indian 
tribes; and included, besides many portraits, pictures of scenery, Indian vil- 
lages, customs, games, religious ceremonies, etc., all from life; a catalogue 
of these appears at end of his vol. I. Catlin also exhibited in Europe many 
Indian curios robes, weapons, ornaments, pipes, cradles, etc. During 1845- 
1846, he acted as interpreter and guide for some Indians (thirty-five in all) 
who had been carried to Europe for the purpose of public exhibition; and 
here he describes their novel experiences and the traits of character they 
displayed, this last being the chief value of his book. 

CATON, J. D. The last of the Illinois, and a sketch of the Potto- 
watomies (Chicago, 1876). 

No. 3 of Fergus Historical Series. 

CHAMBERLAIN, ALEXANDER F. The contributions of the American 
Indian to civilization (Worcester, 1904). 

In Proceedings of Amer. Antiquarian Society, vol. xvi, 91-126. 

CHARLEVOIX, PIERRE F. X. DE. Histoire et description generale de 
la Nouvelle France, avec le Journal Historique d'un voyage fait 
par ordre du roi dans 1'Amerique Septentrionnale (Paris, 1744). 
3 vols. 

A standard authority on early Canadian history, description of New 
France, and account of the Indian tribes therein. A translation of this val- 
uable work was made by John G. Shea, with many excellent and scholarly 
annotations; published in six volumes (New York, 1866-1872). A reprint 
of Shea's edition appeared in New York, 1900, edited by Noah F. Morrison. 

CHASE, LEVI B. Early Indian trails (Worcester, 1897). 

In Collections of Worcester Society of Antiquities, vol. xiv, 105-125. 
CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collection of documents relating to 
the early history of Illinois. Ms. 

A very large and valuable collection of documents (most of them orig- 
inals) relating to the history of the northwest territory, and chiefly of 
Illinois. Notable among these are the papers of Gen. Henry Dearborn, 
Gov. Ninian Edwards, John Kinzie, and Pierre Menard (the last two, 
noted Indian traders) ; and the transcripts from early records of Kaskaskia 
and Fort Chartres churches. Some of the Edwards papers were published 
in vol. iii (1884) of the Collections of this society. 

CHIPPEWA ALLOTMENTS of lands, and timber contracts (Washing- 
ton, 1889). 

Senate Docs., Report no. 2710, soth congress, second session. Report of 
"Select Committee on Indian Traders," containing evidence, documents, etc., 
proving gross mismanagement, abuses, and spoliation in the affairs of the 
Chippewa reservations in Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

CHOUTEAU, AUGUSTE. Papers and correspondence, 1787-1819. Ms. 


Chouteau was probably the most enterprising and influential of the 
pioneer fur-traders in the Missouri River Valley, and closely connected with 
the founding of St Louis, of which event he left a manuscript account. 
The documents here mentioned are in the possession of the Mercantile 
Library, St. Louis. 

CHRISTIAN JOURNAL, 1817-1830. 14 vols. 

Edited by Bishop J. H. Hobart, and contains numerous papers relating 
to the Oneida Indians of Wisconsin. 

CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS. Letters, journals, etc., 1760-1859. Ms. 
65 vols. 

This highly valuable collection of manuscripts is in the possession of 
the Wisconsin State Historical Society; it includes many early original 
documents, various subsidiary collections of papers, and a great deal of 
correspondence between L. C. Draper and the descendants of the Western 
pioneers. Much of this matter relates to Clark's conquest of Illinois (1778), 
and his campaigns, soon afterward, to St. Louis and in the Wabash country. 
A selection from these papers is announced for this year (1911), in three 
volumes, edited by Prof. J. A. James of Northwestern University. 

CLARK, W. P. The Indian sign language (Philadelphia, 1885). 

The author, an army officer, spent over six years among the Indian tribes, 
and acquired at first-hand the sign language and the explanations of it 
made by the Indians themselves. To these he adds much valuable infor- 
mation regarding their customs, beliefs, superstitions, modes of life, etc.; 
and he writes in a spirit of appreciation for the abilities and good traits of 
those Indians who have not been demoralized by contact with the whites. 
He makes interesting comparisons between the Indian sign language and 
that taught in schools for deaf-mutes. The book contains a map showing 
the Indian reservations, etc. 

CLARK, WILLIAM. Papers. Ms. 29 vols. 

This collection of documents contains the records of Clark and his suc- 
cessors in the office of superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis. It is in 
the possession of the Kansas Historical Society. 

CLARKE, PETER DOOYENTATE. Origin and traditional history of the 
Wyandotts, etc., (Toronto, 1870). 

In this little volume are collected the traditions of Wyandott (Huron) 
tribal history and legend, obtained from the few surviving ancients of that 
people by the author (himself a Wyandott) ; and much of this material is 
apparently not to be found elsewhere. 

COLDEN, CADWALLADER. The history of the five Indian nations de- 
pending on the province of New York (New York, 1727). 

The above title refers only to Part I of Colden's work. It was reprinted, 
but in a garbled form, in London, 1747 and 1750 containing, however, 
Part n, of which a Ms. copy is preserved in the collections of the N.Y. 
State Historical Society. The book was reprinted (1866) by J. G. Shea. 


COLESON, A. Narrative of her captivity among the Sioux Indians 

(Philadelphia, 1864). 
COLTON, C. Tour of the American lakes, and among the Indians of 

the Northwest Territory, in 1830 (London, 1833). 2 vols. 
[CONDITION of Indian tribes in Montana and Dakota (Washington, 

Senate Report, no. 283, 48th congress, first session. Report of a "Select 
Committee to examine into the condition of the Sioux and Crow Indians." 
Shows the destitution then prevailing among those tribes, and calls for 
government aid to them; also scores the management of the agency stores. 

CONDITION OF THE INDIAN TRIBES : report of the Joint Special Com- 
mittee appointed under joint resolution of March 3, 1865 (Wash- 
ington, 1867). 

This report and its documentary appendix constitute a full survey of 
the status of the Indian tribes at that time. The committee (J. R. Doolittle, 
chairman) stated that the Indian population was rapidly decreasing, mainly 
through disease, vicious habits, and the loss of their old-time hunting 
grounds all these causes being in large measure traceable to the encroach- 
ments, bad influence, and whiskey of the whites. The committee recom- 
mended that the Indian Bureau be retained in the Department of the 
Interior; and that more efficient government control and inspection be pro- 
vided for Indian affairs. 

sessions 1-16. 1875-1910. Illustrated. 

The sessions of this learned body have been held biennially at various 
places since 1875 (at Nancy), the last one whose proceedings are yet pub- 
lished being at Vienna (1908). These volumes contain many articles re- 
lating to the Indian tribes of the central United States. Among these may 
be noted: Various articles on the mound-builders (second session, Luxem- 
burg) ; Algic cosmogony (third session, Brussels) ; "sacred hunts" of the 
Indians (eighth session, Paris) ; "Contributions of American archaeology to 
human history" (fourteenth session, Stuttgart) ; two papers on the Indians 
of the Mississippi, and one on customs and rites of the Iowa Foxes (fif- 
teenth session, Quebec) ; "Types of dwellings and their distribution in 
Central North America" (sixteenth session, Vienna). The seventeenth 
session was held at Mexico City, September, 1910. 

COPWAY, GEORGE. The traditional history and characteristic sketches 
of the Ojibway nation (London, 1850; Boston, 1851). Illus- 

The author (an Ojibwa chief, his Indian name Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh) 
states that he has resided "six years among the pale-faces," and has attended 
school, twenty months in all, in Illinois. He recounts the traditions and 
legends of his people, describes their customs, beliefs, character, etc. ; and 
shows their condition under British and American domination. 


COPWAY, GEORGE. The organization of an Indian territory east of 
the Missouri River (New York, 1850). 

Copway urged Congress to erect a new Indian Territory, which should 
improve upon the old one by being set aside for northern bands only, and 
by providing at the outset for Indian self-government. 

CORRESPONDENCE on the subject of the emigration of Indians, 1831- 
1833 (Washington, 1834). 5 vols. 

This is found in Senate Documents, vols. vii-xi, 23rd congress, first ses- 
sion (1833-1834). 

COUES, ELLIOTT. The fur-bearing animals of North America (Bos- 
ton, 1877). 

CULIN, STEWART. American Indian games (Washington, 1905). 

In Report of Bureau Amer. Ethnology, 1902-1903. 

CURTIS, EDWARD S. The North American Indian (New York, 1907- 
). 20 vols., each accompanied by a portfolio of supplementary 

This magnificent work (first begun in 1898) well carries out the author's 
aim, to present a true picture of Indian life in its natural surroundings and 
primitive, homely phases especially in view of the rapid and often de- 
structive changes therein which are taking place throughout the continent. 
The illustrations (most of which are 20x24 inches in size) are from photo- 
graphs made by Curtis during his residence among the various tribes, and 
they are unusually accurate and artistic. They are accompanied by descrip- 
tive text and account of the author's experiences among the Indians, with 
which is combined much historical and ethnological information. He also 
records many Indian myths, related to him by the elders of the tribes, and 
much about their rites and ceremonies. The work is an interesting revela- 
tion of Indian life and character. 

CURTIS, NATALIE, editor. The Indians' book; an offering by the 
American Indians of Indian lore, musical and narrative, to form a 
record of the songs and legends of their race ( New York and Lon- 
don, 1907). Illustrated, chiefly from drawings made by Indians. 
Contains Indian songs, with original native music and words, English 
translation, and explanatory notes; some twenty tribes are thus represented, 
of whom the Winnebago and Dakota (and indirectly the Abenaki) belong 
to the subject of the present work. A valuable contribution to the literature 
of the Indians' higher life. 

[CUTLER, JERVIS.] A topographical description of the state of Ohio, 
Indiana Territory, and Louisiana (Boston, 1812). 

"Comprehending the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and their principal 
tributary streams; the face of the country . . . and a concise account 
of the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi." By a U.S. army officer. 


DAVIDSON, ALEXANDER, and Bernard Stuve. A complete history of 
Illinois, 1673-1873 (Springfield, 111., 1874). 

DAVIDSON, J. N. In unnamed Wisconsin: studies in the history of 
the region between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi (Mil- 
waukee, 1895). 

DAVIS, ANDREW M. Indian games. 

In Bulletin of Essex Institute, vol. xvii, 89-144. 

DELLENBAUGH, FREDERICK S. The North-Americans of yesterday: 
a comparative study of North-American Indian life, customs, and 
products, on the theory of the ethnic unity of the race ( New York, 
1901). Illustrated. 

A valuable and scholarly work, presenting the results of recent research 
in the languages, industries, mode of life, customs, beliefs, government, 
history, etc., of the North American tribes ; contains a list of these, with the 
respective stocks to which they belong. Both text and the numerous fine 
illustrations are based largely on material in the Bureau of American 

DENSMORE, FRANCES. Chippewa music (Washington, 1910). Il- 

A collection of songs, both ritual and social, in all numbering two 
hundred; the Indian words and English translation, with music, and full 
description of rites, customs, etc. This is Bulletin 45 of the Bureau of Amer. 

DILLON, JOHN B. Decline of the Miami nation. 

In Publications of Indiana Historical Society, vol. i, 121-143. 
DODGE, CHARLES R. A descriptive catalogue of useful fiber plants 
of the world, including the structural and economic classifications 
of fibers (Washington, 1897). 

Published by U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

DODGE, RICHARD IRVING. Our wild Indians : thirty-three years' per- 
sonal experience among the red men of the Great West (Hartford, 
Conn., 1883). Illustrated. 

An interesting record of Indian customs and character, by an army 
officer; highly commended by his superior, Gen. W. T. Sherman, who 
nevertheless dissents from Dodge's estimate of Indian character. The author 
advocates military rather than civilian control for the tribes. 

DOMINION OF CANADA. Report concerning Canadian archives (Ot- 
tawa, 1872-1910+). 

These reports contain many calendars of documents contained in the 
Dominion archives, and are indispensable to the student of Canadian history. 
Many of those documents relate to Indian affairs. 


DONALDSON, THOMAS. The George Catlin Indian gallery in the 
United States National Museum; with memoir and statistics 
(Washington, 1885). Illustrated. 

In Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1885, part ii. A catalogue of the 
paintings and curios in the great Catlin collection^ which was transferred 
to the Smithsonian Institution, 1879-1881. The pictures are arranged under 
the tribal names, each accompanied by extracts (narrative or descriptive) 
from Catlin's own books, an outline drawing from the same source, and 
much additional information furnished by Donaldson as editor. 

The Six Nations of New York (Washington, 1892). Illus- 

An Extra Bulletin, Eleventh Census of the U.S. A valuable account of 
the Iroquois people in modern times, presenting not only statistics of popu- 
lation and property, but observations on their character, government, social 
conditions, mode of life, etc. Well illustrated with maps, portraits, etc. 

DORMAN, RUSHTON M. The origin of primitive superstitions, and 
their development into the worship of spirits, and the doctrine of 
spiritual agency, among the aborigines of America (Philadelphia, 

DORSEY, J. OWEN. Migrations of Siouan tribes. 
In Amer. Naturalist, vol. xx, 211-222. 

[Papers on "Omaha sociology," "Siouan sociology," "A study 

of Siouan cults."] 

In Reports of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology: 1881-1882, pp. 311-370; 
1893-1894, pp. 205-244; 1889-1890, pp. xliii-xlvii, 351-544, respectively. 

DRAKE, BENJAMIN. Life of Tecumseh, and of his brother the Pro- 
phet, with a historical sketch of the Shawanoe Indians (Cincin- 
nati, 1841). 

A plain narrative, based on letters written by Gen. Harrison to the War 
Department in 1809-1813, interviews with old pioneers, etc. Another edi- 
tion was issued in 1852. 

DRAKE, FRANCIS S. The Indian tribes of the United States (Phila- 
delphia, 1884). 2 vols. Illustrated. 

DRAKE, SAMUEL G. Biography and history of the Indians of North 
America (Boston, 1832). Illustrated. 

A popular work, but compiled from the best authorities of Drake's time. 
Other titles, used in some editions, were: "The book of the Indians," and 
"Aboriginal races of North America." Later editions contain many ad- 
ditions and corrections. A revision of the fifteenth (Phila., 1860) was 
issued in 1880 (New York). 


DUNN, JACOB P. Indiana, a redemption from slavery (Boston, 

In Amer. Commonwealths series. This is a new and enlarged edition 
of his book first published in 1888. The author is secretary of the Indiana 
Historical Society, and a trained and careful investigator. 

True Indian stories, with glossary of Indiana Indian names 

(Indianapolis, 1908). 

Narratives of military and other events in early Indiana history, re- 
lating to the Indians, and accounts of their leading chiefs. 

EASTMAN, CHARLES A. Indian boyhood (New York, 1902). Il- 

An interesting picture of Indian boys' life, as it records the experiences 
and impressions of the writer (a Sioux Indian) in boyhood and early 

The soul of the Indian: an interpretation (Boston, 1911). 

The author, writing as an Indian, aims "to paint the religious life of 
the typical American Indian as it was before he knew the white man." A 
valuable contribution to our data for a real understanding of the Indian 

EASTMAN, CHARLES A. (Ohiyesa) and Elaine Goodale. Sioux 
folk tales retold (Boston, 1909). Illustrated. 

EASTMAN, MARY H. The American aboriginal portfolio (Phila- 
delphia, [1853]). Illustrated. 

Descriptive sketches of Indian life and customs, accompanied by hand- 
some steel engravings from drawings by Capt. S. Eastman, U.S.A. (ap- 
parently the same plates as those in SchoolcrafVs Indian Tribes). 

Chicora, and other regions of the conquerors and the conquered 

(Philadelphia, 1854). Illustrated. 

Sketches of Indian life, beliefs, etc. 

Dahcotah, or, life and legends of the Sioux around Fort Snel- 

ling (New York, 1849). Illustrated. 

Written from intimate knowledge and direct observation of the Sioux 
Indians, who related many of their legends to the author (whose father 
and husband were army officers in the Northwest) . 

EDWARDS, NINIAN W. History of Illinois from 1778 to 1833, and 
life and times of Ninian Edwards (Springfield, 111., 1870). 

Contains full account of the Black Hawk War, and many letters from 
high officials to Gov. Edwards. 

EGGLESTON, EDWARD, and L. E. Seelye. Tecumseh and the Shaw- 
nee prophet (New York, 1878). Illustrated. 

Also includes sketches of Indian chiefs and American officers famous in 


the frontier wars of Tecumseh's time. A popular narrative, but based on 
reliable authorities. 

ELLIS, GEORGE E. The red man and the white man in North Amer- 
ica (Boston, 1882). 

Discusses traits of character of the Indians, their relations with the white 
people, missions, our policy toward the red men, their capacity for civiliza- 
tion, etc. 

EMERSON, ELLEN RUSSELL. Indian myths, or legends, traditions, 
and symbols of the aborigines of America compared with those of 
other countries (Boston, 1884). Illustrated. 

A valuable work, showing much research and learning. 

EVARTS, JEREMIAH. Essays on the present crisis in the condition of 
the American Indians (Boston, 1829). 

"These essays, twenty-four in number, were first published in the 
National Intelligencer under the pseudonym of 'William Penn.' They con- 
stitute a very fine exposition of the wrongs committed against the Indians 
and bear few traces of having been written from the absolutely missionary 
point of view." ABEL. 

, editor. Speeches on the passage of the bill for the removal of 

the Indians, delivered in the Congress of the United States, April- 
May, 1830 (Boston, 1830). 

FARRAND, LIVINGSTON. Basis of American history, 15001900 (New 
York, 1904). Illustrated. 

This is volume II of The American Nation', a history (Albert B. Hart, 

FEATHERSTONHAUGH, G. W. A canoe voyage up the Minnay Sotor 
(London, 1847). 2 vols. 

FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. Publications: anthropological series 
(Chicago, 1895-1905). Vols. i-ix. 

FIELD, THOMAS W. An essay towards an Indian bibliography, be- 
ing a catalogue of books relating to the history, antiquities, lan- 
guages, customs, religion, war, literature, and origin of the Amer- 
ican Indians, in the library of Thomas W. Field (New York, 


FILLMORE, JOHN C. The harmonic structure of Indian music. 

In Amer. Anthropologist, new series, vol. i, 297-318. The author was a 
professional musician, of long experience and fine taste. 

A study of Omaha Indian music . . . with a report on the 

structural peculiarities of the music (Cambridge, 1893). 

This paper, with another on Omaha music by Alice C. Fletcher, ap- 
peared in Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of Peabody Museum, vol. i, 
no. 5. 


FINLEY, JAMES B. Life among the Indians; or, personal reminis- 
cences and historical incidents illustrative of Indian life and char- 
acter (Cincinnati, 1868). 

Written by a Methodist missionary among the Indians, chiefly the 
Wyandotts; contains much regarding the history of this tribe and others in 
their relations with the whites, from 1800 on. 

History of the Wyandott mission at Upper Sandusky, Ohio 

(Cincinnati, 1840). 

FLETCHER, ALICE C. A study of the Omaha tribe: the import of the 

In Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1897, pp. 577-586. 

Indian education and civilization (Washington, 1888). 

Published in Ex. Docs. no. 95, 48th congress, second session. A special 
report from the Bureau of Education; reviews missionary and educational 
work among the Indians from the earliest of such enterprises to the time of 
this report; gives abstracts of treaties with the tribe, and description, sta- 
tistics, and other valuable data for each of the Indian reservations. A con- 
densed and excellent book of reference for the subject 

Indian song and story from North America (Boston, 1900). 

"Contains the music of the ghost, love, and other songs in the Omaha 
language." Miss Fletcher has made a specialty of Indian music, and has 
spent many years in the study of some of the plains tribes. 

FORSYTH, THOMAS. Letter-books, memoirs, etc., 1804-1833. Ms. 
9 vols. 

These papers and books are in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical 
Society. They are all original documents (save two letter-books, which are 
transcripts from the originals), and concern the affairs of Forsyth's agency 
at Rock Island (1812-1830), the fur-trade, and the Indian tribes of that 
region ; they include many letters from William Clark and Gov. Ninian 
Edwards, and much official correspondence, besides the two memoirs (by 
Forsyth and Marston) reproduced in the present volume. 

FOWKE, GERARD. Archaeological history of Ohio : the mound-builders 
and later Indians (Columbus, 1902). 

Stone art (Washington, 1896). 

In Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, 1891-1892, pp. 47-178. 
FRAZER, J. G. Totemism (Edinburgh, 1887). 
FROBENIUS, LEO. The childhood of man: a popular account of the 

lives, customs, and thoughts of the primitive races (Philadelphia, 

1909). Illustrated. 

Based on the latest authorities, and shows extensive research. This 
edition is a translation from the German by the well-known ethnographer, 
A. H. Keane. 


FULTON, A. R. The red men of Iowa (Des Moines, la., 1882). 

A history of the Indian tribes who resided in Iowa; sketches of chiefs; 
traditions, etc.; a general account of the Indian tribes and wars of the 
Northwest; etc. The material was obtained from writings of local his- 
torians, interviews with pioneers, etc. 

GALE, GEORGE. The Upper Mississippi : or historical sketches of the 
mound-builders, the Indian tribes, and the progress of civilization 
in the Northwest; from A.D. 1600 to the present time (Chicago, 

GALLATIN, ALBERT. A synopsis of the Indian tribes of North Amer- 

In Transactions and Collections of the Amer. Antiquarian Society, 1838, 
vol. ii. 

GANNETT, HENRY. A gazetteer of Indian Territory (Washington, 


Issued as Bulletin, no. 248 of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
GARLAND, HAMLIN. The red men's present needs. 

in North American Review, April, 1902. 
GERARD, W. R. Plant names of Indian origin (New York, 1896). 

In Garden and Forest, vol. ix. 


Of similar character to the "Grignon, Lawe, and Porlier Papers," ex- 
cept that they relate to the regions of both Green Bay and Prairie du Chien. 
They were obtained from the estates of Morgan L. Martin, Green Bay 
(one of the most prominent among the early American pioneers in Wis- 
consin), and Hercules L. Dousman, of Prairie du Chien, a leading fur- 
trader (for some years a representative of the American Fur Company). 
This collection is in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society. 

GRIFFIN, A. P. C. List of references on the relations of the Indians 
to the U.S. government (Washington, 1902). Ms. 

In library of Wisconsin State Historical Society. 
GRIGNON, LAWE, and Porlier Papers, 1712-1873. Ms. 65 vols. 

This collection, consisting of letters, accounts, legal documents, etc., 
which had accumulated for a century and a half in the possession of the 
families bearing the above names, who were the chief factors in the fur-trade 
that centered in or passed through Green Bay, Wis., is now in the pos- 
session of the Wisconsin Historical Society. "A miscellaneous and highly 
valuable collection of letters and varied documents both in French and 
English social, commercial, ecclesiastical, political, and military throwing 
a flood of light on the early history of the region ranging from Mackinac 
to the upper Mississippi, and between Lake Superior and the Illinois coun- 
try." - THWAITES. 


GARNEAU, F. X. Histoire du Canada depuis sa decouverte jusqu'a 
nos jours (Montreal, 1882). 

The above is the fourth edition. An English translation, annotated, 
was published by Andrew Bell, third edition (Montreal, 1866). 

HADDON, ALFRED C. The study of man (New York, 1898). Il- 

Treats of measurements and head-form in anthropology, the origin of 
some primitive vehicles, and the sources of various games and other amuse- 

HAILMANN, WILLIAM N. Education of the Indian (St. Louis, 

No. 19 of Monographs on Education in U.S., issued by the educational 
department of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

HAINES, ELIJAH M. The American Indian (Chicago, 1888). Il- 

A popular cyclopedia of Indian ethnology; includes also chapters on 
relations between the red men and the whites, the history of the "Order of 
Red Men," Indian vocabularies, and the meaning of Indian geographical 
names; is based on the works of standard authorities. 

HALE, HORATIO. Hiawatha and the Iroquois confederation : a study 

in anthropology (Salem, 1881). 
Indian migrations as evidenced by language, comprising the 

Huron-Cherokee, Dakota, and other stocks (Chicago, 1883). 
, editor. The Iroquois Book of Rites (Philadelphia, 1883). 

From Ms. records made by the Indians themselves, containing the rituals 
used in their council meetings; Hale (who was an accomplished linguist 
and ethnologist) copied and translated, with the assistance of the most 
learned Iroquois chiefs, these rituals to which he has added glossary, anno- 
tations, etc., and a critical introduction describing the organization, govern- 
ment and laws, traditions, character, policy, and language of the Iroquois 

HARRISON, J. B. The latest studies on Indian reservations (Phila- 
delphia, 1887). 

Published by the Indian Rights Association. 

HARRISON, WILLIAM H. Aborigines of the Ohio Valley (Chicago, 

No. 26 of Fergus Hist. Series. This book also contains speeches by 
Miami chiefs in a council at Ft. Wayne, Sept. 4, 1811; and an account (from 
a Ms.) of the history, customs, etc., of the Northwestern Indians. 

HARSHBERGER, J. W. Maize: a botanical and economic study 
(Philadelphia, 1893). 

Contributions of Botanical Laboratory of Univ. Pennsylvania, vol. i, no. 2. 


HARVEY, HENRY. History of the Shawnee Indians, from the year 
1 68 1 to 1854, inclusive (Cincinnati, 1855). 

The author was sent by the Society of Friends as a missionary among 
the Shawnees, and was with that tribe when they were obliged to surrender 
their homes and lands in Ohio (1832). 

HEARD, ISAAC V. D. History of the Sioux war and massacres of 
1862 and 1863 (New York, 1865). Illustrated. 

Written by a member of Sibley's expedition against the Sioux in 1862, 
from first-hand sources of various kinds. 

HEBBERD, S. S. History of Wisconsin under the dominion of France 
(Madison, Wis., 1890). 

HENNEPIN, Louis. Description de la Louisiane. . . Les moeurs 
et la maniere de vivre des sauvages (Paris, 1683). 

A translation of this work, with annotations, by J. G. Shea, was pub- 
lished at New York in 1880. A reprint of the English edition of 1698, 
edited by R. G. Thwaites, with numerous annotations, was issued in 1903, 
at Chicago. 

HEWITT, J. N. B. Iroquois cosmogony (Washington, 1903). 

In Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, 1899-1900. 
HODGE, FREDERICK W., editor. Handbook of American Indians 

north of Mexico: parts I and 2 (Washington, 1907 and 1910). 


This is Bulletin no. 30, Bureau of Amer. Ethnology. This great work 
actually begun in 1885, and its central idea conceived in 1873 forms a 
most valuable Indian cyclopedia. It has been prepared by the trained 
specialists of the Bureau, aided by others from the various government 
bureaus and the great museums of the country; and it represents the latest 
data and the most reliable conclusions thus far reached by experts in Amer- 
ican ethnology and archaeology. "It has been the aim," says its editor, "to 
give a brief description of every linguistic stock, confederacy, tribe, sub- 
tribe, or tribal subdivision, and settlement known to history or even to 
tradition, as well as the origin and derivation of every name treated, when- 
ever such is known." These tribal descriptions (including history, location, 
population, etc.) are followed by full bibliographical references to authori- 
ties for each variant of the tribal name. Special subjects, such as "Dreams 
and visions," "Food," "Pueblos," "War," are fully discussed by expert 
writers; and biographical sketches of noted Indians are furnished. At the 
end is a synonymy of all the names and variants mentioned in the articles 
on tribes; and a full bibliography of printed books and other sources. These 
occupy respectively one hundred and fifty-eight and forty-three pages of 
fine type, giving the information in the shortest form possible; and both 
these features will be prized for reference by students. 

HOFFMAN, WALTER J. The Menomini Indians (Washington, 
1896). Illustrated. 


A valuable monograph on that tribe, written by a careful and trained 
ethnologist; he treats, with much detail, their history, government, cult 
societies, myths, and folk-tales, games and dances, dwellings and furniture, 
industries and occupations, food, etc. An extensive vocabulary of their 
language is added at the close. In the fourteenth Report of Bureau of 
Amer. Ethnology. 

HOFFMAN, WALTER J. The Mide'wiwin or "grand medicine socie- 
ty" of the Ojibwa (Washington, 1891). 

In Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, 1885-1886, pp. 149-300. This 
paper is of special interest as describing the proceedings and ceremonies of 
an Indian secret society. 

HOLMES, W. H. Aboriginal pottery of the eastern United States 
(Washington, 1903). 

In Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, 1898-1899. Other archaeologi- 
cal papers by Holmes concerning the field of this work are published in 
the second, third, fourth, sixth, and thirteenth of the Bureau's Reports. 

Sacred pipestone quarries of Minnesota, and ancient copper mines 

of Lake Superior. 

In Proceedings of Amer. Assoc. for Advancement of Science, 1892, pp. 

, and others. Arrows and arrow-makers : a symposium. 

In Amer. Anthropologist, vol. iv, 45-74. 

HORNADAY, WILLIAM F. The extermination of the American bison, 
with a sketch of its discovery and life history. 

In Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1887, part ii, pp. 367-548. 
HOUGH, FRANKLIN B., editor. Proceedings of the commissioners 
of Indian affairs, appointed by law for the extinguishment of In- 
dian titles in the state of New York (Albany, 1861). 

"Published from the original manuscript in the library of the Albany 

HOUGH, WALTER. Fire-making apparatus in the United States Na- 
tional Museum (Washington, 1890). 
In Report U.S. National Museum, 1888. 

HOY, P. R. How and by whom were the copper implements made? 
(Racine, 1886). 

HULBERT, ARCHER B. The historic highways of America (Cleve- 
land, 1902-1903). 1 6 vols. Illustrated. 

This series undertakes to show the intimate connection of America's 
history and development with the highways and waterways which connected 
the seaboard with the vast interior of this continent traced successively by 
.herds of buffalo, by Indian trade and migration, and by white pioneers, 


and followed in later years by the great transcontinental railroads. The 
following volumes are those of special interest for students of Indian his- 
tory: I, "Paths of the mound-buildings Indians and great game animals;" 
II, "Indian thoroughfares;" and vii, "Portage paths: the keys to the conti- 

HUNTER, JOHN DUNN. Manners and customs of several Indian 
tribes located west of the Mississippi (Philadelphia, 1823). 

Contains biographical sketch of the author, and account of his captivity 
among the Kickapoo Indians; description of Missouri and Arkansas ter- 
ritories, and their products; account of customs, mode of life, industries, 
character, etc., of Indians therein; and chapters on their materia medica, 
and practice of surgery and medicine. 

The Indian sketch-book (Cincinnati, 1852). 

1906-1910+). Illustrated. 

These publications contain valuable original documents relating to the 
early history of Illinois, ably edited by experienced and scholarly investi- 
gators. The "Virginia Series" is useful for readers interested in the 
French element of Illinois history, and in the Indians; it includes "Cahokia 
records, 1778-1790," "Kaskaskia records" (for the same period), and "George 
Rogers Clark papers" the last to be published (1911) in three volumes. 


Journal (Springfield, 1908-1911+). 

INDIAN AFFAIRS. Report on the fur trade (Washington, 1828). 
In Senate Committee Reports, 2oth congress, second session. 

Information in relation to the Superintendency of Indina Affairs 

in the Territory of Michigan, 1820-1821 (Washington, 1822). 

Contains accounts of Lewis Cass as superintendent, letters by him relat- 
ing to the Indian tribes, etc. 

INDIAN AFFAIRS, OFFICE OF (War Department). Reports (Wash- 
ington, 1825-1848). 

(Department of the Interior). Report of the Commissioner 

(Washington, 1849-1910+). 

Both these series constitute an official record of Indian affairs, of prime 

Records. Ms. 

These date from 1800 only, as in that year the earlier records were 
destroyed by fire; and since then various injuries and losses have occurred 
through removals, lack of proper facilities for their care, etc. Still, they 
constitute the most important materials extant for study of Indian history 
and affairs - in which much aid is rendered by the description of these rec- 


ords contained in Van Tyne and Leland's Guide to the Archives, second 
edition (Washington, 1908), pp. 205-209. 

INDIAN BIOGRAPHY. [Chronological list of famous American In- 
dians, with biographies.] 

In National Cyclopedia of American Biography, index vol., p. 169. 

INDIAN BOARD for the emigration, preservation, and improvement of 
the aborigines of America. Documents and proceedings relating 
to the formation and progress of a board [for the purpose above 
stated], (New York, 1829). 

INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, BOARD OF. Annual reports (Washington, 

Journal of the second annual conference with the representatives 

of the religious societies cooperating with the government, and re- 
ports of their work among the Indians (Washington, 1873). 

INDIANS, LAWS RELATING TO. Laws of the colonial and state govern- 
ments, relating to Indians and Indian affairs, 1633-1831 (Wash- 
ington, 1832). 

A compilation from the revised statutes of the United States; 

and acts of Congress . . . relating to Indian affairs, not em- 
braced in or repealed by the revision of the United States statutes 
(Washington, 1875). 

[INDIAN POLICY of the Government. Various articles in reviews and 
magazines, 1874-1882.] 

In Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review, July, 1875, J an - an d 
Oct., 1876; Catholic World, Oct. and Nov., 1877, Oct., 1881; Methodist 
Quarterly Review, July, 1877; Nation, July 20, 1876, Sept. 6, 1877, July 4 
and Nov. 28, 1878, June 30, 1881; North Amer. Review, March, 1879, July, 
1881, March, 1882; Penn. Monthly, March, 1879, Oct., 1880; International 
Review, June, 1879; Harper's Magazine, April, 1878, April, 1881; Catholic 
Presbyterian, April, 1881, Feb., 1882; Amer. Law Review, Jan., 1881; Amer. 
Catholic Quarterly, July, 1881. These are papers by able writers, on Pres. 
Grant's policy, the legal status of the Indians, their education at Hampton 
and Carlisle, and the "Indian problem" in general. 

INDIAN RIGHTS ASSOCIATION. Annual report of the executive com- 
mittee (Philadelphia, 1883-1911+). 

Publications (Philadelphia, 1893-1909). 59 pamphlets. 

Besides these, the Association has published other pamphlets, of occa- 
sional character. 

INDIAN TERRITORY, GENERAL COUNCIL. Journal of annual session, 
1873 (Lawrence, Kans., 1873). 
This council, the fourth of its kind, sat during May 5-15, 1873; it was 


"composed of delegates duly elected from the Indian tribes legally resident" 
in Indian Territory. 

INDIAN TREATIES, and laws and regulations relating to Indian affairs. 
Washington, 1826. 

Compiled by order of Secretary of War Calhoun, who ordered one 
hundred and fifty copies to be "printed for the use of the Department." 
Contains also a supplementary collection of treaties and other documents 
relative to Indian affairs, "to the end of the Twenty-first Congress" (i.e., to 
February, 1831). 

Treaties between the United States of America and the several 

Indian tribes, from 1778 to 1837 (Washington, 1837). 

Published by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Under an alphabeti- 
cal list of the tribes is a tabular enumeration of the treaties, with concise 
abstract of the provisions in each. This is followed by the full texts of 
the treaties, in chronological order. Some of the minor treaties can be 
found only here. 

A compilation of all the treaties between the United States and 

the Indian tribes now in force as laws (Washington, 1873). 

Indian affairs: laws and treaties (Washington, 1903, 1904). 

First edition, Senate Document, no. 452, 57th congress, first session; 
second edition, Senate document, no. 319, 58th congress, second session. 

INGERSOLL, ERNEST. Wampum and its history (Philadelphia, 1883). 
In Amer. Naturalist, vol. xvii, 467-479. 

nationale des Americanistes.] 

1910+). Illustrated. 

JAMES, GEORGE WHARTON. Indian basketry (New York, 1901; 
Pasadena, Cal., 1902). Illustrated. 

What the white race may learn from the Indian (Chicago, 

1908). Illustrated. 

Valuable as calling attention, in vigorous and interesting style, to various 
admirable features in the mode of life, and the social, mental, and moral 
traits, of the Indian peoples. The author knows the Indians well from 
personal acquaintance and extensive observation, and well advocates the 
thesis stated in the title of his book. 

JENKS, ALBERT E. The childhood of Ji-shib, the Ojibwa and . . . 
pen sketches (Madison, Wis., 1900). 

JESUIT RELATIONS (Paris, 1640-1672; Quebec, 1869 [3 vols.] ; Cleve- 
land, 1896-1901 [73 vols.]). 

The annual reports sent by the Jesuit missionaries among the Indians 


to their superiors in France; the original publications are rare and costly. 
The Quebec reprint was published by the Canadian government. The 
Cleveland reissue (edited by Reuben G. Thwaites and Emma Helen Blair) , 
entitled The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, added to the original 
Relations many later ones, with letters and other documents written by the 
Jesuit missionaries; also portraits, maps, and other illustrations the whole 
accompanied by a page-to-page English translation and copious annotations, 
bibliographical data, etc. These missionary reports have always been ac- 
cepted as authorities of the first importance, on all matters relating to the 
Indians from Labrador to Minnesota, and from Hudson's Bay to the Ohio 
River; and they are especially valuable because they show, depicted by 
educated men, aboriginal life and character in their primitive conditions, as 
yet untouched or but slightly afifected by contact with Europeans. 

JOHNSON, ELIAS. Legends, traditions, and laws of the Iroquois, or 
Six Nations, and history of the Tuscarora Indians (Lockport, N.Y., 

Written by a Tuscarora chief; although in rather desultory and scrappy 
form, contains considerable information of value. 

JONES, REV. PETER. History of the Ojebway Indians; with especial 
reference to their conversion to Christianity (London [1862?]). 

An Ojibwa chief by birth (his Indian name Kahkewaquonaby), and 
converted to the Christian faith in his youth, the author was a missionary 
among his people for more than twenty-five years, until his death (June 29, 
1856). His account of the Ojibwas is descriptive, historical, and ethnologi- 
cal ; and, like Copway's, contains valuable data regarding those tribes, 
especially authoritative as furnished by Ojibwas of high standing. 

JONES, WILLIAM. Fox texts (Leyden, 1907). 

Contains folk-tales (in history, mythology, tradition, etc.) collected by 
Jones (himself a Fox Indian) from the elders of his tribe; with English 
translations. "Among the best records of American folk-lore that are avail- 
able." This is volume I of the Publications of the Amer. Ethnological 
Society of New York. The author, a trained and enthusiastic ethnologist, 
was slain (while in the prime of manhood) by hostile natives in Luzon, P.I., 
March 28, 1909. 

KANSAS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Transactions (Topeka, 1881- 
1910+). Vols. i-x. Illustrated. 

KEANE, AUGUSTUS H. Man past and present (Cambridge, Eng., 
1899). Illustrated. 

An account of the various races of man, their origin, relations, and de- 
velopment; contains abundant references to the best authorities. 

The world's people: a popular account of their bodily and men- 
tal characteristics, beliefs, traditions, and political and social insti- 
tutions (London, 1908). Illustrated. 


KEATING, WILLIAM H. Narrative of an expedition to the sources of 
the St. Peter's River, Lake Winnepeek, Lake of the Woods, etc., 
1823 (Philadelphia, 1824). 2 vols. Illustrated. 

This expedition was conducted by Major Stephen H. Long, sent by the 
War Department to explore the almost unknown wilderness of Northern 
Minnesota. "One of the earliest and best accounts of the Sioux and Chip- 
peways that we have" (Eames). Volume n contains a comparative vocabu- 
lary of the Sauk, Sioux, Chippeway, and Cree languages. 

KELTON, DWIGHT H. Indian names of places near the Great Lakes 
(Detroit, 1888). 

KINGSFORD, WILLIAM. The history of Canada. Indexed. (Toron- 
to, 1887-1898). 10 vols. 

KINZIE, JULIETTE A. M. Wau-Bun, the "early day of the North- 
west" (New York, 1856). 

A new edition of this book, with an introduction and notes by R. G. 
Thwaites, has been published (Chicago, 1901). The author was wife of 
the noted Chicago early trader, John H. Kinzie; and her book throws much 
light on early Illinois history and Indian character. 

KOHL, J. G. Kitchi-Gami : wanderings round Lake Superior (Lon- 
don, 1860). 

"One of the most exhaustive and valuable treatises of Indian life ever 
written. It is wholly the result of personal experiences. Kohl lived inti- 
mately with the Indian tribes round Lake Superior, and endeavored to 
penetrate the thick veil of distrust, ignorance, and superstition of the tribes 
with whom he lived." WILBERFORCE EAMES. 

LAFITAU, J. F. Moeurs des sauvages Ameriquains, comparees aux 
moeurs des premiers temps (Paris, 1724). 2 vols. Illustrated. 

A valuable early account of the Indian tribes; one of the standard 

LA FLESCHE, FRANCIS. The middle five; Indian boys at school 
(Boston, 1900). 

A story, drawn from actual experiences and persons, of the (mission) 
school life of some Omaha boys ; written by one of them. 

LAHONTAN, ARMAND Louis DE. Voyages dans 1'Amerique septen- 
trionale (Amsterdam, 1728). 2 vols. Illustrated. 

An interesting account of travels in the interior of the North American 
continent, and of the savage tribes dwelling therein. The English edition 
of 1703 has been reprinted (Chicago, 1905), edited and annotated by R. G. 

LAKE MOHONK [N.Y.] CONFERENCE of Friends of the Indian. Pro- 
ceedings of first to twenty-seventh annual meetings (Boston, 1883- 


Since the acquisition of insular possessions by the United States, their 
inhabitants are added to the scope of this conference. 

LAPHAM, INCREASE A. The antiquities of Wisconsin, as surveyed 
and described (Washington, 1885). 

In Contributions to Knowledge of Smithsonian Institution, vol. vii. Lap- 
ham was a pioneer scientist of unusual ability and intellectual breadth. 

A geographical and topographical description of Wisconsin; 

with brief sketches of its history . . . antiquities ( Milwaukee, 


The number, locality, and times of removal of the Indians of 

Wisconsin (Milwaukee, 1870). 

LARIMER, MRS. S. L. The capture and escape; or, life among the 

Sioux (Philadelphia, 1870). 
LE SUEUR, Pierre, and others. Early voyages up and down the 

Mississippi by Cavelier, St. Cosme, Le Sueur, Gravier, and Guig- 

nas (Albany, N.Y., 1861). 

These narratives of early exploration were translated and annotated by 
J. G. Shea, in the above book. 

LEUPP, FRANCIS E. The Indian and his problem (New York, 

Of especial interest, as written by the late commissioner of Indian af- 
fairs; he has urged the abolition of the reservation system and of the Indian 
Office, the Indians to become citizens of the U.S., on the same footing as 
the whites. 

LINCOLN, BENJAMIN. Journal of a treaty held in 1793 with the In- 
dian tribes northwest of the Ohio by commissioners of the United 
States (Boston, 1836). 

In Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, third ser., vol. v, 

LONG, J. Voyages and travels of an Indian interpreter and trader, 
describing the manners and customs of the North American In- 
dians (London, 1791). 

An early and valued account of the tribes in Canada and the region 
of the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River. Contains an extensive vocabu- 
lary of the Chippewa language, and other linguistic data. The author was 
in the service of the Hudson Bay Company, and traveled among the In- 
dians for nineteen years. A French translation was published at Paris in 
1794, and had another edition in 1810. This important work has been 
reprinted in Thwaites's Early Western Travels, vol. ii. 

LUNDY, JOHN P. Zea maize, as it relates to the incipient civilization 
of Red Men all the world over. 


In Proceedings of Phila. Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, 1883, 
pp. 15-22. 
McCoy, REV. ISAAC. Correspondence and journals, 1808-1847. Ms. 

These documents are in possession of the Kansas Historical Society, and 
contain much information on "the actual removal of the Indians, especially 
of the northern tribes after 1830. McCoy surveyed, or superintended the 
survey, of several of the early reservations in Kansas, and located most of 
the tribes that went there. The government placed great reliance on him, 
and his truly kindly disposition toward the emigrants softened the rigor 
of the Jacksonian measures." ABEL. 

The annual register of Indian affairs within the Indian (or 

Western) Territory (Shawanoe Baptist Mission, Ind. Ten, 1835- 
1837), nos. 1-4. 

Contains valuable information about Indian Territory and the tribes 
settled therein; missions and schools among them, supported by various 
religious denominations. 

History of Baptist Indian missions (New York, 1840). 

Covers the period from 1818; is especially full regarding the Ottawas 
and Potawatomi. 

McGuiRE, JOSEPH D. Pipes and smoking customs of the American 
aborigines, based on material in the U.S. National Museum. 
In Report of U.S. National Museum, 1897, part i, pp. 351-645. 

McKENNEY, THOMAS L. Sketches of a tour to the [Great] Lakes, 
of the character and customs of the Chippeway Indians, and of 
incidents connected with the treaty of Fond du Lac (Baltimore, 
1827). Illustrated. 

The author was associated with Lewis Cass in negotiating the above 
treaty (Aug. 5, 1826), and belonged to the U.S. Indian Department. At 
the end of the volume are given the text of the treaty, a journal of the 
proceedings therein, and a Chippewa vocabulary; and the book has numer- 
ous illustrations. Gives interesting accounts of Indian life, and descriptions 
of the Lake region, as they appeared at that time. 

Memoirs, official and personal, with sketches of travels among 
the Northern and Southern Indians; second edition, 2 vols. in I 
(New York, 1846) . Illustrated. 

The author was U.S. superintendent of the Indian trade during 1816- 
1822, and later (1824-1830) chief of the Indian Bureau (the first to hold 
that post). Volume I recounts his experiences in these offices; volume II 
contains his reflections on the origin of the Indians, their claims on us for 
aid and justice, and a plan for their preservation and "the consolidation of 
peace between them and us." 

and James Hall. History of the Indian tribes of North Amer- 


ica, with biographical sketches and anecdotes of the principal chiefs 
(Philadelphia, 1854). 3 vols. Illustrated. 

A smaller reprint (in royal octavo) from the folio edition of 1848. Con- 
tains one hundred and twenty large and well-colored "portraits from the 
Indian Gallery in the Department of War, at Washington." Revised and 
enlarged by McKenney, who probably wrote the unsigned historical sketch 
of the Indian race in volume in; Hall contributed the "Essay on the history 
of the North American Indians," which follows. It contains one hundred 
and twenty large colored portraits of Indian chiefs, from the original 
paintings, mostly by an artist named King, who was employed by the gov- 
ernment to paint portraits of the chiefs who visited Washington. 

McKENNEY, THOMAS L. and Matthew Irwin. The fur trade and 
factory system at Green Bay, 1816-1821. 

In Wisconsin Historical Collections, vol. vii, 269-288. 

McKENZiE, FAYETTE A. The Indian in relation to the white popu- 
lation of the United States (Columbus, O., 1908). 

Reviews the policy of the U.S. government toward the Indians, the 
political status of the latter, their lands and funds, education, missions, 
and other topics; contains much useful and recent information as to the 
advancement and present status of the Indians ; and advocates the abolition 
of the reservation, final allotment of lands, Indian citizenship, provision of 
better training and opportunities on industrial lines, etc. 

MCLAUGHLIN, JAMES. My friend the Indian (Boston, 1910). 

The author was Indian agent and inspector for many years. 

McMASTER, JOHN B. A history of the people of the United States, 
1783-1861 (New York, 1884-1900). 5 vols. 

MAIR, CHARLES. The American bison its habits, methods of cap- 
ture and economic use in the northwest, with reference to its 
threatened extinction and possible preservation. 

In Proceedings and Transactions of Royal Society of Canada, first ser., 
vol. viii, sec. 2, pp. 93-108. 

MALLERY, GARRICK. Sign language among North American In- 
dians, compared with that among other peoples and deaf-mutes 
(Washington, 1881). Illustrated. 

In Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, first Report, 263-552. 

Picture-writing of the American Indians (Washington, 1893). 


Bureau of American Ethnology, Tenth Report, 25-807. 
MANYPENNY, GEORGE W. Our Indian wards (Cincinnati, 1880). 
The author was commissioner of Indian affairs during 1853-1857, and 


chairman of the Sioux Commission of 1876. He recounts the history of the 
Indian peoples in their relations with the whites, from the time of the first 
encounter between the two races; contrasts the military with the civil ad- 
ministration of Indian affairs; and urges that justice, protection^ and better 
industrial opportunities be furnished to these "our wards." 

MARGRY, PIERRE. Decouvertes et etablissements des Francais dans 
Fouest et dans le sud de 1'Amerique Septentrionale (1614-1754) : 
memoires et documents originaux (Paris, 1876-1886). 6 vols. 

The following volumes are concerned with the northwest: I (1614-1684), 
explorations and discoveries on the Great Lakes, and the Ohio and Mississippi 
Rivers; V (1683-1724), formation of a chain of posts between the St. Law- 
rence and the Gulf of Mexico; VI (1679-1754), exploration of affluents of 
the Mississippi, and discovery of the Rocky Mountains. 

MARSH, REV. CUTTING. Letters and journals, 1830-1856. Ms. 
39 vols. and 55 letters. 

These documents are deposited with the Wisconsin Historical Society. 
The author was a missionary of the American Board of Foreign Missions 
and of a Scottish missionary society, among the Stockbridge Indians of Wis- 
consin; and his papers relate chiefly to religious and educational matters. 
Marsh's reports to the Scottish Society for 1831-1848 have been published 
(nearly in full) in Wisconsin Historical Collections, vol. xv, 39-204. 

MARTIN, HORACE F. Castorologia, or the history and traditions of 

the Canadian beaver (Montreal, 1892). 

MASON, EDWARD G. Illinois in the i8th century (Chicago, 1881). 
No. 12 in Fergus Historical Series. 

Early Illinois (Chicago, 1889-1890). In 4 parts. 

Nos. 31-34 of Fergus Historical Series. Is chiefly devoted to Mcnard, 
Todd, and Rocheblave papers. 

MASON, OTIS T. Woman's share in primitive culture (New York, 
1894). Illustrated. 

The origins of inventions: study of industry among primitive 

people (London, 1895). Illustrated. 

Valuable monographs by this distinguished writer (who was one of the 
foremost scientists in America, and curator of ethnology in the U.S. National 
Museum from 1884 until his death in 1908) are noted as follows: "Cradles 
of the American aborigines" (Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1887) ; 
"N. American bows, arrows, and quivers" (id., 1893) ; "Migration and the 
food quest" (id., 1894) ; "Influence of environment upon human industries 
or arts" (id., 1895) ; "Aboriginal skin-dressing" (Report of U.S. National 
Museum, 1889) ; "Primitive travel and transportation" (id., 1894) ; "Abor- 
iginal American basketry" (id., 1902). All these are abundantly illustrated. 

MATSON, N. French and Indians of Illinois River (Princeton, 111., 



From old Mss., local traditions, etc., the author has gleaned interesting 
data regarding the Indian tribes in Illinois, and the early settlement of that 
region by the French. 

MATSON, N. Memories of Shaubena, with incidents relating to the 
early settlement of the West (Chicago, 1878 [second edition in 

A memoir of this noted Potawatomi chief, based largely on information 
furnished to the writer by Shaubena himself; contains also much informa- 
tion regarding the "Black Hawk War." 

researches (Lansing, 1887-1910+). Vols. 1-38. Illustrated. 

MICHILLIMACKINAC PARISH. Register of baptisms and marriages, 
1741-1821. Ms. 

The original of this important register is preserved in the parish church 
of St. Anne at Mackinac. At the beginning is an abstract of earlier entries 
dating back to 1695, copied from an old register which is now lost; there 
are also some records of burials, 1743-1806. A facsimile transcription of 
the volume is in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society, in whose 
Collections are published a translation of the entire document (vol. xviii, 
469-514, and xix, 1-162). 

MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collections (St. Paul, 1850- 
1910+). Vols. i-xiv. Illustrated. 

Contain many important papers regarding the Indians of Minnesota. 
Notable among these are: "Dakota superstitions," G. H. Pond (1867, pp. 
32-62) ; "History of the Ojibways," William W. Warren (of Ojibwa 
blood), and another account by Edward D. Neill, a scholarly and careful 
investigator (vol. v, 21-510) ; "Protestant missions in the Northwest," 
Stephen R. Riggs (vol. vi, 117-188) ; "A Sioux story of the war, 1862," 
Chief Big Eagle (pp. 382-400) ; "Prehistoric man at the headwaters of the 
Mississippi River," J. V. Brower (vol. viii, 232-269) ; "The Ojibways in 
Minnesota," Joseph A. Gilfillan (vol. ix, 55-128) ; several papers on history 
of missions in Minnesota (vol. x, 156-246) ; "The Dakotas or Sioux in 
Minnesota as they were in 1834," Samuel W. Pond (vol. xii, 319-501). 

Documents relating to the early history of Minnesota. Ms. 

These collections contain many original manuscripts of great value for 
the history of the upper Mississippi region. Of especial interest are the 
papers of Henry H. Sibley, first governor of Minnesota ; journals of Charles 
Larpenteur, Indian trader during forty years; letters received by Major 
Lawrence Taliaferro (dated 1813-1840) from prominent government of- 
ficials; and papers connected with the Sioux outbreak in 1862. 

MISSOURI HISTORICAL SOCIETY (St. Louis). Documents relating to 
the early history of Missouri. Ms. 

A large and valuable collection, mainly concerned with the history of 
the region west of the Mississippi. Among them are a considerable num- 


her relating to the subject of the present work, especially as follows: On 
trade and Indian affairs in Upper Louisiana, prior to 1800; papers and 
letters connected with William Clark's official life; Stephen W. Kearny's 
journals of trips up the Mississippi (1820) and Missouri (1824) ; Sibley 
manuscripts (1803-1836), largely on Indian affairs; and the Sublette and 
Vasquez collections, containing hundreds of letters, business papers, etc., 
relating to the fur-trade during the first half of the nineteenth century. 

MOONEY, JAMES. The ghost-dance religion and the Sioux outbreak 
of 1890 (Washington, 1896). 

In Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, Report for 1892-1893, part ii, pp. 641- 

II 10. 

Mescal plant and ceremony (Detroit, 1896). 

In Therapeutic Gazette, third ser., vol. xii. Cf. also papers by D. W. 
Prentiss and F. P. Morgan on same subject (ibid.). 

MOOREHEAD, WARREN K. Fort Ancient, the great prehistoric earth- 
work of Warren County, Ohio (Cincinnati, 1890). 

Primitive man in Ohio (New York, 1892). 

Prehistoric implements (Cincinnati, 1900). 

Tonda, a story of the Sioux (Cincinnati, 1904). Illustrated. 

MORGAN, LEWIS H. League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois 

(Rochester, N.Y., 1851). Illustrated. 

This is a book of prime authority on the subject of the famous Iroquois 
League, and on the character, beliefs, customs, language, etc., of the tribes 
composing it. Morgan was adopted into the Seneca tribe, and made a 
careful study of the Iroquois peoples and their life. On a large map of the 
Iroquois country he shows all the villages and geographical features, with 
the Indian name of each a table of these, with meanings in English, and 
identification of locality, appearing at end of volume. 

Indian migrations. 

In North American Review, Oct., 1869 and Jan., 1870; reprinted in 
Beach's Ind. Miscellany, 158-257. 

Systems of consanguinity and affinity of the human family 

(Washington, 1871). 

In Contributions to Knowledge of Smithsonian Institution, vol. xvii. 

Houses and house-life of the American aborigines (Washing- 
ton, 1881). Illustrated. 

In Contributions to Amer. Ethnology of U.S. Geographical and Geologi- 
cal Survey, vol. iv. 

Ancient society; or researches in the lines of human progress 

from savagery through barbarism to civilization (New York, 

Morgan was a profound student of social evolution and the origins of 
civilization, and his books are valuable contributions to those subjects. 


MORSE, REV. JEDEBIAH. A report to the Secretary of War of the 
United States, comprising a narrative of ... the actual state 
of the Indian Tribes in our country (New Haven, 1822), [with 
map showing locations of the tribes] . 

Pp. 11-96 are occupied with Dr. Morse's report to the secretary of war 
(then John C. Calhoun) on his mission from the government to ascertain 
the condition of the Indian tribes, performed in the summer of 1820. The 
rest of the volume (pp. 97-406) is devoted to numerous appendices illus- 
trative of the subject reports from missionaries, traders, civil and military 
officials; speeches by Indian chiefs; extracts from some printed works; de- 
scriptions of little-known regions ; and statistical tables showing the condition 
of the tribes, the dealings of our government with them, the schools estab- 
lished for them, etc. It is a valuable collection of the best material obtain- 
able at that time, and furnished by competent observers, mainly eyewitnesses 
of what they related. 

NEILL, EDWARD DUFFIELD. The history of Minnesota; from the 
earliest French explorations to the present time (Minneapolis, 
1878, 1882). 

First issued in 1858 ; both above editions (the third and fourth) revised 
and enlarged by adding much new material, to keep pace with later dis- 
covery and research. Written by a scholarly and able historian; contains 
much about the Indian tribes in Minnesota. The opening chapters of the 
first edition were reprinted as a separate (Phila., 1859) under the title 
Dahkotah Land, and Dahkotak Life. 

History of the Ojebways and their connection with the fur 


In Minn. Historical Society Collections, vol. v, 395-410. 

NOBLE LIVES of a noble race (Odanah, Wis., 1909). Illustrated. 

Interesting as being mainly the work of the Indian children in the 
Franciscan industrial school at the Odanah mission. Contains also bio- 
graphical sketches of missionaries and other friends of the Indians. 


mark, 1906-1910+), vols. i-iii. 
OGG, FREDERICK A. The opening of the Mississippi : a struggle for 

supremacy in the American interior (New York, 1904). 

A history of discovery, exploration, and contested rights of navigation on 

the Mississippi, prior to the end of the War of 1812-1815; gives special 

attention to the physiographic aspects of the history of the Mississippi 

basin, and the economic importance of the great river. 

(Columbus, 1887-1910+), vols. i-xix. 
OTIS, ELWELL S. The Indian question (New York, 1878). 

An able and vigorous presentation of this subject from the standpoint of 


an army officer. He shows that the Indian population is certainly not de- 
creasing; reviews the policy of colonial and U.S. governments toward the 
Indian tribes, also the treaty system; regards the Indian as incapable of 
white civilization; and advocates military control of the reservations. 

OWEN, MARY ALICIA. Folk-lore of the. Musquakie Indians of North 
America (London, 1904). Illustrated. 

This is vol. 51 of Publications of the Folk-lore Society [of Great Britain]. 
A monograph on the folk-lore and customs of the Musquakie Indians of 
Iowa, better known as the Sauk and Foxes, by a lady who for many years 
has known these Indians personally and well. During this long acquain- 
tance she collected a considerable quantity of specimens of their ceremonial 
implements and their beadwork, articles which represented their genuine 
native industries and their actual usages in ceremonials; this collection she 
presented to the Folk-lore Society, accompanied by careful descriptive notes 
and the above monograph. These writings are printed as above, and are 
illustrated by eight plates (two in colors) from photographs. A unique 
and important contribution to the history of those tribes. 

PARKMAN, FRANCIS. The conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian war 
after the conquest of Canada (Boston, 1870). 
The sixth edition, revised and enlarged. 

La Salle and the discovery of the great West (Boston, 1879). 

The eleventh edition, revised and enlarged, of "Discovery of the great 


The old regime in Canada (Boston, 1874). 

A half -century of conflict (Boston, 1892). 2 vols. 

Covers the period 1700-1748 ; includes full account of the Fox War. 

PARKMAN CLUB OF MILWAUKEE. Papers (Milwaukee, 1896- 
1897). 2 vols. 

A series of eighteen short monographs on various topics of Wisconsin 
and Northwestern history. Among them are: "Nicholas Perrot," G. P. 
Stickney (no. i) ; "Voyages of Radisson and Groseilliers," Henry C. Camp- 
bell (no. 2); "Chevalier Henry de Tonty," Henry E. Legler (no. 3); 
"Aborigines of the Northwest," F. T. Terry (no. 4) ; "Jonathan Carver," 
J. G. Gregory (no. 5) ; "Eleazer Williams," W. W. Wight (no. 7) ; "Charles 
Langlade," M. E. Mclntosh (no. 8) ; "Pere Rene Menard," H. C. Campbell 
(no. ii ) ; "George Rogers Clark and his Illinois campaign," Dan B. Starkey 
(no. iz) ; "The use of maize by Wisconsin Indians," G. P. Stickney (no. 
13) ; "Claude Jean Allouez," J. S. La Boule (no. 17). 

PEET, STEPHEN D. Myths and symbols, or aboriginal religions in 
America (Chicago, 1905). Illustrated. 

Discusses such subjects as Totemism and mythology; The serpent symbol 
in America ; Sky worship ; Phallic worship and fire worship ; The rain 
god; Personal divinities and culture heroes; etc. Written by the editor 
(1878-1910) of the American Antiquarian. 


PITEZEL, JOHN H. Lights and shades of missionary life during nine 
years spent in the region of Lake Superior (Cincinnati, 1857). 

PITTMAN, PHILIP. The present state of the European settlements 
on the Mississippi; with a geographical description of that river, 
illustrated by plans and draughts (London, 1770). 

This important work, now exceedingly rare, has been reprinted by the 
A. H. Clark Co. (Cleveland, 1906), edited and annotated by F. H. Hodder. 
Pittman was a British military engineer, and gives an accurate account, 
written from personal observation of the Mississippi settlements just after 
the English occupation of that country as a result of the peace of 1763. An 
authority in early Western history, of the highest importance. 

POKAGON, SIMON. O-gi-maw-kwe mit-i-gwa-ki - "Queen of the 
woods" (Hartford, Mich., 1899). 

A partly autobiographical story and a chapter on the Algonquin lan- 
guage, written by the noted Potawatomi chief Pokagon; to this the pub- 
lisher (C. H. Engle) has added a biographical sketch and other datzu 

An Indian on the problems of his race. 

In Amer. Review of Reviews, Dec., 1895. 

The future of the red man. 

In Forum, Aug., 1897. 

POOLE, D. C. Among the Sioux of Dakota: eighteen months' ex- 
perience as an Indian agent (New York, 1881). 

An interesting narrative by an army officer, of his experiences among 
the Sioux; he describes their character and mode of life, the difficulties 
arising from their relations with the white settlers, and the perplexities en- 
countered in the administration of the agency system. Written in a spirit of 
fairness, and appreciation of the good traits in Indian character. 

POWELL, JOHN W. The North American Indians (New York, 


In N. S. Shaler's U.S. of America, vol. i, 190-272. 

Sketch of the mythology of the North American Indians 

(Washington, 1881). 

In First Report of Bureau Amer. Ethnology, 17-69. 

Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico (Wash- 
ington, 1891). 

In Seventh Report of Bureau of American Ethnology, 7-142. 

Technology, or the science of industries. 

In Amer. Anthropologist, new series, vol. i, 319-349. 

American view of totemism (London, 1902). 

In Man, vol. ii, no. 75. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH in United States, General Assembly. The 


church at home and abroad (Philadelphia, 1887-1898). Vols. 
1-24. Illustrated. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Presbyterian monthly record (Philadel- 
phia, 18501886). Vols. 1-37. 

Woman's Board of Home Missions. The home mission 

monthly (New York, 1887-1910+). Vols. 1-24. Illustrated. 

Women's Foreign Missionary Societies. Woman's work for 

woman (Philadelphia, Chicago, and New York, 1871-1910+). 
Vols. 1-25. 

After 1904 styled Woman's Work. 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Board of Missions. The spirit 
of missions (New York, 1836-1910+). Vols. 1-75. Illustrated 
(after 1873). 

In volume for 1874 is a map of the U.S., showing the Indian reserva- 
tions at that time. 

RADISSON, PETER ESPRIT. Voyages of Peter Esprit Radisson, being 
an account of his travels and experiences among the North Amer- 
ican Indians, from 1652 to 1684 (Boston, 1885). 

Transcribed from original manuscripts in the Bodleian Library and the 
British Museum; edited by Gideon D. Scull; published by the Prince 
Society. Radisson and his companion, Medart des Groseilliers, explored the 
wilderness about Lakes Michigan and Superior (1654-1656), and spent a 
winter with the Sioux Indians in the vicinity of Lake Pepin (1659-1660) 
perhaps the first white men to visit those lands; so these narratives are of 
special interest and value. 

RAMSEY, ALEXANDER. Annual report of the superintendent of In- 
dian affairs in Minnesota territory (Washington, 1849). 
Senate Executive Document, no. i, 3ist congress, first session. 

RATZEL, FRIEDRICH. The history of mankind (London, 1896). 3 
vols. Illustrated. 

Translated from the second German edition. A popular but reliable 
guide to anthropological and ethnological study; and gives a well-written 
and systematic account of the races of man throughout the world ; and con- 
tains over one thousand one hundred illustrations of excellent quality, 
chiefly obtained from material in the great museums. 

RAU, CHARLES. Ancient aboriginal trade in North America; and 
North American stone implements (Washington, 1873). 

In Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1872, pp. 348-408. 
REBOK, HORACE M. The last of the Mus-Qua-Kies and the Indian 
Congress, 1898 (Dayton, O., 1900). Illustrated. 
A historical sketch of the Fox and Sac tribes. 


REYNOLDS, JOHN. The pioneer history of Illinois, 1673-1818 (Chi- 
cago, 1887). Illustrated. 

First issued at Belleville, 111., 1852; the second edition is much improved. 
The author was governor of Illinois during 1832-1834, 

My own times, 1800-1855 (Chicago, 1879). 

A revised edition of an earlier publication by the Chicago Historical 

RJGGS, STEPHEN R. Tah-koo Wah-kan, or, the gospel among the 
Dakotas (Boston, 1869). 

A valuable account of the Dakota Sioux, their pagan customs, their native 
religious beliefs and worship, Protestant mission work among them, their 
outbreak in 1862 and its results. An appendix contains notes on their med- 
ical practices, and their songs and music. Written by a noted missionary, 
also remarkable for his linguistic ability; he compiled a Dakota grammar 
and dictionary (Washington, 1890; Dorsey's ed.), and, with his fellow- 
missionary Thomas S. Williamson, translated the entire Bible into that 
language published at Cincinnati (1842), and later at New York (1871- 
1872, and 1880). 

Mary and I: forty years with the Sioux (Chicago, [1880]). 

An interesting narrative of his experiences (1837-1877) as a missionary 
among the Sioux; mainly devoted to religious and educational work, but 
incidentally discloses considerable relating to Indian life and character. 

RIGHT-HAND THUNDER. The Indian and white man; or, the In- 
dian in self-defense (Indianapolis, 1880). 

Written by an Indian chief; edited by D. W. Risher. 

ROBINSON, DOANE. Sioux Indians -a history (Cedar Rapids, la., 
1908). Illustrated. 

A full and authoritative history, from the best original sources, of the 
Sioux of Dakota; written by the superintendent of the South Dakota His- 
torical Society. 

, editor. The South Dakotan, a monthly magazine ( Sioux Falls, 

S.Dak., 1900-1904). 

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE. The winning of the West (New York, 
1889-1896). 4vols. 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. Proceedings and transactions (Otta- 
wa, 1882-1910+). 

Contains much valuable material regarding the Indian tribes of the 
northern and eastern United States, as well as numerous articles and papers 
on Canadian history, biography, etc. 

ROYCE, CHARLES C. Indian land cessions in the United States 
(Washington, 1900). 

In the Eighteenth Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, part ii. De- 


scribes the policy toward the Indians of Spaniards, French, and English 
respectively, of the several English colonies, and of the United States; 
enumerates the treaties and acts of Congress authorizing allotments of land 
in severalty; and presents a schedule of land cessions (from 1784 to 1894), 
with descriptive and historical data and remarks for each, and maps. 

ROYCE, CHARLES C. An inquiry into the identity and history of the 
Shawnee Indians. 

In Amer. Antiquarian, vol. iii, 177-189. 

RUSH, BENJAMIN. An oration . . . containing an enquiry 
into the natural history of medicine among the Indians in North 
America, and a comparative view of their diseases and remedies, 
with those of civilized nations (Philadelphia, [1774]). 

RUTTENBER, E. M. History of the Indian tribes of Hudson's River 
(Albany, N.Y., 1872). Illustrated. 

A reliable account, with numerous annotations, and careful citation of 
authorities, of the tribes along the Hudson, some of which are mentioned 
by Perrot and La Potherie as being more or less connected with the affairs 
of the western tribes. 

SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. Notes on the Iroquois; or contributions 
to American history, antiquities, and general ethnology (Albany, 
1847). Illustrated. 

Largely historical and archeological ; contains also several Iroquois tra- 
ditions, a chapter on their language, and various miscellanies. 

Oneota: or, characteristics of the red race of America (New 

York, 1845). Illustrated. 

"From original notes and manuscripts." 

Algic researches (New York, 1839). 2 vols. 

"Comprising inquiries respecting the mental characteristics of the North 
American Indians." 

Historical and statistical information respecting the history, 

condition and prospects of the Indian tribes of the United States 
(Philadelphia, 1851-1857). 6 vols. Illustrated. 

"Collected and prepared under the direction of the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs, per act of Congress of March sd, 1847. Published by authority of 
Congress." Schoolcraft used not only his own extensive knowledge, and the 
unusual opportunities furnished by his marriage to an Indian woman of 
high rank; but the information and experience of many persons throughout 
the country who were conversant with Indian character and life, and several 
original Ms. accounts, previously unpublished. His work is a cyclopedia of 
the best information then available, much of which is not to be found else- 
where; and it contains much valuable material (also some of little im- 
portance) for the study of Indian ethnology, archaeology, history, languages, 


etc. The illustrations are largely steel engravings, mostly from drawings 
by Capt. S. Eastman, U.S.A. ; and include many colored plates. In vol. vi, 
the title becomes "History of the Indian tribes of the United States," etc. 

SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. The American Indians, their history, con- 
dition and prospects, from original notes and manuscripts, new 
revised edition (Rochester, 1851). 

Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian 

tribes on the American frontiers, with brief notices of passing 
events, facts, and opinions, A.D. 1812 to A.D. 1842 (Philadelphia, 

SCHULTZ, J. W. My life as an Indian (New York, 1907). 
SHARP, MRS. ABIGAIL G. History of the Spirit Lake massacre, and 

captivity of Miss Abbie Gardner (Des Moines, 1885). 
SHEA, JOHN GILMARY. History of the Catholic missions among 

the Indian tribes of the United States, 1529-1854 (New York, 

1855). Illustrated. 

A valuable work, by a leading authority in Catholic history. He relates 
the labors of Catholic missionaries Spanish, French, and English, includ- 
ing even mention of the Northmen in Greenland and Vinland in North 
America, with abundant reference to original authorities, and adds lists of 
the French missionaries. 

Discovery and exploration of the Mississippi Valley: with the 

original narratives of Marquette, Allouez, Membre, Hennepin, 
and Anastase Douay (New York, 1853). 

Translations of above narratives (with annotations and biographical 
sketches) by Shea. 

Historical sketch of the Tionontates, or Dinondadies, now called 


In Historical Magazine, vol. v. 

History of the Catholic Church in the United States from the 

first attempted colonization to the present time ( New York, 1 886- 
1892). 4 vols. 

SMITH, ERMINNIE A. Myths of the Iroquois (Washington, 1883). 
In Second Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnology. 

SMITH, GEN. THOMAS A. Letters, reports, and military orders, 
1812-1818. Ms. 

This officer served in the War of 1812, and during 1815-1818 was at the 
head of the Western Military Department, with headquarters at St. Louis. 
His letters, orders, etc., despatched in his official capacity, and letters and 
reports from his subordinate officers at Forts Smith, Osage, Armstrong, and 
Crawford, constitute this valuable collection. It is in the possession of the 
State Historical Society of Missouri, at Columbia. 


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. Annual reports of the Boards of Re- 
gents (Washington, D.C., 1847-1910+). Illustrated. 

The appendices to these reports contain "miscellaneous memoirs of in- 
terest to collaborators and correspondents of the Institution, teachers, and 
others engaged in the promotion of knowledge." Among these are often 
found papers on archaeological and ethnological subjects, written by experts, 
and largely based on material found in the National Museum. Among 
these may be noted, in recent reports, the following: Otis T. Mason, "In- 
fluence of Environment upon Human Industries or Arts" (1895) ; Thomas 
Wilson, "Prehistoric Art" (1896) ; Havelock Ellis, "Mescal, a new Artificial 
Paradise" (1897; reprinted from Contemporary Review, Jan., 1897); Alice 
C. Fletcher, "The Import of the Totem" [in the Omaha tribe], (1897) ; 
W. A. Phillips, "Stone Implements from the southern Shores of Lake Mich- 
igan" (1897); O. T. Mason, "Traps of the American Indians" (1901); 
W. H. Holmes, "Traces of Aboriginal Operations in an Iron Mine near 
Leslie, Mo." (1903) ; id., "The Contributions of American Archeology to 
History" (1904); Georg Friederici, "Scalping in America" (1906). 

Reports of the United States National Museum (Washington, 

1883-1910+). Illustrated. 

In recent issues of these Reports are the following papers among those 
"describing and illustrating collections" in the Museum: J. D. McGuire, 
"Pipes and Smoking Customs of the American Aborigines" (1897) ; O T. 
Mason, "The Man's Knife among the North American Indians" (1897) ; 
id., "A Primitive Frame for Weaving narrow Fabrics" (1898) ; id., "Abo- 
riginal American Harpoons" (1900) ; id., "Aboriginal American Basketry" 

Smithsonian contributions to knowledge, vols. i-xxxiv (Wash- 
ington, 1848-1910+). Illustrated. 

Notable articles therein : E. G. Squier, "Ancient Monuments of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley" (vol. i) ; id., "Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New 
York" (vol. ii) ; Charles Whittlesey, "Description of Ancient Works in 
Ohio" (vol. iii) ; I. A. Lapham, "The Antiquities of Wisconsin" (vol. vii) ; 
C. Whittlesey, "Ancient Mining on the shores of Lake Superior" (vol. xiii) ; 
Lewis H. Morgan, "Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human 
Family" (vol. xvii) ; Charles Rau, "The Archaeological Collection of the 
U.S. National Museum" (vol. xxii) ; id., "Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and 
North America" (vol. xxv). 

others in North America, 1787-1887. [Boston, 1887.] 

A centennial publication, containing historical sketches of the society, 
lists of officers, enumeration of its publications, etc. See the Reports and 
other matter issued by the society, for accounts of its work. 

(Aberdeen, 1902-1908+). Illustrated. 


Vol. ii is devoted to a "History of the Sioux Indians," by Doane Robin- 
son, secretary of the society. 

SQUIER, E. G., and E. H. Davis. Ancient monuments of the Mis- 
sissippi valley (Washington, 1848). Illustrations. 

In Contrib. to Knowledge of Smithsonian Institution, vol. i. 
STARR, FREDERICK. American Indians (Boston, 1899). Illustrated. 

"Intended as a reading book for boys and girls in school," for which 
purpose it is admirable. 

STEARNS, ROBERT E. C. Ethno-conchology: a study of primitive 


In Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1887, part ii, pp. 297-334. 
STEVENS, FRANK E. The Black Hawk War, including a review of 

Black Hawk's life (Chicago, 1903). Illustrated. 

By far the most extensive and full account of the Black Hawk War, and 
of the life and deeds of that noted chief; based on the best printed sources, 
interviews, and correspondences and numerous original documents. Contains 
over three hundred portraits and views, of great historical value. 

STEWARD, JOHN F. Lost Maramech and earliest Chicago: a history 
of the Foxes and of their downfall near the great village of Mara- 
mech (Chicago, 1903). Illustrated. 

The story of the Fox tribe, as found in original sources, chiefly Mss. 
from Paris archives. This author locates at Maramech Hill (near the 
junction of Big Rock Creek with the Fox River of Illinois) the great battle 
of 1730, when the Fox tribe was almost exterminated. 

STICKNEY, GARDNER P. Nicholas Perrot. 

The use of maize by Wisconsin Indians. 

Both these papers are in Parkman Club Publications, q.v. 

Indian use of wild rice. 

In Amer. Anthropologist, vol. ix, 115-121. 

STITES, SARA H. Economics of the Iroquois (Bryn Mawr, Pa., 

In Monograph Series of Bryn Mawr College, vol. i, no. 3. 
STURTEVANT, LEWIS. Indian corn and the Indian (Philadelphia, 

In Amer. Naturalist, vol. xix. 

TANNER, JOHN. Narrative of captivity and adventures during 
thirty years' residence among the Indians in the interior of North 
America (New York, 1830). 

"Prepared for the press by Edwin James, M.D." A detailed narrative 
of Tanner's experiences among the Indian tribes of the northwest; their 


customs and mode of life, etc. To this Dr. James has added much linguistic 
and ethnological information. 

TAYLOR, EDWARD L. Monuments to historical Indian chiefs. 

In Publications of Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 
ix, 1-31, xi, 1-29. 

TECUMSEH. Letters, notes, memoirs, etc., relating to Tecumseh, 
1780-1840. Ms. 13 vols. 

A collection by L. C. Draper of materials for an intended life of this 
great chief; includes much and valuable unpublished material regarding 
Tecumseh's life, travels among the various tribes, influence on his fellow- 
Indians, battles, etc. It is in the possession of the Wisconsin State His- 
torical Society. 

TEXTOR, LUCY E. Official relations between the United States and 
the Sioux Indians (Palo Alto, Cal., 1896). 

Leland Stanford University Publication. Contains a full resume of the 
Indian policy of the United States. 

THOMAS, CYRUS. Indians of North America in historic times ( Phila- 
delphia, 1903). Illustrated. 

In History of North America (Guy C. Lee, editor), vol. ii. Written "in 
conference with W. J. McGee." 

Introduction to the study of North American archaeology (Cin- 
cinnati, 1898; reprinted in 1903). 

Burial mounds of the northern section of the United States 

(Washington, 1887). 

In Fifth Report, Bureau of Amer. Ethnology. 

Catalogue of prehistoric works east of the Rocky Mountains 

(Washington, 1891). 

Bulletin 12, Bureau of Amer. Ethnology. A bibliography of the writings 
of this eminent scientist, prepared by himself a short time before his death, 
is published in Amer. Anthropologist, new series, vol. xii, 339-343. 

THOMAS, WILLIAM I. Source book for social origins: ethnological 
materials, psychological standpoint, classified and annotated biblio- 
graphies for the interpretation of savage society (Chicago, 1909). 

THWAITES, REUBEN G. France in America, 1497-1763 (New York, 

This is vol. vii in The American Nation (A. B. Hart, editor). 

The story of Wisconsin (Boston, 1899). 

Revised and enlarged from edition of 1890. 

Wisconsin: the Americanization of a French settlement (Bos- 
ton, 1908). 


THWAITES, REUBEN G. How George Rogers Clark won the North- 
west, and other essays in Western history (Chicago, 1903). 

Father Marquette (New York, 1902). 

The story of the Black Hawk War (Madison, Wis., 1892). 

In Wisconsin Historical Collections, vol. xii. 

(editor). Early western travels, 1748-1846 (Cleveland, 1904- 

1907). 32 vols. Illustrated. 

"A series of annotated reprints of some of the best and rarest contempo- 
rary volumes of travel, descriptive of the Aborigines and social and eco- 
nomic conditions in the Middle and Far West, during the period of early 
American settlement." A most valuable contribution to American history, 
inasmuch as the works here reprinted are seldom found except in the large 
collections of Americana, and were thus accessible to but few students ; and 
as this edition furnishes with them copious annotations and other aids to the 
reader, the results of modern research. Among these writings are some that 
relate to the tribes considered in the present work, or to the history of the 
period which it covers; the more important of these are noted as follows: 

Volume I. Conrad Weiser's journal of a tour to the Ohio, 1748 ; George 
Croghan's letters and journals, 1750-1765 ; Charles F. Post's journals of 
Western tours, 1758-1759; Thomas Morris's Journal of . . . expe- 
riences on the Maumee, 1764. (London, 1791). [These documents are espe- 
cially valuable because they furnish the history of English relations with 
the French and Indians upon the western borders during the last French 
War, and its sequel, Pontiac's conspiracy. Two of the authors, Weiser and 
Croghan, were government Indian agents; the third, Post, was a Mora- 
vian missionary; and the fourth, Morris, was a British army officer.] 

Volume n. J. Long's Voyages and travels of an Indian interpreter and 
trader (London, 1791). [The author spent twenty years in the fur-trade 
and among the northern tribes, and presents a graphic picture of Indian and 
Canadian life, and of conditions and methods in the fur-trade; also many 
vocabularies of Indian words, and observations on their analogies.] 

Volume v. John Bradbury's Travels in the interior of America, in 1809- 
1811 (London, 1819). [Bradbury was a zealous and indefatigable observer, 
and traveled through most of the regions of the Mississippi valley, and up 
the Missouri. His book is one of the best existing authorities of this period.] 

Volume vi. H. M. Brackenridge's Journal of a voyage up the River 
Missouri, 1811 (Baltimore, 1816). [A reliable early authority.] 

Volume viii. Estwick Evans's Pedestrious tour . . . through the 
Western states and territories, 1818 (Concord, N.H., 1819). [Evans traveled 
along Lake Erie to Detroit, and down the Ohio and Mississippi to the 

Volume xin. Thomas NuttalPs Journal of travels into the Arkansas Ter- 
ritory, 1819; with observations on the manners of the aborigines (Phila- 
delphia, 1821). [The author was a scientist of high standing, who in the 
pursuit of knowledge traveled more than five thousand miles, through a 
region of which most was still the possession of wild Indian tribes; of 
these he has given minute and reliable accounts.] 


Volumes xxii-xxv. Prince Maximilien's Voyage in the interior of North 
America, 1832-1834. English translation (London, 1843). [An elaborate 
account descriptive, historical, ethnological, and scientific of the region 
between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains, and of the Indian tribes 
dwelling therein; magnificently illustrated by a special artist who accom- 
panied the expedition.] 

THWAITES, REUBEN G. (editor). [See also Jesuit Relations; and 
Wisconsin Historical Society, Collections and Proceedings.] 

TURNER, FREDERICK J. The character and influence of the Indian 
trade in Wisconsin; a study of the trading post as an institution 
(Baltimore, 1891). 

In Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies , vol. ix, 543-615. A revised and en- 
larged form of an address given before the Wisconsin Historical Society, 
Jan. 3, 1889 (printed in Proceedings of the society, 1889, pp. 52-98). 

Rise of the new West, 1819-1829 (New York, 1906). 

This is vol. xiv of The American Nation (A. B. Hart, editor). 

The significance of the frontier in American history (Madison, 

Wis., 1893). 

In Proceedings of Wis. Historical Society, 1893, pp. 79-112. 
TYLOR, EDWARD B. Primitive culture: researches into the develop- 
ment of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art, and cus- 
tom (London, 1903). 2 vols. 

First published in 1871 ; above is fourth edition, revised. 
UPHAM, WARREN, and others. Minnesota in three centuries: 1655- 
1908 ([New York], 1908). 4 vols. Illustrated. 

Written by the secretary and other members of the Minnesota Histori- 
cal Society, largely from original material in the collections of that society. 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. Statistics of Indian tribes, 
Indian agencies, and Indian schools of every character; corrected 
to January I, 1899 (Washington, 1899). 

Half-breed scrip. Chippewas of Lake Superior (Washington, 


"The correspondence and action under the 7th clause of the second 
article of the treaty with the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior and the 
Mississippi . . . concluded at La Pointe, Sept. 30, 1854," including also 
reports of government commissions appointed in 1871 and 1872. 

VERWYST, REV. CHRYSOSTOMUS. Life and labors of Rt. Rev. Fred- 
eric Baraga (Milwaukee, 1900). Illustrated. 

A carefully-prepared narrative (from original sources) of the noted 
Bishop Baraga's missionary labors among the Indian tribes in the north- 
ern peninsula of Michigan (1831-1867). Contains much valuable informa- 


tion about the Indians, their mode of life, character, beliefs, etc.; and 
includes sketches of earlier missionaries. 

VERWYST, REV. CHRYSOSTOMUS. Missionary labors of Fathers Mar- 
quette, Menard, and Allouez, in the Lake Superior region (Mil- 
waukee and Chicago, 1886). 

WAKEFIELD, JOHN A. History of the war between the United 
States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians (Jacksonville, 111., 
1834; Chicago, 1908, Caxton Club reprint). Illustrated. 

A valuable contemporary account, by a militia officer engaged in that 
war. To the reprint are added useful notes and a sketch of Wakefield's 
life by the editor, Frank E. Stevens. 

WALKER, FRANCIS A. The Indian question (Boston, 1874). 

The author was commissioner of Indian affairs, and discusses the Indian 
policy of the United States. 

WARREN, WILLIAM W. History of the Ojibways, based upon tra- 
ditions and oral statements (St. Paul, 1885). 

This account is contained in vol. v of the Minnesota Historical Society's 
Collections, 21-394. 

WEBB, J. WATSON, editor. Altowan, or life and adventure in the 
Rocky Mountains (New York, 1846). 2 vols. 

Contains accounts of the mode of life, character, and traditions of the 
Winnebago and Potawatomi Indians. 

WEBSTER, HUTTON. Primitive secret societies: a study in early 
politics and religion (New York, 1908). 

Shows painstaking research and compilation, and is "probably the best 
general work on the subject that has yet appeared, at least in English." 
It treats such topics as "The men's house," "The puberty institution," 
"The secret rites," "Development of tribal societies," "Clan ceremonies," 
"Magical fraternities," etc. 

WHITE, E. E. Service on the Indian reservations (Little Rock, 
Ark., 1893). 

"The experiences of a special Indian agent while inspecting agencies 
and serving as agent for various tribes, including explanations of how the 
government service is conducted on the reservations ; descriptions of agencies ; 
anecdotes illustrating the habits, customs, and peculiarities of the Indians." 

WILSON, DANIEL. Prehistoric man: researches into the origin of 
civilization in the Old and the New World, third edition (London, 
1876). Illustrated. 

In Proceedings of Royal Society of Canada are the following papers by 
this author: "The Huron-Iroquois of Canada, a typical race of American 
aborigines" (vol. ii, sec. 2, pp. 55-106) ; "Paleolithic dexterity" "(vol. iii, 
sec. 2, pp. 119-133) ; "Trade and commerce in the stone age" (vol. vii, sec. 
2, pp. 59-87)- 


WILSON, FRAZER E. The treaty of Greenville (Piqua, O., 1894). 

An official account of the treaty, together with the expeditions of St 
Clair and Wayne against the northwestern Indian tribes. 

WILSON, THOMAS. Arrowpoints, spearheads, and knives of prehis- 
toric times. 

In Report of U.S. National Museum, 1897, part i, pp. 811-988. 

Prehistoric art. 

In Report of U.S. National Museum, 1896, pp. 325-664. 

Study of prehistoric anthropology. 

In Report of U.S. National Museum, 1888, pp. 597-671. 
WINSOR, JUSTIN. Mississippi basin: the struggle in America be- 
tween England and France, 1697-1763 (Boston and New York, 
1895). Illustrated. 

Narrative and critical history of America (Boston and N.Y., 

1889). 8 vols. Illustrated. 

Volume I is devoted largely to the aborigines of North America; and a 
bibliography of that subject is given in pp. 413-444. 

The westward movement: the colonies and the republic west of 

the Alleghanies (Boston, 1897). Illustrated. 
WISCONSIN fur-trade accounts, 1792-1875. Ms. 17 vols. 

These papers (in the possession of the Wisconsin State Historical So- 
ciety) include invoices, claims, and other business documents, written in 
both French and English, and refer to practically all the territory on the 
map published with this book. They are concerned mainly with the opera- 
tions of the Green Bay fur-traders, and to some extent those of Mackinac; 
and include, besides, many military and government accounts. 

Historical Society of Wisconsin. Vols. i-xix (Madison, Wis., 

This series constitutes one of our most valuable sources for the history 
of French occupation and of the Indian tribes of the northwest. It was 
edited by Dr. Lyman C. Draper (1855-1888) and Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites 
(since 1888), successively secretaries of the Wisconsin Historical Society, 
and both widely known as authorities in the field of Wisconsin history and 
in that of the Indian tribes of the state. It contains much original docu- 
mentary material, often its first publication; papers and articles by many 
specialists in those lines; reminiscences and narratives by old residents, 
traders, missionaries, and others; reports of interviews with Indian chiefs, 
etc. Many references have been made to the Collections in the annotations 
to the present work. The following list of articles especially bearing on the 
field of this work may be found therein: 

Volume I Lieut. James Gorrell's journal, 1761-1763, pp. 24-48 (account 


of the Indians, their commerce, relations with English, councils, etc.) ; 
Charles Whittlesey's "Recollections," 1832, pp. 64-85 (Black Hawk War, 
and other matter about Indians). 

Volume ii James H. Lockwood's "Early Times in Wisconsin," (1812- 
1832, pp. 130-195 (Indian trade, character, customs, relations with whites, 
etc.) ; John Shaw's "Narrative," (1812-1816), pp. 204-229 (relations of In- 
dians with whites) ; Papers on Winnebago and Black Hawk Wars (1827- 
1832), pp. 329-414; "Advent of N.Y. Indians into Wisconsin" (1816-1838), 
pp. 415-449. 

Volume m J. G. Shea's "Indian Tribes in Wisconsin," pp. 125-138. 
Cass Mss. (documents from French archives, 1723-1727), pp. 139-177 (cus- 
toms of Indians, relations with French) ; Alfred Brunson's "Ancient Mounds 
in Crawford County," pp. 178-184 (followed by resume of Lapham's An- 
tiquities of Wisconsin) ; Augustin Grignon's "Recollections," 1745-1832, pp. 
197-295 (Langlade, Indian trade and traders, sketches of Indian chiefs, 
etc.) ; B. P. H. Witherell's "Reminiscences," pp. 297-337 (Tecumseh, War 
of 1812, etc.) ; R. F. Morse's "Chippewas of Lake Superior," pp. 338-369. 

Volume iv John Y. Smith's "Origin of the American Indians," pp. 117- 
152; Ebenezer Childs's "Recollections," pp. 156-185 (1820-1832; Indian 
trade, Black Hawk, etc.) ; Alfred Brunson's "Early History of Wisconsin, 
pp. 223-251 (Indian tribes, relations with whites) ; various papers relating 
to New York Indians, pp. 291-334. 

Volume V "Canadian Documents," 1690-1730 (obtained from French 
archives), pp. 64-122 (Fox War, etc.) ; Papers on the Winnebago War of 
1827 (Lewis Cass, T. L. McKenney, and others), pp. 123-158, 178-204; 
tV&, on the Black Hawk War, pp. 285-320; Notices of Chippewa chief Hole- 
in-the-Day, pp. 376-416. 

Volume vi Forsyth's journal of a voyage up the Mississippi, 1819, pp. 
188-219 (followed by a letter from him to Gen. William Clark) ; Moses 
Meeker's "Early History of the Lead Region," pp. 271-296. 

Volume vii J. D. Butler's "Prehistoric Wisconsin," pp. 80-101 ; Joseph 
Tasse's "Memoir of Charles de Langlade," pp. 123-187; J. T. de la Ronde's 
"Narrative," (1828-1842), pp. 346-365; Henry Merrell's "Narrative," 
(1835-1840), pp. 382-399- 

Volume viii Papers on implements and early mining of copper, pp. 140- 
173; "The Pictured Cave of La Crosse Valley," pp. 174-187; Documents 
relating to the French in the Northwest, 1737-1800, pp. 209-240; M. M. 
Strong's "Indian Wars in Wisconsin," pp. 241-286. 

Volume x E. Crespel's account of De Lignery's expedition, 1728, pp. 
47-53 ; French forts in Wisconsin (by E. D. Neill, L. C. Draper, and others), 
pp. 54-63, 292-372; Lawe and Grignon papers, 1794-1821, pp. 90-140; 
Papers of Thomas G. Anderson (British Indian agent), 1814-1821, pp. 142- 
149; Papers on the Black Hawk War, pp. 150-229. 

Volume xi "Western State Papers," (documents relating to French, 
English, and American domination), 1671-1787, pp. 26-63; Radisson's "Voy- 
ages" in Wisconsin, pp. 64-96; Papers from Canadian archives, 1778-1783, 
pp. 97-212 ; Documents (by Dickson, Forsyth, and others) relating to Wis- 
consin in War of 1812, pp. 247-355. 


Volume xn - Documents from Canadian archives, 1767-1814, pp. 23-132; 
Two papers on Indian trade, pp. 133-169; R. G. Thwaites's "Story of the 
Black Hawk War," pp. 217-265 ; Papers of Indian Agent Boyd, 1832, pp. 
266-298 ; Moses Paquette's account of Wisconsin Winnebagoes, pp. 399-433. 

Volume XIII Documents relating to British occupation of Prairie du 
Chien in War of 1812, pp. 1-162; Early mining and use of lead (O. G. 
Libby and R. G. Thwaites), pp. 271-374; History of Chequamegon Bay 
(R. G. Thwaites and Rev. C. Verwyst), pp. 397-440. 

Volume xiv - Elizabeth T. Baird's "Early Days on Mackinac Island," 
pp. 17-64; A. J. Turner's "History of Fort Winnebago," etc., pp. 65-117; 
Catholic missions to Indians, in nineteenth century, pp. 155-205. 

Volume xv "Some Wisconsin Indian Conveyances, 1793-1836," pp. 1-24; 
Mission to the Stockbridge Indians, 1825-1848, pp. 25-204. 

Volumes xvi-xvn Documents from the French archives, relating to the 
French regime in Wisconsin (1634-1748) ; many of these were hitherto 
unpublished, and they correct many errors and fill many gaps in north- 
western history of that period. 

Volume xvm Documents from the French, Canadian, and Spanish 
archives, relating to the domination of France (1743-1760) and England 
(1760-1800) in Wisconsin. Register of marriages in the parish of Michili- 
mackinac, 1725-1821. 

Volume xix Register of Mackinac baptisms, etc., 1695-1821, pp. 1-162; 
Journal of the fur-trader Malhiot, 1804-1805, pp. 163-233; The fur trade 
on the upper lakes, and in Wisconsin, 1778-1815, pp. 234-488 (from original 
sources in the Federal archives at Washington, the libraries of C. M. Burton 
and the Wis. Historical Society, etc.). 

meetings (Madison, 18 1910+). 

Notable papers in recent years: "Indian agriculture in Southern Wis- 
consin," B. H. Hibbard (1904) ; "Historic sites on Green Bay," A. C. 
Neville, and "Printed narratives of Wisconsin travelers prior to 1800," 
Henry E. Legler (1905) ; "The habitat of the Winnebago, 1632-1832," P. V. 
Lawson, and "The Mascoutin Village [in central Wisconsin]," John J. 
Wood and Rev. Arthur E. Jones, S.J. (1906) ; "The Fox Indians during the 
French regime," Louise P. Kellogg (1907) ; "The old West," Frederick J. 
Turner (1908); "Indian Diplomacy and the opening of the Revolution in 
the West," James Alton James, and "Bibliography of Carver's Travels" 
John T. Lee (1909) ; "The relation of archaeology and history," Carl R. 
Fish, and "A Menominee Indian payment in 1838," Gustave de Neveu 

WOOD, NORMAN B. Lives of famous Indian chiefs (Aurora, 111. 
[1906]). Illustrated. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES of nearly a score of renowned Indian chiefs, from 
Powhatan to Geronimo; also numerous anecdotes, stories, etc., designed to 
show the traits of the Indian character. The illustrations are unusually 
good chiefly portraits, most of them from pictures in Field and National 


YARROW, H. C. Introduction to the study of mortuary customs 
among the North American Indians (Washington, 1880). 
A Bulletin of Smithsonian Institution. 

A further contribution to the study of the mortuary customs 

of the North American Indians (Washington, 1881). 

In First Report of Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 87-203. 
YOUNG, EGERTON R., compiler. Algonquin Indian tales (New 
York, [1903]). Illustrated. 

Collected among the Ojibwa and other northern peoples, during some 
thirty years. A chief figure in them is the miraculous being Nanabozho. 

ZITKALA-SA. Old Indian legends retold (Boston, 1901). 

A delightful collection of Dakota stories told by an educated young 
woman of that people, and illustrated by Miss Angel de Cora, an artist be- 
longing to the Winneb.ago tribe. 



Doctor Paul Radin, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, has 
kindly revised the proofs for the second half of volume n and prepared 
the following additional matter. This courtesy was extended by 
Doctor Radin to the editor on account of the latter's serious illness 
and to avoid delay in publication. 

The index was prepared by Gertrude M. Robertson. 

Location of tribes 

Amikwa: on the north shore of Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin, 
Indiana till 1672; scattered to French settlements afterwards, 
some of them going to Green Bay. 

Chippewa: formerly along both shores of Lake Huron and Lake 
Superior across Minnesota to Turtle Mountains. In 1640, they 
were at the Sault. Since 1815 they have been settled in Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Villages - Cheboy- 
gan and Thunder Bay in lower Michigan, Pawating and Onton- 
agon in Wisconsin. 

Conestoga: an Iroquoian tribe on the Susquehanna River. 

Delaware: the entire basin of the Delaware River, in eastern Penn- 
sylvania and southeastern New York with most of Delaware and 
New Jersey. 

Fox: Lake Winnebago and Fox River, with numerous villages along 
the same. 

Huron : Lake Simcoe, south and east of Georgian Bay and afterwards 
along the St. Lawrence River. Villages - Andiata and Sandusky. 

Illinois: formerly in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois and 
sections of Iowa and Missouri, along western banks of the Mis- 
sissippi as far as the Des Moines River. 

Menominee: first at the Bay de Noque and Menominee River. In 
1671 to 1852 on or near the Menominee and Fox Rivers. Vil- 
lages St. Francis and St. Michael. 

Miami: in 1658 at St. Michael about the mouth of Green Bay. til- 
lages - Little Turtle and Piankaskaw. 

356 ADDENDA [Vol. 

Mascoutin: beyond and south of Lake Huron and subsequently on 

the Fox River. 

Mohawk: in the upper part of New York State. 
Montagnais: on the St. Maurice River and eastward almost to the 

Atlantic Ocean. 
Neutrals: north of Lake Erie. 
Nippising: on Lake Nippising and Lake Nipigon. 
Oneida: south of Lake Oneida. 
Onondaga: in Onondaga County, New York. 

Ottawa: on French River, Georgian Bay. Villages - Walpole Is- 
land and Michilimacinac. 
Peoria: on some river west of Mississippi and above the mouth of the 

Wisconsin River, probably upper Iowa River. 
Potawatomi: on the western shore of Lake Huron and south along 

the western shore of Lake Michigan. Villages - Milwaukee and 

Little Rock. 
Sauk: the eastern peninsula of Michigan and south of it. Village - 

De pere Rapids, Wisconsin. 

Shawnee: South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Ohio. 
Seneca: western New York between Lake Seneca and Genesee River. 
Santee Sioux: near Lake Buadelower, Minnesota. 
Teton Sioux: above the Falls of St. Anthony, Minnesota. 
Winnebago: Green Bay and along the shores of the Fox River and 

Lake Winnebago. Villages Red Banks and Doty Island. 
Yankton Sioux: north of Mille Lac, Minnesota. 

Addition to annotations 

Volume II, page 192, line 13, "parties:" Schoolcraft in Thirty 
years with the Indian tribes, 215-216, gives an eloquent description 
of a party of Fox warriors. He says: "But no tribe attracted so 
intense a degree of interest as the lowas and the Sacs and Foxes, 
tribes of radically diverse languages, yet united in a league against 
the Sioux. These tribes were encamped on the island or opposite 
coast. They came to the treaty ground armed and dressed as a war 
party. They were all armed with spears, clubs, guns, and knives. 
Many of the warriors had a long tuft of red horse hair tied to their 
elbows and bore a necklace of grizzly bears claws. Their head-dress 
consisted of red dyed horse-hair, tied in such a manner to the scalp- 
locks to present the shape of the decoration of a Roman helmet. The 
rest of the head was completely shaved and painted. A long iron- 
shod lance was carried in the hand. A species of baldric supported 

two] ADDENDA 357 

part of their arms. The azian, moccasin, and leggings constituted 
part of their arms. They were indeed nearly nude and painted. 
Often, the print of a hand in white clay, marked the back or should- 
ers. They bore flags of feathers. They beat drums. They ut- 
tered yells at definite points. They landed in compact ranks. They 
looked the very spirit of defiance. Their leader stood as a prince, 
majestic and frowning. The wild native pride of man, in the savage 
state, flushed by success in war and confident in the strength of his 
arm was never so fully depicted to my eyes. And the forest tribes 
of the continent may be challenged to have ever presented a spectacle 
of bold daring and martial prowess equal to their landing." 

Additions to bibliography 

Volume n, page 302, following line 15: 

An interesting discovery regarding Perrot's memoir has been made 
by Mr. Wilberforce Eames of Lenox Library, New York City. This 
is, that the book had two issues in the same year, pages 221 and 222 
being cancelled and cut out and replaced by another leaf which was 
pasted on the stub of the former. The changes in the two pages 
mentioned, were made in the second issue of the year. The differ- 
ences between the two issues are for the most part in minor details. 
In some cases, the second issue omits details mentioned in the first 
issue, and vice versa. All these details relate to the distribution of 
the Illinois tribes. 

Mr. Eames has courteously placed these facts and a transcript of 
the cancelled pages at the disposal of the editor. 

Also the following additions to the alphabetical arrangement of 
the bibliography, volume n, pages 330-339: 

LETTRES EDIFIANTES et curieuses ecrites des missions etrangeres; col- 
lected by C. le Gobien, J. B. du Halde, N. Marechal and L. Pa- 
touillet and first published in Paris, 1776. Rearranged and edited 
by Y.M.M.T. de Querbeuf (Paris, 1780-1788), 14 vols. 

Only vols. iv and v relate to America. 

LEWIS, J. O. The Aboriginal Portfolio (Philadelphia, 1835). 
RADIN, PAUL. Winnebago tales; printed in Journal of American 
Folklore -, 1909. 

Clan organization of the Winnebago; printed in American An- 
thropologist, 1910. 

The ritual and significance of the Winnebago medicine dance; 

printed in Journal of American Folklore, 1911. 


ABEL, ANNIE HELOISE: work cited, II, 


Abnaki [Abenaki, Abenaquis], (tribe) : 
I, 134, 185, footnote, 224, footnote, 
364, footnote, II, 54, 82, 259; ac- 
count, 54-55, footnote 
Acadia [Accadia, Cadie] : I, 47, foot- 
note, 197, 256, footnote, 348 
Adams, Charles F: work cited, II, 303 
Adams, Henry: work cited, II, 303 
Adams, John Quincy: Memoirs, II, 


Adario [Kondiaronk, Sastaretsi], (Ti- 
onontate chief) : leads expedition 
against Iroquois, I, 253, footnote', 
cause of French massacre, 253, foot- 
note', converted, 253, footnote 

Adoption: see Manners and customs', 

Adornment (personal) : see Manners 
and customs 

Africa: I, 27, footnote 

Agariata (an Iroquois) : I, 307 

Agniers: see Mohawk 

Agriculture: see Economic conditions'. 
industries, etc. 

Alaska: I, 38, footnote, 81, footnote, 
122, footnote', Kodiak, 171, footnote 

Algeria: government, I, 26 and foot- 

Algonkins [Algonquins] : I, 15, 26, 36, 
footnote, 65, footnote, 88, footnote, 
147, footnote, 281, footnote, 288, 
footnote, 371, footnote, II, 252; lo- 
cation, I, 43, 148, 149, 177; driven 
to Mackinaw, 4*3, footnote; name 
applied to tribe, 43, footnote; char- 
acteristics, 197; courtship and mar- 

riage, 67-74 hunters, 43 ; hunting 
expedition, 43-45; regard corn as 
treat, 102; esteem flesh of dogs, 53, 
footnote; government, 145, footnote; 
refuse to render justice, 46; wor- 
ship Great Panther, 59 ; belief re- 
garding souls, II, 208, footnote; 
compared to Dakotas, I, 161, foot- 
note; allies of French, 203; offer 
services to Courcelles, 199. Rela- 
tions with Iroquois neighbors, I, 
43 ; invite to winter with them, 43 ; 
hostile to, 306; attack, 151, 190-192; 
war against, 190-203; defeated by, 
192-193 ; unwilling to free, 201 

Alimibegon: I, 173 

Allegheny [Alleghany] Mts: I, 122, 
footnote, 336, footnote 

Allegheny River: I, 240, footnote, 336, 

Alliances: I, 309, 311, 317, II, 184, 189, 
201; renewed, 33; periodical re- 
newals, 190; significance of belts, 
185; aids allies, I, 356-357. Inter- 
race of English and various tribes, 
II, 188; Indians and French, 135, 
footnote, 254; desirable with French, 
I, 347, II, 42; benefits from, with 
French, I, 356-357; renewed be- 
tween French and Foxes, II, 62-64; 
Foxes oppose French, I, 185, foot- 
note; between French, Miami, and 
Mascoutens, 332; between French 
and Potawatomi, 316; of all na- 
tions to avenge massacre of Illinois, 
299-300. Intertribal desired, II, 
44, 92, 118; Miami wish to renew, 
99 ; Algonkins form, I, 197 ; Assin- 




iboin, 108, footnote] Chippewa, II, 
189, footnote, 190; Cree, I, 108, 
footnote', against Dakota, II, 64-65; 
with Dakota, I, 277; Foxes, II, 118; 
Foxes, Sauk, and other tribes, 145- 
184, 204-205, 232-233, 356; Hurons, 
92-106; Iowa, 145, 356; Iroquois, I, 
279-280, footnote, 342-343, II, 44, 
106; Kickapoo, 118, 145; Miami, 
99, 118; Missisaugi, I, 279-280, 
footnote', against Osage, II, 204- 
205; Ottawa, 44, 92, 106, 189, foot- 
note, 190; Potawatomi, 189, foot- 
note, 190; Wyandotts, 189, footnote. 
See Intertribal relations; Interracial 

Allouez [Alloiiet, Aloiiet], Claude 
Jean (Jesuit missionary) : I, 16, 48, 
footnote, 60, footnote, 129, footnote, 
132, footnote, 149, footnote, 156, 
footnote, 165, 182, footnote, 270, 
footnote, 301, footnote, 329, footnote, 
II, 252 ; Perrot confers with, I, 343 ; 
witnesses transfer of land to France, 
224; mistreated by Miami, II, 16; 
brief account, I, 224, footnote', work 
on, cited, II, 337, 348 

Allumettes Island [Le Borgne Island, 
Isle du Borgne]: I, 176, footnote, 

American Anthropologist: II, 305, 338, 

3*44, 345, 357 

American Antiquarian: II, 341 
American Antiquarian and Oriental 

Journal: II, 304 

American Antiquarian Society: II, 
321; Proceedings, 312; Transac- 
tions, 304 

American Archeologist: II, 304 
American Association for the advance- 
ment of science: Proceedings, II, 


American Baptist Home Missionary 
Society: II, 304 

American Bison Society: I, 123, foot- 

American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions: II, 304 

American Catholic Historical Re- 
searches: I, 323, footnote 

American Catholic Quarterly: II, 326 

American Ethnological Society of 
New York: II, 328 

American Folk-lore Society: Journal, 
II, 304, 357 

American Historical Association: 
Annual report, II, 303 ; Papers, 305 

American Law Review. II, 326 

American Missionary Association: II, 


American Nation: II, 345, 347 
American Naturalist: II, 36, footnote, 


American Review of Reviews: II, 338 
American State Papers: Indian af- 
fairs, II, 305 

Americans: I, 288, footnote, 301, foot- 
note] Shawnee prophet warns 
against, II, 274; Indians to avoid, 
277 ; destroy Tippecanoe, 279, foot- 

Amikwa [Amicouas, Amicoues, Ami- 
kouas, Amikouets, Amiquois], (Al- 
gonquian tribe) : I, 42, footnote, 
173, 179; location, II, 355; de- 
scribed, I, 63, footnote] sun-wor- 
shiper, 60, footnote] creation belief, 
62-63 > help gain victory over Iro- 
quois, 154, footnote] Perrot winters 
with, 221; attend council, 224; Mo- 
hawks reveal conspiracy, 254 
Amsterdam (Netherlands) : II, 301 
Amusements: love of, I, 93; Miami 
entertain Perrot, 345-346. Games 
II, 230-232; following funeral, 
I, 82; planned for guests, 296; ball 
games, intertribal, II, 269 ; bowl, 
272; cards, 230; crosse, I, 93-96; 
345 ; dice, 101-102 ; moccasin, II, 
230; platter, 230; straws, I, 96-101. 
Races I, 82, II, 230. Sham bat- 
tles -II, 194, 231-232. Story-tell- 
ing II, 222. See Dances 
Andastes: see Conestoga 
Anderson, Thomas G: papers, II, 350 
Andiata (Huron village) : II, 355 




Andre, Louis (Jesuit missionary) : I, 
150, footnote, 290, footnote ; quoted, 
102-103 ; witnesses transfer of land 
to France, 225, footnote 

Animals: game, see Game animals ; 
domestic, I, 282, footnote ; see Dog, 

Annals de la propagation de la foi, 
etc: cited, I, 155, footnote, 162, 
footnote, 226, footnote, II, 305; 
quoted, I, 209, footnote 

Aouenano (Iroquois) : II, 136 

Apache (group of Athapascan fam- 
ily) : II, 226, footnote, 282 

Apichagan [Miami chief] : II, 13 

Arapaho (tribe of Algonquian fam- 
ily) : I, 277, footnote, 327, II, 282 

Arctic Ocean: I, 171, footnote 

Arikara (tribe of Caddoan linguistic 
family) : I, 171, footnote, 277, foot- 

Arizona: I, 81, footnote, 323, foot- 
note, 363, footnote 

Arkansas: II, 146, footnote 

Arkansas [Akancas, Arkansa, Arkan- 
saw] River: I, 224, footnote, 277, 
footnote, 328, footnote, 348 and 
footnote, II, 184, 234 

Armstrong, Benj. G: work cited, II, 

Armstrong, Perry A: II, 306 

Arrows: origin, I, 38; in medicine 
pouch, 50, footnote', used as sacri- 
fice, 61, footnote-, given to boy, 78; 
see Weapons; Implements, etc. 

Askin, John: II, 310 

Assiniboia (Prov.) : I, 107, footnote 

Assiniboin [Assiniboiialas, Assini- 
boiiles, Assinipoualaks, Chiripin- 
ons], (Siouan tribe) : I, 278, foot- 
note, 371, footnote', account, 364; 
economic conditions, 103, 162, foot- 
note', ally with Cree, 108, footnote', 
Sioux wage war against, 170 

Assiniboin River: I, 364 and footnote 

Asuans: II, 202, footnote 

Ataentsic: first ancestor, I, 40, foot- 
note-, mother earth, II, 271 

Atchatchakangouen [Tchiduakouing- 
oues], (tribe) : II, 67 

Athapascan family: method of mak- 
ing fire, I, 38, footnote; mourning 
custom, 82, footnote; great travel- 
ers, II, 199, footnote 

Atlantic Ocean: I, 25, 103, footnote^ 
308, footnote, II, 183, 199, footnote, 

Attikamegue [Poissons Blancs], (Mon- 

taignais band) : Algonkins ask aid 

from, I, 197 
Aumanimek (chief of Amikwa) : I, 

Auraumut, Hendrick: work cited, II, 

Austria: II, 293, footnote; Vienna, 


Awe n< ha'i (mother earth) : II, 271, 272 
Ayer, Edward E: collection, II, 306 

BAIRD, ELIZABETH: work cited, II, 351 
Bald Eagle: name of Sauk clan, II, 


Bald [Pelee] Island: I, 163 and foot- 
Bancroft, George: History of the U.S., 

I, 156, footnote, 267, footnote 
Baraga, Frederic (bishop) : II, 293 

and footnote; work on, cited, 347 
Barber, Edwin A: work cited, II, 306 
Bark: uses, I, 80, footnote 
Barre, M. de la: I, 148 and footnote, 
240; sent to replace Frontenac, 231; 
consents to war with Iroquois, 231- 
232; gives Perrot trade-permit, 233; 
letters from, 242 ; recalled, 243 
Barrows, William: work cited, II, 306 
Bay de Noque: I, 291, footnote, II, 355 
Bay of the Puants: see Green Bay 
Beach, W. W: work cited, II, 307, 335 
Beads \rassade~\\ Perrot gives, I, 331; 
manufacture, 331, footnote, II, 185, 
footnote; uses, I, 331, footnote, 
brought from Europe, II, 185, foot- 
note; see Wampum 
Bear: I, 102, 113 and footnote, 114, 
283, 304, 317, II, 168, 171, footnote, 




220, 234; tribal name, I, 319, 320, 
II, 163; name of Fox clan, 192; of 
Sauk clan, 191 and footnote; origin 
of man, I, 37; honors paid, 132, 
footnote; represented by totems, II, 
259; used as sacrifice, I, 61, foot- 
note; Indians pray to, 49; January, 
February, July named for, II, 116; 
mode of hunting, I, 126-131; meat 
served at feast, 53; rutting season, 
127 ; produces stripes on chipmunk's 
back, II, 265; comparison, 40 

Bear-Potato: name of Sauk clan, II, 
191 and footnote 

Beauchamp, W. M: work cited, II, 


Beaver: I, 102, no, 113, 114, 168, 182, 
203, 278, 280, 283, 304, 310, 317, 
322, 365, 369-370, 372> II, 92, 234; 
abundant, I, 173, II, 33; scarce, I, 
337; method of hunting or trap- 
ping, I, 104-106; in creation myth, 
32-35; insignia of family, 347; robes 
as gift, 346 

Beckwith, Hiram W: work cited, II, 


Beckwith, Paul E: quoted, II, 180-181, 

Begon, Claude Michel: I, 28, footnote, 
29; Perrot composes Memoirs for, 
262, footnote 

Belgium: Bruxelles, I, 30, footnote 

Beliefs and superstitions: in general- 
ly 31-66; bad omen for war, 237- 
238 ; affected by omens, 237-238, II, 
226, footnote; regarding buffalo, 
I, 123, footnote; regarding calumet, 
185, 186; regarding education, II, 
155; concerning epidemic, I, 354; 
regarding hunting, 129; invocation 
of spirits, 54-55 ; regarding puberty 
of boys, II, 172, footnote; of girls, 
172, footnote; tattooing, I, 325; foot- 
note; worship of Great Panther, 59; 
belief in Nanabozho, 283, 283-287, 
footnote. Creation II, 220; of 
man, I, 37-40, 62-63, II, 174; of 

woman, I, 39-40, II, 174; of world, 
I, 31-36. Death and immortality 
death, II, 170, footnote, 173, 174- 
*75, 293; ghosts, 223; immortality, 
I, 89-92, 295 ; soul, II, 208-209, 2 8 
footnote, 266; afterworld, 208, foot- 
note; country of dead visited by 
mortals, I, 92. Dreams I, 47, foot- 
note, 49, 51, footnote, 299, 328, foot- 
note, 332, 356, II, 194-195, 210, 226, 
footnote, 237, footnote, 260, 274; in 
general, I, 51, footnote; importance 
and significance, 51-52 and footnote; 
to obtain favorable, 69, footnote; 
to induce, at puberty, 52, footnote; 
of supernatural origin, 51, footnote; 
before war, II, 158, 161. Elements 
eclipse of moon, II, 121, 221 ; flood, 

I, 40, footnote; storm, 361; weather 
signs, 60 and footnote, II, 221 ; win- 
ter journeys, I, 61. Witchcraft 

II, 268, 273, footnote; in wizards 
and witches, 225 ; in magic power, 
264-269 ; external magic influences, 
II, 266. See Religion 

Bell, Andrew: II, 322 
Bellacoola (Salish tribe) : II, 270 
Bellinzani, M: Perrot receives permit 

through, I, 228, footnote, 229 
Beschefer, (Jesuit father) : I, 154, 

footnote; quoted, 48, footnote 
Bescherelle, : I, 308, footnote 
Biard's Relation: I, 66, footnote, 83, 
footnote, 89, footnote; quoted, 54, 

Biggs, W: work cited, II, 307 
Big Rock Creek (111.) : II, 344 
Biloxi (Siouan tribe) : I, 277, footnote, 

278, footnote 

Birds: I, 113, II, 220; depicted on 
skins, I, 53, footnote; as sacrifice, 
61, footnote; as game, 78, 89; crane, 
II, n6; eagle, I, 61, footnote; geese, 
II, 116; magpie, I, 51; paroquet 
[perroquets], 51 and footnote; swan, 

Bison: II, 171, footnote; History, 304 




Black Bass: name of Sauk clan, II, 191, 
footnote', name of Fox clan, 192 

Blackbird, Andrew J: work cited, II, 

Black Carp (family) : I, 319 

Blackfeet [Siksika], (Siouan tribe): 
I, 277, footnote, II, 258-259 ; blanket, 
standard of value, 149, footnote', 
hostile relations, I, 108, footnote 

Black Hawk [Muc-it-tay Mish-she- 
ka-kake, Ma'katawimesheka'kaa], 
(subordinate chief of Sauk and Fox 
Indians) : I, 301, footnote, II, 142, 
footnote, 193, footnote, 211, 303, 
304, 307; account, 211, footnote', de- 
livered up to U.S., I, 292, footnote; 
work on cited, II, 307 

Black Hawk War: II, 142, footnote, 
191, footnote, 211, footnote, 245, 303, 
3i8, 334, 344, 350, 35i; causes, I, 
292, footnote, II, 18 1, footnote, 211, 
footnote, 294, footnote 

Black River: I, 165 and footnote, 171, 
footnote, 172, 268 and footnote 

Blair, E. H: II, 202, footnote, 328 

Blanchard, Rufus: work cited, II, 307 

Blandin, Miss [Mrs. Graham] : II, 

Blanket: I, 70, 78, 315, 334, II, 173, 
176, 221, 285; Indians cling to, 294; 
mode of manufacture, 149, footnote; 
uses, 149, footnote; as sacrifice, I, 
61, footnote; as wager, 97 

Blondeau, Maurice: II, 153, footnote, 
154, 198, footnote 

Blondeau, Nicholas: II, 153, footnote 

Bloomfield, Julia K: work cited, II, 

Blue Chief (celebrated Sauk) : II, 184 

Boas, Franz [Francis, Frank] : quoted, 
I, 54-55, footnote, II, 208, footnote, 

Bobe, Father: commends La Potherie's 
Ms., II, 134 

Boisguillot, : I, 244, footnote 

Bow and arrows: see Implements; 

Boyd, George: work cited, II, 308, 351 
Brackenridge, H. M: Journal, II, 346 
Bradbury, John: Travels, II, 346 
Brebeuf, : I, 81, footnote 
Brinton, Daniel G: II, 152, footnote; 

work cited, 170, footnote, 308 
British: II, 50, 59, 254, and in foot- 
notes on the following pages, I, 205, 
226, 261, 273, 288, II, 54, 136, 240, 
241 ; Indian names for, II, 240-241, 
footnote; colonies, I, 25; regarded 
as friends, 352, II, 277; head of 
confederacy, 188; bribe with gifts, 

I, 267; try to win savages, 250-251, 
250, footnote; intrigues, II, 135, 
footnote; secret connections, 79; 
gaining ascendancy, I, 261 ; dealings 
desirable, 259, footnote; desire peace, 

II, 42; defeated, 81, 82; cause trou- 
ble between French and Indians, I, 
261, footnote; French try to prevent, 
from intruding, 256, footnote; In- 
dians oppose, 156, footnote; con- 
quest of Canada, 257, footnote; 
trade, 259, footnote, 261 and foot- 
note, II, 22, 80, 81, 85, 95; trading- 
post, I, 246, footnote; sell Indians, 
267 and footnote; arrested, 250; 
Cree friendly, 108, footnote; Hu- 
rons join, II, 22; relations with Iro- 
quois, I, 267, II, 35, 95-96; rela- 
tions with Ottawa, I, 267, II, 90, 
106 ; with Potawatomi, I, 302 ; foot- 
note; with Tecumseh, II, 279 and 

British Columbia: I, 122, footnote, 324, 
footnote, II, 265, 270 

British Folk-lore Society: I, 294, foot- 

Brochet (chief) : II, 81 

Brookes, Samuel M: II, 157, footnote 

Brower, J. V: work cited, II, 308, 334 

Brown, Adam (captive) : II, 189, foot- 

Brown, Charles E: I, 21, II, 152, foot- 

Brule [Bois-Brules] : I, 109, footnote 




Brunet, Ovide: I, 116, footnote, 117, 

footnote, 1 1 8, footnote 
Brunson, Rev. Alfred: work cited, II, 

308, 350 

Buck, Daniel: work cited, II, 308 
Buffalo: I, 109, 113, 114, 154, 159, 249, 
278, footnote, 322 and footnote, 366- 
367, footnote, II, 64, 68, 165, 168, 
185, footnote, 191, footnote, 220, 234, 
261, 287; rutting season, I, 119; 
mode of hunting, 120-126 ; used as 
sacrifice, 61, footnote] economic uses, 
123, footnote', census of American, 
123, footnote 

Buffalo Society: II, 224, footnote 
Bureau of American Ethnology: I, 18, 
II, 316; Annual reports, 308-309, 
315, 317, 320, 323, 324, 332, 335, 338, 
340, 342, 345, 352; Bulletins, II, 309, 
31^, 3^3 
Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions: 

Reports, II, 309; Annals, 309 
Bureau of Indian Affairs: II, 341 
Burgundy [Bourgogne], Duke of: II, 


Burial and mourning customs: treat- 
ment of sick as death approaches, 
I 78-79; mode of burial, 80-81, 81, 
footnote, II, 172-173, 292; crema- 
tion, 170, footnote', interment cere- 
mony, 206, 209 ; mourning, in gener- 
al, I, 83-84; for brother, 79-80; for 
chief, 84; for relative, II, 173, 285; 
for son, I, 79 ; of widows, 70-72, II, 
173, 208; of widower, I, 73-74; sac- 
rifices for dead, 62, footnote', grave 
described, II, 206; articles placed 
near, 209; findings in graves, 199, 
footnote ; marking, 212 ; property of 
deceased, 206-207; games following 
burial, I, 82; feast of dead, 83 ; cus- 
toms among Sioux, II, 285; among 
Potawatomi, 292; see Gifts: of con- 

Burton, C. M: work cited, II, 309 

Burton, Frederick R: work cited, II, 

Bushnell, D. I : work cited, II, 306 

Butler, J. D: work cited, II, 350 

169, footnote 

Cache [storing of supplies] : I, 104, 
and footnote 

Caddoan family: I, 125, footnote 

Cadillac, La Mothe (founder of De- 
troit) : I, 351, footnote, II, 119, foot- 
note, 310; quoted, I, 349, II, 51, foot- 

Cahokia [Cahokians, Kaokia], (tribe 
of Illinois confederacy) : I, 155, foot- 
note, 295, footnote, II, 200 

Calhoun, John C: II, 140, 327, 336 

California: II, 170, footnote, 227, foot- 

Calkins, Franklin W: II, 284; article, 
286-287; work cited, 310 

Callieres, M. de: I, 148, footnote, 
II, 136, 254; quoted, I, 269, footnote 

Calumet: I, 139, 345, 350, II, 31, 76, 
96; described, I, 182, footnote', uses, 
185, footnote', significance, 185-186; 
of peace, II, 34; war, 101 ; favorite 
material for making, 96 ; depicted 
on skins, I, 53, footnote', song (illus- 
tration}, 183; sung to Sinagos, 182; 
honors of, conferred on Perrot, I, 27, 
325-330, by lowas, 368, 369; by Me- 
nominee, 311, 313; by Potawatomi, 
309; Perrot offers, II, 34; to Foxes, 

I, 359; for Miami, II, 98, 99; Per- 
rot wins purpose by means of, 72 ; 
Perrot lights, 77 ; Dakota with, shot, 
131; Hurons carry to Iroquois, 106; 
Miami offers to French, 126; to Da- 
kota, 114; Ottawa present to Chip- 
pewa, 91 ; presented to Ottawa, 78 ; 
Sauk offers to Dakota, 114; presents 
Perrot's to Dakota, 114; worshiped 
by Sioux, I, 161, footnote 

Campbell, Henry C: I, 172, footnote', 

work cited, II, 310, 337 
Canada: I, 28, 29, 207, 228, 306, 308, 

II, 42, 45, 50, 69, 80, 136, 188, 215, 
240, 301, and in footnotes on the 
following pages, I, 31, 39, 74, 76, 83, 




93, 107, no, 114, 171, 174, 198, 205, 

217, 222, 224, 243, 253, 257, 262, 269, 
273, 275, 277, 28l, 282, 303, 308, 316, 

324, 331, 35i 364, II, 28, 42, 55, in, 
135, 189, 199, 252, 273, 330; early 
settlements, I, 148 ; French coloniza- 
tion, 25; buffalo in, 123, footnote ; 
early conditions, 228, footnote; fur 
trade, 27 and footnote ; slavery, 190, 
footnote ; see Montreal; Quebec, etc. 

Canadians: I, 117, footnote, 203; vio- 
late trade laws, 230 

Canfield, W. W: work cited, II, 310 

Cannibalism: I, 189, 225, 349, II, 48, 
footnote, 101, 202 and footnote ; prac- 
ticed occasionally, I, 169, footnote ; 
by various tribes, 371, footnote ; 
cause, 371, footnote ; compelled by 
hunger, 103 ; to inspire courage, 143, 
footnote, II, 226 ; among Foxes, 225 ; 
among Ottawa, I, 188; among 
Pauns, 293 ; among Sauk, II, 225 ; 
Seneca slow to suppress, I, 240, foot- 
note; Sioux do not indulge in, 169; 
among Winnebago, 296 

Canoes: described, I, 171, footnote, 228, 
footnote; Iroquois steal, 175 

Cape Diggs [Digue] : I, 307, 308, foot- 

Cape Massacre: I, 175 

Capital punishment: see Punishment 

Cap Rouge: I, 192 

Captives: in general taken, I, 200; 
desert liberator, 187; satisfaction de- 
manded for retention, 354; religious 
duty to eat, 371, footnote; Jesuits 
aid, II, 36-37; Foxes, I, 227; take, 
II, 28 ; deliver to French, 29 ; French 
make example of Iroquois chief, 93- 
94; Huron, I, 168, 187, 193; spare 
Iroquois, II, 92; mutual agreement 
between Huron and Iroquois, 92-93 ; 
Iroquois take many, 43 ; Louvigni 
takes Iroquois, 45 ; Adario takes Iro- 
quois, I, 253, footnote; Iroquois, II, 
134; Ottawa secure, 36; Sauk, no; 
Skidi, 85. Adoption II, 48, foot- 
note, 49, footnote, 162, 196, 197; of 

bands, 49, footnote; Iroquois gain 
strength by, I, 227 ; to replenish gen- 
tes, II, 37-38, footnote; of Adam 
Brown, II, 189, footnote. Freed 

I, 187-188, 193, 201, 253, footnote, 

II, 54, 78, 253; redeemed, 90, 104; 
redemption encouraged by Jesuits, 
38, footnote; ransomed, 49, footnote , 
109; granted life, 40; French try 
to release, 104; Perrot returns, 113; 
restored to Chippewa, 30; Hurons 
spare Iroquois slave, 47-49 ; Iroquois 
spare, 14; Shawnee, I, 336; Sioux 
liberate, 163. Treatment I, 300, 
II, 37, 47-48, footnote, 196-197; kind, 
I, 182; among Huma, 169, footnote; 
among Illinois, 169, footnote; of Mi- 
ami woman, II, 58 ; among Natchez, 
I, 169, footnote; among Ottawa, II, 
39; of Sauk by Hurons, in; among 
Sioux, I, 170. Torture I, 142-143, 
footnote, II, 37, footnote, 38, foot- 
note, 48, footnote; of Father Lalle- 
mand, I, 177; of Hurons, 158; of 
Iroquois chief, II, 93-94; among 
Sioux, I, 169; Tecumseh persuades 
tribe to discontinue, II, 279, foot- 
note. Condemned I, 170, 193, 198, 
253, footnote, 343; II, 39, 40, 162; 
Iroquois, 49; Shawnee, I, 336; Sin- 
agos, 190. Individuals Adam 
Brown, II, 189, footnote; Abbie 
Gardner, 342 ; Charles le Moyne, 
I, 197-198; M. de Noirolle, 200; 
John Tanner, II, 37, footnote, 344 

Cap Tourmente (on St. Laurence 

Riv.) : I, 25 
Caribou: I, 102, 109, no, footnote; 

hunting, 106-107; form yards, 44, 


Carp: March named for, II, 116 
Carr, Lucien: work cited, II, 310-311 
Cartier, Jacques: I, 26, 89, footnote 
Carver, Jonathan: II, 116, footnote; 

work cited, 311; work on, cited, 337 
Casey, M. P: work cited, II, 311 
Cass, Lewis: II, 325, 331; work cited, 





Catawba (Siouan tribe) : I, 277, foot- 
note, 335, footnote 

Catholics: II, in, footnote', compar- 
ison to novice, I, 134; Dakotas 
enemies of, 161, footnote', among 
Iroquois, 240, footnote; ecclesiastics 
induce war on Iroquois, 231; mon- 
stance presented by Perrot to mis- 
sion, II, 57, footnote ; native ordain- 
ed priest, 294; missionary society, 
305 ; work on missions, cited, 342 ; 
St. Anne's Parish Church, 334; gov- 
ernors permit trade in brandy, I, 
209 ; two Christian villages estab- 
lished, 157, footnote. Converts I, 
364, footnote; number, 165, footnote; 
faithful, II, 293 ; do not join dances, 
292; Adario converted, I, 253, foot- 
note; Huron converts, 257, footnote; 
Illinois converted, 156, footnote; 
Montaignais converted, 131-132, 
footnote; Nepissing readily convert- 
ed, I, 339, footnote. See Jesuits; 
Jesuit Relations; Recollects; the va- 
rious missionaries by name 

Catholic Presbyterian'. II, 326 

Catholic World: II, 311, 326 

Catlin, George: II, 96, footnote; work 
cited, 311; paintings, 312 

Catlinite (red stone used for making 
the calumet) : II, 96, footnote, 199, 

Caton, J. D: Antelope and deer of 
America, I, 44, footnote, no, foot- 
note, II, 312 

Caughnawaga: I, 241, footnote 

Cayuga [Goyogouans, Goyogouins], 
(tribe of Iroquoian confederacy) : I, 
47, footnote, 199, 350, footnote 

Central America: I, 51, footnote, 305, 
footnote, 323, footnote, II, 116, foot- 

Chagouamigon [Mamekagan]: I, 269 
and footnote 

Chakekenapok (Potawatomi mythical 
being) : I, 284-285, footnote, II, 272 

Chamberlain, A. F: I, 275, footnote; 

quoted, II, 241, footnote; work cit- 
ed, 304, 305, 312 
Champigny, M. de: II, 253 
Champlain, Samuel de (founder of 
Quebec) : I, 26, in footnotes on the 
following pages, 31, 40, 42, 51, 74, 
76, 83, 88, 89, 200, 302, 364; quoted, 
47, footnote 
Chaoiianonk: I, 227 
Chaoiianons: see Shaivnees 
Characteristics, Indian: in general, I, 
144 and footnote, 272, 291, II, 67, 
135, footnote, 284-286, 288-297; 
fickleness, 255; fortitude, 209; not 
dependable, I, 260; insubordinate, 
260-261; moral traits, 132-145; 
physical, II, 236, 237, footnote. 
Mental II, 262-264; traits, 262; 
power of recollection, 227 ; time, 
220 ; surprise at writing, 221 ; arith- 
metic, 220; incapable of chronologi- 
cal calculations, I, 40, footnote; 
knowledge slight, II, 222 ; of camps, 
228. See Manners and customs; 
Burial and mourning customs; also 
names of principal tribes 
Charlevoix, Pierre Frangois Xavier 
de (Jesuit missionary and his- 
torian) : I, 17, 29, and footnote, II, 
249, 250, 252, 256, 302, 311, and in 
footnotes on the following pages, I, 
31, 36, 40, 48, 63, 66, 74, 76, 83, 89, 
92, 95, 99, 101, 107, 124, 127, 153, 
155, 163, 164, 168, 176, 208, 223, 
233, 237, 242, 246, 257, 258, 262, 282, 
II, 66; work cited, 312 
Chase, Levi B: work cited, II, 312 
Chasy, M. de (nephew of M. de 
Tracy) : I, 200 ; M. de Tracy 
grieves at death, 202 
Chauvignerie, : II, 120, footnote 
Cheboygan (Chippewa village) : 11,355 
Chequamegon [Chagouamigon, Cha- 
gouamikon]: I, 224, footnote, 165, 
footnote, 1 66, 168, footnote, 170, 173, 
181, 187, 190, footnote, 191, footnote, 
307, 37 




Chequamegon Bay: I, 257, footnote, 
293, footnote, 302, footnote 

Cherokee (detached tribe of Iroquian 
family) : I, 118, footnote, 331, foot- 
note, II, 152, footnote, II, 201, 211, 
footnote; relations with Shawnee, I, 
335, footnote 

Chesapeake Bay: I, 174, footnote 

Chesneau, M. du: I, 230; opposes 
M. de Frontenac, 231; recalled to 
France, 231 

Chestnuts: I, 116 and footnote, 117 

Chevalet (instrument of torture) : I, 
218, footnote 

Cheveux-Releves [Ondataouaouat], 
(tribe) : I, 37, footnote 

Cheyenne (tribe of Algonquian fam- 
ily) : I, 185, footnote, 277, footnote, 
327, II, 224, footnote, 257, 282 

Chicago (Illinois chief) : I, 349, foot- 

Chicago [Chekagou, Chicagou, Chi- 
gagon, Chikagon], (111.) : I, 316, 
footnote, 365, 370, II, 13, 16, 58, 64, 
84, 104, 121, 127, 128, 177, 200, 244, 
footnote, 281, 302, 304, 306, 307, 323, 

Chicago Historical Society: II, 340; 

Collections, 312 
Chicago Record Herald: quoted, I, 

123, footnote, 200, footnote 
Chicago [Chigagon] River: I, 349, 


Chichikatalo (Miami): II, 136 

Chickasaw [Chickashaws], (Muskho- 
gean tribe) : I, 336, footnote, II, 201 

Children: naming, I, 76-77, II, 167- 
168, 210; puberty, II, 171, footnote, 
172, footnote, 237, footnote, 267; 
training, I, 78, II, 164-165, 212; 
adoption, 213, 293; orphans, 213- 
214; illegitimate uncommon, 216; 
announce arrival of hunters, I, 131; 
excused from mourning, 84; protect- 
ed on march, I, 125 ; Iroquois spare, 

Childs, Ebenezer: work cited, II, 350 

Chile: II, 152, footnote 

China: II, 218 

Chingouabe (chief of Sauteurs) : I, 
269 and footnote 

Chingouessi (Ottawa) : II, 136 

Chipiapoos (Potawatomi mythical be- 
ing) : I, 284-287, footnote 

Chipmunk: bear produces stripes, II, 

Chippewa [Chipeways, Chippewais, 
Odgiboweke, Odjibewais, Ojibwa, 
Otjibwek, Pahouitingonach, Saul- 
teurs, Sauteurs] : I, 109 and footnote, 
157, 159, 179, 260, 269, 271, 304, 354, 
355, II, 28, 30, 32, 54, 96, 113, 128, 
129, 131, 154, 184, 188, 190, 201, 203, 
204, 205, 219, 259, 287, and in foot- 
notes on the following pages, I, 48, 
104, 108, 114, 1 1 6, 185, 244, 277, 279, 
281, 288, 291, 294, 301, 302, 325, 371, 
II, 17, 69, 116, 156, 189, 197, 224, 
226, 227, 228, 241, 278 ; deriviation of 
name, I, 109, footnote', characteris- 
tics, 280; burial customs, 81, foot- 
note; mourning customs, 82, foot- 
note; purchase of wife, II, 167; at 
Chequamegon, I, 173 ; Sauk and 
Foxes descend from, II, 183. Eco- 
nomic conditions location, I, 153, 
footnote, II, 355; industries and oc- 
cupations, I, 109, 275-276; property 
rights, II, 207, footnote; receive an- 
nuity, 181, footnote. Wars -man- 
ner of raising war party, II, 161- 
162; chief advises against alliance 
with English, I, 352; abandon enter- 
prise, 211 ; tomahawk sent to, 233; 
reported destroyed, 357; chief's 
daughter held as slave, 358; kill 
French, 259 ; trouble with Foxes, II, 
27; against Foxes and Mascoutens, 
112; Miami plan attack, 120. Re- 
lations with Iroquois defeat Iro- 
quois, I, 153, 154, footnote, 180-181, 
280-281; capture Iroquois, 335; 
wish to discontinue war, II, 90-91; 
receive gifts, 90, 91 




Chiripinons: see Assiniboin 

Chittenden, H. M: American fur 
trade, II, 151, footnote 

Chiwere (Siouan group) : I, 277, foot- 
note, 278, footnote, 367, footnote 

Choctaw [Chactaw], (tribe of Musk- 
hogean stock) : I, 185, footnote, 323, 
footnote, II, 1 66, footnote, 201 

Chouteau, Auguste: work cited, II, 

Christian Journal: II, 313 

Christians: wrong attitude toward In- 
dians, I, 19 

Cincinnati Zoological Gardens: I, 305, 

Civilization: progress, I, 19; to in- 
crease, II, 179-180; more rapid 
among Christianized, 294 

Civil War: II, 310 

Clans: see Gentes 

Clapin, : I, 102, footnote 

Clark, George Rogers: Letters, journal, 
etc., II, 313 ; work on, cited, 337 

Clark, W. P: work cited, II, 313 

Clark, Gen. Wm. (U.S. supt. of Indian 
affairs) : I, 14, II, 137, 146 and foot- 
note, 211, footnote, 240, 245, 278, 
footnote, II, 303, 320, 335, 350; ig- 
norant of council fire, 189, footnote', 
Papers, 313 

Clarke, Peter Dooyentate: II, 189, 
footnote', work cited, 313 

Coates, Dr. B. H: II, 306 

Cockburn Island: I, 282, footnote 

Coiracoentanon [Kouivakouintanouas], 
(tribe) : I, 155, footnote 

Colbert, M. de: I, 228, footnote, 229 

Colden, Cadwallader: II, 302; History 
of the five Indian nations, etc., 313 

Coleson, A: work cited, II, 314 

Colton, C: work cited, II, 314 

Columbia County (Wis.) : I, 323, foot- 

Columbia River: I, 174, footnote, II, 
48, footnote, 273 

Comanche (tribe of Shoshonean 
group) : I, 277, footnote, II, 282 

Commerce and trade: see ECONOMIC 

Company of the West Indies: I, 230, 

Comstock, C. B: I, 150, footnote 

Conestogo [Andastes], (Iroquian 
tribe) : I, 336, footnote; location, II, 
355; Iroquois wage war with, I, 

Congres International des American- 
istes: work cited, II, 314 

Connecticut: I, 267, footnote; New 
Haven, II, 140, footnote, 182 

Conspiracy: against coureurs de bois, 
I, 258, footnote, 259 ; against French, 
351-352, II, 17-18, 54, 65; among 
Foxes, Mascoutens, and Kickapoos, 
I, 245-249 ; of Hurons, 257 and foot- 
note; of Ottawa, II, 44-53, 54, 60, 
61 ; against Ottawas, I, 252-254; be- 
tween Ottawas and Hurons, 164; 
against Perrot, II, 103 ; of Miami, 
I> 2 57, footnote; Miami woman dis- 
closes, 257, footnote; to attack Mi- 
ami, II, 54; Jesuits prevent, I, 254 

Contemporary Review: II, 343 

Copway, George: II, 328; work cited, 


Cora, Angelde: II, 352 
Corlaer [Corlar, Corlard, Corlart], 
Arendt van: I, 200; use of name, 
200, footnote 

Cornplanter (Seneca chief): II, 310 
Coronado, : II, 152, footnote 
Coteau des Prairies: II, 96, footnote 
Coues, Elliott: work cited, II, 315 
Councils: II, 179, 186, 187, 226, 237, 
2 38, 257, 258; tribal, 259; of all 
tribes, 136; league, 259; called by 
Jesuits, 49-50; to deliberate on cap- 
tives, 78; peace, 41, 44; ends war, 
184; Cree attend, I, 224; of Ottawa, 
Sauk, Potawatomi, II, 122; regard- 
ing Iroquois captive, II, 49 ; at Sault 
Ste. Marie, I, 222-225 
Council fires: II, 145 ; origin, 188 ; loca- 
tion secret, 233; members, 188 ; ne- 




cessity of attending, 190; belt, 188; 
Seneca, I, 240, footnote; of Dakota, 
II, 258 ; at Brownstown, 233 

Coureurs de bois: I, 13, 15, 25, 259, 
footnote; meaning of name, 25, foot- 
note; account, 228-229, footnote; 
Perrot, 26; conspiracy against, 258, 
footnote, 259; profits, 228, footnote; 
greed, 264, footnote; to maintain 
peace, 244, footnote; trouble with 
La Salle's men, 243, footnote; illegal 
traffic, 27, footnote; trade in brandy, 
208, footnote; see Perrot, Nicolas; 
Economic Conditions: trade 

Courcelles, M. de (gov.-gen.) : I, 
147 and footnote, 198, 210, 307, II, 
252; marches against enemies, I, 
199; plans fort, 226-227; negotiates 
peace between Iroquois and Ottawa, 

Coursel, M : I, 341 

Courtemanche, M. de: I, 256, foot- 
note, 269, footnote, II, 254; Journal, 
I, 259, footnote 

Courtship: I, 65, footnote, II, 214; 
among Algonkins, I, 67-68; among 
Sauk and Foxes, II, 165 

Cows: II, 179 

Cradle: I, 77 

Crane: I, 114; origin of man, 37; 
April named for, II, 116 

Cree [Kilistinons, Kiristinons, Kristi- 
naux], (Algonquian tribe) : I, 47, 
footnote, 107-108, footnote, 233, foot- 
note, 281, footnote, 364, footnote, 
371, footnote, II, 33, 241, footnote, 
257; sun-worshipers, I, 60, footnote; 
mission to, 224, footnote ; method of 
hunting moose, 107-108 ; attend 
council, 224; abandon enterprise, 
211 ; believe Nipissing, 340-341; 
friendly relations with Assiniboin, 
108, footnote; Sioux war against, 

Creeks (tribe of Muskhogean family) : 
I, 65, footnote; II, 291 

Cremation: I, 81, footnote 

Crespel, E: work cited, II, 350 
Creuse River: I, 176, footnote, 177, 203 
Crimes: avoided, II, 280; confession, 
292; investigation, I, 205-206; il- 
legal traffic, 27, footnote. Adul- 
tery II, 214; permitted, I, 144; 
concubinage, II, 197; punished, I, 
65, footnote, II, 167; caused by in- 
temperance, I, 208, footnote; by 
coureurs de bois, 229, footnote. 
Stealing -I, 138-139, 204-208, II, 33, 
187; unknown, II, 286; plot, 65; 
causes trouble in Montreal, I, 214; 
from French, II, 119-120. Murder 

I, 137, 139, 144, 145, footnote, 146, 
*57> 270, 271, 354, II, 209; atone- 
ment, 186-187; uncommon, 286; 
caused by intemperance, I, 209, 
footnote; for plunder, 204-206, 207- 
210; of Algonkins by Iroquois, 46; 
of French, 307, II, 26, 58; of Iro- 
quois by Algonkins, I, 45 ; by French, 
204-206, 207-210; of Pontiac, 296, 
footnote; Seneca slow to abolish, I, 
240, footnote; of Sioux by Hurons, 
163. See Punishment; Vices 

Croghan, George : Letters, etc., II, 346 
Crow (Siouan tribe) : I, 278, footnote 
Culin, Stewart: II, 309, 315 
Culture Hero: II, 208, footnote 
Cumberland River: I, 336, footnote 
Cumberland Valley: I, 336, footnote 
Curlew: I, 114 and footnote 
Curtis, Edward S: work cited, II, 315 
Curtis, Natalie: work cited, II, 315 
Curtis, Wm. E: I, 123, footnote 
Gushing, Frank H: I, 325, footnote 
Cusick, David (Tuscarora Indian): 

II, 307 

Cutler, Jervis: work cited, II, 315 

DABEAU, - (Frenchman): kills and 
captures Iroquois, II, 92 

Dablon, Claude (Jesuit missionary) : 
I, 16, 223, footnote, 304, footnote, 
367, footnote, II, 252; signs paper, 
I, 224 ; brief account, 224, footnote 




Dakota [Nadouaichs, Nadouaissioux, 
Nadouechiouek, Nadoiiessis, Nadou- 
essioux, Poualaks, Scioux, Sioux], 
(largest division of Siouan family) : 

I, 1 8, 27, 159-160, 269, 292-293, 327, 
344, 356, 358, 365, 37, 372, II, 27, 
54, 55, 61, 64, 73, 74, 109, 113, 126, 
184, 201, 205, 247, 284, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 66, 104, 
124, 144, 155, 244, 269, 278, 292, 296, 
302, 306, 364, 371, II, 17, 76, 77, 96, 

116, 191, 193, 216, 226, 228, 229; 
location, I, 160, footnote, 277, foot- 
note, 278, footnote', personal ap- 
pearance, II, 32; characteristics, I, 
160-161, footnote, 169, II, 31 and 
footnote, 32, 284-287; early religious 
belief, 284; lodges, I, 161, footnote; 
canoes, 171, footnote; dressing skins, 

II, 166, footnote; burial customs, I, 
81, footnote; alliance, 277; alliance 
against, II, 356; Ferrot sets out to, 
I, 243, footnote; entertain Perrot, II, 
31; return calumet, 73; refuse to 
make peace, 71-72 ; council fire, 258 ; 
have priest's breviary and cossack, 
I, 173; chief liberates captives, 187; 
hostile relations, 108, footnote. Re- 
lations with Chippewa, I, 109 and 
footnote; Foxes, II, 34-35, 56, 63-64, 
68-69, IOI II3t > I12 XI 4, I2 <5; H U ' 
rons, I, 163, 167-168, 187, II, 32-33 ; 
Mascoutens, 97, 112; Miami, 100, 

117, 131; Ottawa, I, 164-165, 188, 
189; Sauk, II, in 

Dances: II, 87, 158-161, footnote, 282, 
footnote; enumerated, 161, footnote; 
at feast, I, 338 ; planned for guests, 
296, II, 292 ; in country of dead, I, 
91; give possessions away at, II, 
285 ; to celebrate winning of wager, 
i, 102 ; at adoption, 84. Enumer- 
ated buffalo, II, 230; calumet, I, 
182, footnote, 311; ghost, 278, foot- 
note, II, 270, 273, 335; at feast of 
dead, I, 86-87; green bean, II, 291; 
green corn, 291; medicine, 230-231, 

277 ; otter, 230 ; pipe and tomahawk 
(illustration), I, 235; powou, II, 
291 ; religious, 278, 291 ; scalp, 26, 
footnote, 158-161; sun, 269; of 
thanksgiving, 291; war, I, 233, II, 

Davenport, George: II, 153 

Davidson, Alexander: work cited, II, 

Davidson, J. N: work cited, II, 316 

Davis, Andrew M: work cited, II, 316 

Davis, E. H: see Squter, E. G., II, 344 

Dearborn, Henry: II, 312 

Deer (name of Sauk clan) : II, 191, 


Deer: I, 109 and footnote, 123, 127, 
278, 283, 304, 317, II, 29, 165, 168, 
213, 220, 234; December named for, 
116; used as sacrifice, I, 61, foot- 
note; insignia, 347, II, 120, footnote 

Delaware [Delewars], (confederacy 
of Algonquian stock) : I, 364, II, 54, 
footnote, 145, 156, footnote, 188, 259; 
location, I, 336, footnote, II, 355; 
marriage customs, I, 65, footnote; 
tradition, 335, footnote 

Delaware (state) : II, 224, footnote, 


Delaware River: I, 335, footnote, 336, 
footnote, II, 355 

Dellenbaugh, Frederick S : work cited, 
II, 3i6 

Denonville, Marquis de (gov. of 
Canada) : I, 26, 147-148 and foot- 
note, 255, 259, footnote, 261, foot- 
note, 262, footnote, II, 16, 22, 27, 
35, 44, 58, 152, footnote, 253; suc- 
ceeds M. de la Barre, I, 243 ; arrives 
at Quebec, 243, footnote; orders 
Perrot to return, 244; orders from, 
251; campaign against Iroquois, 
243-252; offers peace to Iroquois, 
252 ; captives sent to, II, 41 ; re- 
called to France, 45 ; quoted, I, 244, 
footnote, 250, footnote, 259, footnote, 

II, 255 
Densmore, Frances: work cited, II, 316 




De pere Rapids (Sauk village) : II, 

Des Moines River: II, 142, footnote, 

147, 148, 200, 201, 211, footnote, 233, 


Detroit (Mich.) : I, 149, 250, 258, 261, 
270, 271, II, 29, 146, 201, 278, 309, 
346, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 153, 189, 256, 280, 316, 329, 
351, II, 108, 140, 150, 184, 189, 244; 
plot against, I, 257, footnote 
Detroit River: I, 237 and footnote 
Devils: recognized as divinities, I, 48 
Dhegiha (Siouan group) : I, 278, foot- 
note, II, 36, footnote 
Dillon, John B: work cited, II, 316 
Dionne, C. E: I, 308, footnote 
Disease: II, 218-219; common, 294; 
epidemic, I, 354; sacrifice to avoid, 
62, footnote ; ceremony in connection 
with, II, 218-219, footnote, 219; pro- 
tection sought from, 268; cure, I, 
133, footnote, II, 234; causes great 
mortality, I, 242, 293, 340, 341, II, 
37, footnote, 314; causes death of 
chief, I, 269 and footnote; among 
Mascoutens, II, 58; smallpox, I, 
108, footnote, 364, footnote, 367, foot- 
note, II, 280 

District of Columbia : Georgetown, II, 
150, footnote, 182, footnote; see 
Divorce: I, 303, II, 215; infrequent, 

167, 288 ; for just cause, I, 64-65 
Documentary History of New York: 

I, 200, footnote 

Dodge, Charles R: work cited, II, 316 
Dodge, Richard Irving: II, 316 
Dog : II, 129, 275 ; used as comparison, 
I, 333, II, 17, 40, 72, 80, 215, 226; 
feasts, I, 53, 87, II, 125, 292; Sioux 
do not eat, I, 169 ; peaceable, II, 
280; scent enemy, I, 180; dislike 
Indians, II, 103 ; symbol in dream, 
I, 356; sacrificed, 60 and footnote, 
61, footnote, II, 272. Uses draw- 
ing sleds, etc., I, 278, footnote; hunt- 

ing, 108 ; pack-beast, 173, footnote; 
to watch near grave, II, 293 

Donaldson, Thomas: work cited, II, 

Dongan, (Dutch governor) : I, 200, 

Doolittle, J. R: II, 314 

Dorman, Rushton M: work cited, II, 

Dorsey, George A: quoted, II, 86 

Dorsey, J. Owen: I, 185, footnote, 289, 
footnote; quoted, I, 367-368, foot- 
note; work cited, II, 309, 317 

Doty Island (Winnebago village) : II, 

Douglas County (Wis.) : I, 279, foot- 

Dousman, Hercules L: work cited, II, 

Drake, Benjamin: work cited, II, 317 

Drake, Francis S: work cited, II, 317 

Drake, Samuel G: work cited, II, 317 

Draper, Lyman C: II, 151, footnote, 
313, 345, 349, 35o; quoted, 153, foot- 

Dreams: see Beliefs and superstitions 

Dreuillette, Gabriel (Jesuit) : I, 157, 
footnote, 165, footnote, 224; brief ac- 
count, 224, footnote 

Dubuque, Julien: II, 59, footnote 

Ducks: I, 114, 304, II, 165 

Du Lhut [Du Lhude], M. : I, 244, 

Dunn, Jacob P: Indiana, II, 38, foot- 
note, 318 

Dutch: I, 226, footnote 

Du Tisne, : II, 108, footnote 

EAGLE (name of Sauk clan) : II, 163, 
191, footnote, 211 ; marking of 
graves, 212 

Eames, Wilberforce: II, 357; quoted, 

Eastman, Charles A: work cited, II, 


Eastman, Mary H: work cited, II, 318 
Eastman, Capt. S., U.S.A: II, 318, 342 




282-283 ; to improve, II, 179 ; chosen 
localities, 261; of Foxes, I, 318-319; 
of Hurons, 283 ; of Potawatomi, II, 
294; of Winnebago, I, 289, footnote, 
II, 297, 298; factory system, I, 17, 
II, 150-151, 176-178 

CLOTHING-!, 114, 126, II, 166, 
footnote, 172-173, 206, footnote, 217, 
footnote, 223, 261; skins, I, 38, 264; 
of civilized Potawatomi, II, 294; 
Indian to discard whiteman's, 277; 
of widows in mourning, I, 70 ; mak- 
i n g> 77> footnote} embroidered, 328, 
footnote, II, 235, footnote', first 
snow-shoe, I, 39, footnote', gift, 134, 
footnote, 194; as sacrifice, 61, foot- 

FOOD I, 115-119, 179, 182, 229, 
footnote, 237, 246, 309, 316, 326, 368- 
369, 372, II, 33, 67, 130, 196, 206, 
213, 227, 228-229, footnote, 261; 
preparation, I, 113, 115-118, 115, 
footnote, 116, footnote, 123, II, 29; 
various kinds, I, 102-103, I2 7> fi gn 
abundant, 367, footnote', fruits, 279, 
footnote, 282; meat, 283; wild rice 
[wild oats], 103 and footnote', 
capacity, II, 237, footnote', greed, I, 
280 ; restrictions, II, 277 ; favorite, I, 
102; Indians first, 38; distribution 
of game, 124; at feast, 53; as gift, 
68, 71; as sacrifice, 61, footnote', for 
captives, II, 83; for strangers, I, 
*33-*34 H 29; on trading expedi- 
tions, I, 229, footnote; in country of 
dead, 91; French supply, II, 19; 
near grave, 209; of bears, I, 127; 
see Feasts; Fish; Game 

FUEL I, 124-125, 162, footnote 

general'. I, 76, footnote, 102; out- 
lined, 39-40; duties of men, I, 74-75, 
II, 216-217, 217, footnote; of women, 
I, 75-76; of Ottawa, 282, footnote; 
of Siouan tribes, 278, footnote; of 
Winnebago, 289, footnote, II, 298. 

Agriculture -I, 41, 43, 75, 109, no, 
113, 119, 161, footnote, 173, 257, 
footnote, 278, footnote, 279-280, foot- 
note, 282, footnote, 289, footnote, 304, 
319, 322, 367, II, 148, 151 and foot- 
note, 190, footnote, 217 and footnote, 
261; products, I, 102, 113; fruits, 
279, footnote, 282; among Hurons, 
192-193, II, 206-207, footnote. Fish- 
ing -I, 69, 70, 72, 74, 106-113, 173, 
179, 280, 286, 287, 289, footnote, 304, 
305, 339, footnote, 343~344 II, 191* 
footnote; women ignorant of, I, 237; 
method among Chippewa, 275-276, 
276, footnote; products, 282. Hunt- 
ing -I, 41, 43, 69, 70, 72, 74, 106- 
"3, "5, 179, 194, 203, 211, 221, 249, 
278, footnote, 280, 289, footnote, 304, 
322, 337, 339, 368, footnote, 372, II, 
14, 67, 68, 109, no, 113, 114, 122, 

130, 148-149, 152, 191, footnote, 212, 
260, 261; method, I, 106-113, 119- 

131, 304 and footnote, 366-367, II, 
262; bears, I, 126-131; beaver, 104- 
106, 365, 368-369; buffalo, 119-126; 
caribou, 106-107 ; moose, 107-108 ; 
products, 109; martial law, II, 163- 
164, 258; weapons and tools, I, 331; 
return, II, 227; soldiers accompany 
Iroquois, I, 204; origin, 38; boys 
learn, 78, II, 165; ceremony attend- 
ing hunts, 262 ; expedition, I, 43-45 ; 
traders dependant on, 227, footnote; 
influence of dreams, 51, footnote; 
see Game animals, also names of 
various great game animals. Man- 
ufacturingI, 75, footnote, 368, 
footnote, II, 149, footnote, 152-153, 
217 and footnote; use of awl, I, 77, 
footnote; bark, 80, footnote; beads, 
331, footnote; belts, II, 185; buckler, 
I, 126; nets, 276, footnotes; pottery, 
323-324; snow-shoe, 39, footnote; 
preparing hides, 126. Mining II, 
153. See Implements; Weapons 

LODGES I, 278, footnote, II, 227- 
228, 261 ; described, I, 161, footnote 




POPULATION I, 109, footnote, 157, 
footnote; decreasing II, 314; not de- 
creasing, 337; of Abnaki, 54-55, 
footnote; Assiniboin, I, 364, foot- 
note; Crees, 108, footnote; French, 
25; European, 26; Foxes, 292, foot- 
note; 294, footnote; Illinois confed- 
eracy, 154, footnote, 296, footnote; 
Iowa, 367, footnote; Kaskaskia, 155, 
footnote, II, 201 ; Kickapoo, I, 301, 
footnote; Mascoutens, 329, footnote; 
Menominee, 291, footnote; Miami, 
317, footnote, II, 201; Onondaga, 
in, footnote; Osage, 108, footnote; 
Ottawa group, I, 282, footnote; 
Peoria, II, 201; Piankashaw, 119- 
120, footnote, 201 ; Potawatomi, I, 
303, footnote, II, 287; Sauk, I, 292, 
footnote, II, 237; Sauk braves, 192- 
193; Seneca, I, 241, footnote; Sioux, 
162, footnote, 170-171, 278, footnote; 
Winnebago, I, 289, footnote, 300; 
number of Sioux villages, I, 162, 
footnote; census of Canada, 257, 
footnote; Chequamegon, 165, foot- 
note; of Tippecanoe, II, 279, foot- 

TRADE -I, 69, 70, 86, 175, 176, 
254, 258, 281, footnote, 303, 319, 337, 
339, 353, 369, II, 44, 64, 83, 97, 135, 
footnote, 176-182, 234 and footnote, 
250; active, 199-200, footnote; 
whites stimulate, I, 174, footnote; 
permit, 228-229 and footnote, 230; 
hard times for merchants, II, 253 ; 
manner of conducting, 150 and foot- 
note; violation of laws, I, 230; 
trading-houses abolished, II, 150, 
footnote; best results from private 
traders, 178 ; post described, I, 246, 
footnote ; trading-establishments list- 
ed, II, 150, footnote; at Michilimaki- 
nak, I, 282; expedition to Montreal, 
188 ; at Quebec, 175 ; merchants de- 
sire war with Iroquois, 232; as 
stratagem, 245, II, 18; articles of, 
I, 173-174, footnote, 305, footnote, 

307, II, 151; fur, I, 27 and footnote, 
104, footnote, 109, 174, footnote, 228- 
229 and footnote, 351, footnote; war 
supplies, 357, II, 20; in brandy for- 
bidden, I, 208, footnote ; trouble, 243, 
footnote, 246, footnote; abuses, 229- 
230, footnote; evil effects, 263-264, 
264, footnote; general dissatisfaction 
of Indians, 259, footnote, 261-262, 
footnote, 342, 343, II, 176-177, 177, 
footnote; values, I, 259, footnote, 
282, 343, 352; Perrot, 249, II, 62-63; 
Foxes desire to continue, II, 29 ; in- 
tertribal, I, 43, 173-174; Fox and 
Sauk, II, 149-150; Foxes exact 
tribute, I, 294, footnote; Iroquois 
prevent, II, 253 ; Ottawa, I, 214, 
307; Potawatomi, II, 251 ; with Eng- 
lish, I, 259, footnote, II, 8 1 ; desir- 
able, I, 261 ; English desire, 261, 
footnote, II, 22, 80, 85, 95; English 
arrested, I, 250 

WEALTH-!, 113, 265, II, 108, 
footnote, 207, footnote, 293 ; an- 
nuities, 212-213 ; cost, I, 203, 229, 
footnote, II, 225 ; money, I, 205 and 
footnote; poverty, II, 255; property, 
206-207, footnote, 261-262; toll de- 
manded, I, 177; values, 108-109, 332, 
353, II, 149, footnote, 151, 166, foot- 
note, 181, footnote, 253, 254, 301, 302 

Education: Indians lack, I, 31; belief 
regarding, II, 155 

Edward, Ninian W: II, 312, 320; 
quoted, 141, footnote; work cited, 

Eggleston, Edward: work cited, II, 

Elk: tribal name, II, 163; name of 

Sauk clan, 191, footnote; name of 

Fox clan, 192 
Elk: I, 109, no, footnote, 113, 114, 123, 

127, 179, 203, 237, II, 165, 168, 220; 

abundant, I, 194; Algonkins hunt, 

44, footnote; Indians imitate, 238; 

insignia of family, 347; method of 

hunting, 107; sacrifice, 61, footnote; 




served at feast, 53; September 

named for, II, 116 
Elk-yards: I, 44 and footnote 
Elliott, R. R: quoted, II, 149, footnote 
Ellis, George E: work cited, II, 319 
Ellis, Havelock: work cited, II, 343 
Embroidery, quill: see Manners and 

customs adornment 
Emerson, Ellen Russell : work cited, II, 


England: I, 156, footnote', Gloucester- 
shire, II, 150, footnote 

English: see British 

Erie (Iroquian tribe) : I, 240, footnote] 
subjugated by Seneca, 241, footnote 

Eskimo [Esquimau] : I, 221, footnote, 
307, 318, footnote, II, 169, footnote, 
206, footnote, 207, footnote, 257, 270; 
method of making fire, I, 38, foot- 
note; mythology, II, 265 

Estevan (companion of Cabeza de 
Vaca) : II, 169, footnote 

Europe: I, 57, footnote, 116, 123, foot- 
note, 318, footnote, 366, II, 35, 43, 
113, 149, footnote, 222, 311 

Europeans: I, 15, 37, 86, 92, 113, foot- 
note, 132, 136, footnote, 141, 1 60, 
footnote, 208, footnote, 233, footnote, 
II, 141, 142, 149, footnote, 151, foot- 
note, 182, 251, 328; teach Indians, I, 
31; influence in traditions, 40, foot- 
note; cause demoralization, 156, 
footnote; see English, French, Inter- 
racial relations 

Evans, Estwick: Pedestrians tour, II, 

Evarts, Jeremiah: work cited, II, 319 

Evermann, B. W: I, 275, footnote 

Farrand, Livingston: quoted, I, 65; 

work cited, II, 319 

Fasting: I, 51, footnote, 58, footnote; 
for lack of food, 229, footnote; at 
puberty, 52, footnote, II, 172, foot- 
note; to induce dreams, I, 51 ; dura- 
tion, 51; preceding feast, 128; pre- 

ceding and during hunting, 128, 
129; preparation for war, II, 157, 
161, 194, 195; to secure manito, 267; 
to propitiate spirits, 268 
Feasts: I, 59, footnote, 62, 69, 85, 145, 
II, 114; preparation, I, 51-52, 86, 
87, 130, II, 169; food served, I, 53; 
of bear meat, 128-129, 130-131, 370, 
II, 142; dog, I, 53, 62, footnote, II, 
125, 158, 234; fish, I, 287-288; 
sturgeon, 316; manner of conduct- 
ing, 52-53; serving, 58; excesses, II, 
2 37> footnote; enumerated, 168-169; 
marriageable age of girl, 172, foot- 
note; adoption, 293 ; naming of chil- 
dren, I, 76-77, II, 168, 210; for 
chiefs, 79; strangers, 234; to Perrot, 
I 33> 365; to Ottawa, II, 78; war, 
I> 50-59 II, 20, 68, no, 158; con- 
nected with death, I, 81, footnote, 83, 
86-88, 154, footnote, II, 223; sacri- 
ficial, I, 61-62, footnote; of thanks- 
giving, 59, 332, II, 292; to animals, 

I, 49-50; to Great Spirit, II, 169- 
170; to propitiate spirits, I, 337-339, 

II, 86-88, 234-235; after divine ser- 
vice, 293-294; of first animal killed, 
234; before hunting, I, 127; follow- 
ing portentous dreams, 49 ; curious 
customs, 48 ; songs, 52-53 ; result, 345 

Feathers: used as sacrifice, I, 61, foot- 
note; symbolism, 51, footnote 

Featherstonhaugh, G. W: work cited, 
II, 319 

Fergus Historical Series: II, 307, 312, 
322, 333 

Ferland, Abbe J. B. A. (Canadian 
historian) : I, 30 and footnote; work 
cited, 47, footnote, 48, footnote, 83, 

Fetich: I, 50, footnote 

Fewkes, J. Walter: I, 325, footnote 

Field, Thomas W: work cited, II, 319 

Field Columbian Museum: Publica- 
tions, II, 319 

Fillmore, John C: work cited, II, 319 

Finland: I, 132, footnote 




Finley, James B: work cited, II, 320 
Fire: first, I, 38; two methods of mak- 
ing, 38, footnote] to obtain, 326; as 
signal, 366, II, 124; as gift, 64 and 

Fish, Carl R: work cited, II, 351 
Fish: I, 90, 113, 220, 229, 261; used 
as sacrifice, I, 61, footnote] months 
names for, II, 116; see Carp, Her- 
ring, Sturgeon, Trout, White fish 
Flemish Bastard (chief of Mohawks) : 

I, 157 and footnote, 199; missionary 
killed by war party, 158; denies 
murder, 158; captured, 200; freed, 
201 ; insolence, 202 ; punished, 202 ; 
begs for peace, 203 

Fletcher, Alice C: quoted, II, 259-260, 
261-262 and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 51-52, 123, 125, II, 151, 
206-207, 192, 235, 246, 325, 328; 
work cited, 319, 320, 343 

Florida: I, 81, footnote, 305, footnote, 

II, 230, footnote, 279 
Fontette, Fevret de: II, 301 

Food: see Economic conditions: Food 
Forsyth, Thomas (government agent) : 

I, 14, 17, II, 137, 153, 193, 244, 245, 
247, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 171, II, 141, 181, 187, 189, 
197, 211, 240-241, 244, 277, 278; ac- 
count, 244-245, footnote; Manners 
and customs of Sauk and Fox In- 
dians, 183-244; article on Shawnee 
prophet, 273-279; scope and interest 
of work, I, 17; work cited, II, 303, 
320, 350 

Forsyth, Wm. (father of preceding) : 

II, 244, footnote 

Fort Armstrong (Rock Island, 111) : I, 

14, 21, II, 137, 139, II, 148, 150, 342 
Fort Chartres: I, 156, footnote 
Fort Crawford : II, 342 
Fort Edwards: II, 142 and footnote, 

148, 177 
Fort Frontenac: I, 25, 153, footnote, 

239, 240; built, 227; Ottawas join 

French at, 232 

Fort Leavenworth: I, 367, footnote 
Fort Mackinaw: II, 157, footnote 
Fort Madison: II, 150, footnote 
Fort Nelson: I, 364, footnote 
Fort Osage: II, 150, footnote, 342 
Fortress Monroe: II, 211, footnote 
Fort Richelieu: I, 142, footnote 
Fort Sainte-Anne: I, 217, footnote 
Fort St. Louis: I, 353, footnote 
Fort Saint Peter: I, 162, footnote 
Fort Smith: II, 342 
Fowke, Gerard: quoted, I, 160, foot- 
note', work cited, 320 
Fox [Mus-quak-kie, Outagami, Re- 
nards], (Algonquian tribe) : I, 14, 
17, 27, 41, footnote, 188-189, 223, 
245, 258, 260, 261, 268, 269, 270, 271, 
294, 301, 316, 321, 344, 350, II, 20, 
27, 28, 30, 34, 65, 71, 82-83, 99, 109, 
122, 131, 144, 153, 154, 250, 251, and 
in footnotes on following pages, I, 
171, 185, 238, 244, 269, 271, 291, 296, 
II, 17, 59, 108, 197, 203, 278 ; source 
of name, I, 294, footnote ; clans enu- 
merated, II, 192; division into bands, 
156 and footnote] location, I, 294, 
footnote, II, 142, 355; land claimed, 
147; form new village, I, 3x7; 
characteristics, 294, footnote, II, 
187; general customs, 225-228; mar- 
riage customs, 165-167; hunting, 
233-234; destitution, I, 318; beliefs 
regarding death, II, 174-175 ; trans- 
migration, 175; trade, I, 319; an- 
nuities, II, 181-182 and footnote] 
suspicious of questions, 140-141 ; 
chiefs, 155-156; government by 
chiefs, 186; martial law, 163- 
164; chiefs urge Du Luth to visit, 
29 ; invite Perrot to visit, 61 ; Perrot 
visits, 62-63 > speech to, I, 354. 
Wars II, 202, 288, footnote, 292, 
footnote] manner of raising war 
party, 157-158; neutral, 106; war- 
riors described, 356-357; disposi- 
tion of captives, 162; proposal to 
destroy, I, 266; disasters, 293-295; 




compel Jesuits' aid, II, 55 ; advised 
to make peace, 205 ; relations with 
Chippewa, I, 357, 358, II, 27, 183; 
relations with Dakota, 34-35, 56, 66- 
67, 69-70, 97, 101, in, 114-115, 117, 
118; relations with French, I, 258, 
footnote, II, 17-18, 54, 55, 61-63, 65, 
97, 126-127; with Iroquois, I, 227, 
II, 105, no; with Mascoutens, 89, 
105; with Miami, 123-124, 125, 126- 
127 ; with Ottawa, 124, 125 ; plots, 
17-18, 54, 65; desire peace, 34-35, 
101, m 

Fox: name of Sauk clan, II, 191, foot- 
note; name of Fox clan, 192 
Fox (animal): in creation myth, I, 36 
Fox River: II, 146, 252, 344, 355, 356, 
and in footnotes on following Pages, 

I, 155, 290, 294, 295, 316, 329, II, 

Fox River Valley: I, 289, footnote 
Fox-Wisconsin portage: II, 30 and 

footnote, 34, 65 
Forum: II, 338 
France: I, 15, 25, 76, 198, 220, 348, 

II, 250, 251, 253, 255, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 42, 256, 
259, 261, 273, 316, 354, 367, II, 28, 
43, 217; compels peace, I, 155, foot- 
note', takes possession of Ottawa 
country, 222; overstocked with bea- 
ver pelts, 230, footnote-, Limoux, I, 
30, footnote 

Frazer, J. G: work cited, II, 320 
French: I, 15, 16, 76, 116, 172, 174, 
175, 177, 198, 275, 306, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, 63, 163, 
277, 279, II, 47, 54 ; first white man 
in America, 240, footnote; Indian 
names for, 240-241, footnote; early 
settlers, I, 148, number in American 
settlements, 25 ; American posses- 
sions, 25, 26; colony aided by Per- 
rot, 27 ; regarded as friends, II, 277 ; 
spread of name and glory, I, 348 ; 
deride superstitions, 64, 88; teach 
Indians, 134; humor savages, 135; 

evil influence, 209, footnote, 263- 
264; soldiers commit murder, 204; 
use Indian slaves, 190, footnote; per- 
mit torture, 158; fail to keep assur- 
ances, 239; conquest over Indians, 
178; make peace, 199; mediators, 
308; negotiate peace, II, 136; voy- 
age of discovery, I, 363-372; trade, 
175, 176, 259, footnote, 319, 343 (see 
Economic conditions: trade) ; con- 
spiracy against, 351-352, II, 54, 65; 
massacre, I, 259 ; reinforcements, 
198; ordered to Michilimakinak, II, 
65; return to Montreal, 104; cause 
tribes to continue to Montreal, I, 
341 ; Canadians, 98-99, footnote. Re- 
lations - with English, II, 22, 81; 
alliance, I, 347, 356, II, 42, 189, 
footnote; with Indians, I, 147-148; 
with Algonkins, 150, 191 ; with 
Chippewa, 173, 358, II, 30; with 
Cree, I, 108, footnote; with Dakota, 
II, 117, 122; with Foxes, I, 185, 
footnote, 258, footnote, II, 62-64, 
65, 70; with Hurons, I, 193, 257, 
footnote; with Illinois, 156, foot- 
note; with Iroquois, 151, 190-192, 
194, 199-203, 232-243, 334, II, no, 
254; with Mascoutens, I, 323-333, II, 
65; with Miami, I, 322, 332, II, 13, 
16, 70, 130; with Ottawa, I, 176, 222, 
II, no; with Potawatomi, I, 149, 
footnote, 302-303, footnote, 316, 333, 
II, 251; with Sioux, I, 182; with 
Winnebago, 301 ; see Perrot, Nico- 

French and Indian War: I, 280, foot- 
note, II, 244, footnote 
French River: I, 43, 62, II, 356 
Friederici, Georg: work cited, II, 343 
Frobenius, Leo: work cited, II, 320 
Frontenac, Louis de Buade de (gov. 
of Canada) : I, 26, 66, 351, II, 50, 
70, 88, 89, 94, xoi, 104, 106, 109, 
111-112, 132, 136, 254, 255, and in 
footnotes on following pages, I, 244, 
256, 259, 261, 267, 269 ; relieves De 




Courcelles, 227; keeps harmony, 
227; forbidden to issue trading per- 
mits, 230; induces peace, 231; re- 
ceives decree of amnesty, 231; re- 
called, 231; successor to Denonville, 
II, 45; restores peace, 42, footnote', 
receives chiefs, 254 

Fuel: see Economic conditions: Fuel 

Fulton, A. R: work cited, II, 321 

Furs: see Skins 

Fur trade: see Economic conditions: 

GALE, GEORGE: work cited, II, 321 
Galena River: II, 59, footnote 
Gallatin, Albert: I, 277, footnote] 

work cited, II, 321 
Galligan, Father (Jesuit missionary) : 

converts Potawatomi, II, 293 
Gambling: see Vices 
Game animals: I, 38, 44, II, 261; 
abundant, I, 89, 113, 159, 207, 221, 
footnote, 278, 283, 304, II, 174, 198 ; 
enumerated, I, 109, 113, 114, 203; 
for food, 124, II, 63 ; dispersed, I, 
295; scarce, 159; to increase, II, 
277 ; as gift, I, 73 ; served at feasts, 
53; causes for killing, II, 236; dis- 
tributed among families, I, 124; 
laws, 120; months named for, II, 
115-116; traders dependant on, I, 
229, footnote] tribes dependant on, 
278, footnote; see Economic condi- 
tions : industries hunting, also 
names of various great game ani- 

Gannett, Henry: work cited, II, 321 
Garland, Hamlin: work cited, II, 321 
Garneau, F. X: work cited, II, 322 
Garreau [Garot], Father: missionary 
to Hurons, I, 157, and footnote] 
murder of, 158 and footnote 
Gatineau River: I, 43, footnote 
Geese, wild: I, 114 and footnote, II, 

165; June named for, n6 
Genesee River: II, 356 
Geneva River: I, 240, footnote 

Gens [clans, gentes] : II, 257, 259-260, 
269; account, I, 319-320, footnote; 
common rights, II, 257 ; enumerated, 
191, footnote 

Georgia: I, 122, footnote, 173, footnote 

Georgian Bay: I, 43, footnote, 171, 
footnote, 257, footnote, 279, foot- 
note, 281, footnote, II, 355, 356 

Geronimo: II, 351 

Gerrard, Wm. R: quoted in footnotes 
on following pages, I, 97, 114, n6, 
117, 118, 119, II, 148, 227; work 
cited, 305, 321 

Gifts: I, 72, 73, 74, 145, 160, 182, 
footnote, 303, 317, II, 128; of alle- 
giance, 79; of atonement, I, 56, 137, 
138, 139, 140, 141, 145-146, footnote, 
265, 321, 333, II, 64, 186-187; as 
bribe, I, 178, 188, 207, 232, 233, 234, 
249, 262, footnote, 267, 346, 352, 360- 

361, II, 52, 67, 78, 90, 254; of con- 
solation, I, 70, 79, 80, 83, 299, II, 57, 
59, 99, 100, 102, 127, 128, 285 ; good- 
will, I, 270, 333, II, 36; marriage, 

I, 65, footnote, 68, II, 214; peace of- 
fering, I, 152, II, 205; ransom, I, 
175, 178, 358, II, 39; reciprocal, I, 
227, 328, 347, II, 277; as reward, 
55, 180-181, footnote', of thanks, I, 

362, II, 54, 107; at naming child, I, 
76-77; from fear, II, 56; to adopt- 
ed, I, 85, II, 293 ; to ambassador, I, 
349; to captives, 182; to chief, 350, 

II, 19, 50; to dead, 173; to hunters, 
213; to strangers, I, 63, footnote, 
129-130, 134, 135; to village, 86; 
to widows, 63, footnote', tribal, II, 
185; of Great Spirit, 220-221; of 
British, I, 288, footnote] of La 
Salle, 350; of Miami, II, 27, 118; 
of Ottawa, 125; of Perrot, I, 312, 
330, 33i, 365, II, 58, 72; of mourn- 
ers, I, 81 ; to Frontenac, 227, 351, 
II, 108 ; to various tribes, 60; to 
Dakota, 72, 112; to Foxes, 118; to 
Hurons, II, 53; to Iroquois, I, 194; 
to Mascoutens, 330, 331, II, 27; to 




Menominee, I, 312; to Miami, 330, 
II, 17, 58 ; to Ottawa, I, 232. Enu- 
meratedI, 87, II, 24; brandy, 24; 
captives, I, 349, II, 92, 104; collars, 
I, 253; food, 63, footnote, 71; of 
peltries, 254, ore, II, 59, 66 ; tobacco, 

I, 196, 238, footnote, 321, 362, 363, 
365, II, 19, 50, 52, 57, 60, 77, 100, 
112, 170, 238-239 

Gilfillan, Joseph A: work cited, II, 


Code: I, 308; defined, 308, footnote 
Goodale, Elaine: see Eastman, Charles, 

II, 318 

Gorrell, James: Journal, II, 349 
Government: in general, I, 145 and 
footnote', colonial, 271, footnote', fed- 
eral, should encourage religion, II, 
281; attitude recommended for U.S., 
141, footnote; British attempts to 
make peace, 205; justice, I, 138- 
141 ; of gens, 320, footnote ; by 
chiefs, II, 163-164, footnote, 186, 
216-218; military, I, 120, II, 
163-164, 192, footnote, 258, 262; 
tribal, I, 320, footnote, 332, II, 86, 
footnote, 163, 226, footnote 
Goyogouins: see Cayugas 
Graham, Mr. : I, 150, footnote 
Grand Calumet (island) : I, 176, foot- 
Grand [Great] Medicine Society: II, 

224-225, 224, footnote 
Grand River (Mich.) : I, 241, footnote, 
302, footnote, II, 184, 199, footnote 
Gravier, Father: I, 40, footnote, 60, 
footnote, 89, footnote; quoted, 59, 
footnote; work cited, 69, footnote, 
76, footnote, 169, footnote 
Great Beaver: origin of tribes, I, 62- 


Great Britain: I, 281, footnote 
Great Hare [Michabou, Ouisaket- 
chak], (diery) : I, 48 ; creates world, 
32-36; creates man, 37; creates wo- 
man, 39-40; inspires making of bow, 
I, 38; gave different dialects, 41; 

in dreams, 52 ; Montagnais belief, 
36-37; Ottawa belief, 36, footnote 

Great-Lake: name of Sauk clan, II, 

Great Lakes: I, 159, II, 116, 184, 266, 
309, 311, 330, 333, and in footnotes 
on following pages, I, 50, 171, 174, 
246, 275, 278, 281, 287, 367, II, 190, 

Great Lynx: name of Sauk clan, II, 
191, footnote 

Great Panther [Michipissy, Missibizi], 
(god of waters) : worshiped, I, 59 

Great Spirit [Geechee Manito-ah, 
Kee-shay-munitoo] : I, 299, 360, 
footnote, II, 114, 141, 142, 155, 156, 
158, 161-162, 168, 179, 195, 203, foot- 
note, 210, 235, 278, 280; beliefs con- 
cerning, 174, 222-223 > confession to, 
277; feasts, 169; 220-221; miscon- 
ceptions, 222-223, footnote; reproves 
Tenskwatawa, 274; see Manito, 
Mateomek, Messou, Nanabozho 

Green Bay [Bay of Puans, Bay of the 
Puants]: I, 254, 349, 354, 364, II, 
28, 40, 74, 104, no, 146, 177, 184, 
201, 215, 250, 251, 253, 303, 308, 321, 
349. 355, 356, and in footnotes on 
following Pages, I, 48, 60, 103, 129, 
132, 149, 150, 153, 165, 189, 222, 244, 
270, 277, 278, 290, 291, 302, 316, II, 
30, 57, 140, 151, 184, 199; source 
of name, I, 288-289 > described, 290- 
291; tides, 290, footnote 

Green Bay and Prairie du Chien Pa- 
pers'. II, 321 

Green Lake County (Wis.) : I, 323, 
footnote, II, 227, footnote 

Greenland: II, 270 

Gregory, J. G: work cited, II, 337 

Griffin, A. P. C: work cited, II, 321 

Griffins: Indians pray to, I, 49 

Grignon, Augustin: work cited, II, 350 

Grignon, Lawe and Porlier Papers'. 
cited, II, 321 

Groseilliers, : I, 168, footnote 




Grouse: name of Sauk clan, II, 191, 

Guadeloupe: I, 198, 273, footnote 

Gulf of Mexico: I, 279, footnote, 336, 
footnote, II, 199, footnote, 333, 346 

Gulf of St. Lawrence: I, 279, foot- 
note, 308, footnote, II, 183 

Gulf States: I, 323, footnote, 324, foot- 
note, 332, footnote, II, 257 

HADDON, ALFRED C: work cited, II, 322 
Hailmann, Wm. N: work cited, II, 322 
Haines, Elijah M: work cited, II, 322 
Halde, J. B. du: II, 357 
Hale, Horatio: works cited, II, 322 
Half-breeds: characteristics, II, 198 

and footnote 
Hall, James: II, 156, footnote', see 

McKenney, Thos. L., II, 331 
Hariot, Thomas: II, 229, footnote 
Harper's Magazine: II, 326 
Harrison, J. B: work cited, II, 322 
Harrison, Gen. Wm: II, 306, 317 
Harrison, Wm. H : II, 279, footnote, 


Harshberger, J. W: work cited, II, 322 

Hart, A. B: II, 345, 347 

Hart, Albert H: II, 318 

Plarvey, Henry: work cited, II, 323 

Hazelnut: I, 116, footnote, 117 

Heard, Isaac V. D: work cited, II, 323 

Hebberd, S. S: work cited, II, 323 

Hebrews: II, 170, footnote 

Hennepin, Louis (Jesuit) : taken pris- 
oner, I, 278, footnote, 323, II, 135, 
footnote, 311 

Henshaw, Henry W: quoted in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 133, 
305, 325, II, 37-38, 198, 208, 217, 
218, 222-223, 226, 238, 261, 263- 
264; work cited, 305, 309 

Hensley, Albert: II, 282 

Herring: I, 282, footnote', Nov. named 
for, II, 116 

Hewitt, J. N. B: quoted in footnote on 
following Pages, I, 85, 240-241, 282, 
283-287, 319-320, 360, II, no-iii, 

158-161, 163-164, 182-185, 257-258, 
271-272; work cited, 309, 323 

Hibbard, B. H: II, 152, footnote; 
work cited, 351 

Hidatsa (Siouan group) : I, 171, foot- 
note, 278, footnote 

Hinsdale, W. B: I, 21 

Historical Magazine: II, 342 

Hobart, J. H: II, 313 

Hodder, F. H: II, 338 

Hodge, Frederick W: I, 21; quoted, 
II, 241, footnote', work cited, 309, 

Hoffman, Walter J: quoted, II, 224, 
footnote', work cited, 309, 323-324 

Hole-in-the-Day (Chippewa chief): 
II, 350 

Holmes, W. H: I, 21; quoted in foot- 
notes on following pages, 160, 233, 
305, 318, 323-325, 325, 337-338, 363, 
II, 96, 185; work cited, 305, 309, 

324, 343 

Homer: I, 58, footnote, 142, footnote 
Hopi (tribe) : II, 229, footnote 
Hornaday, Wm. T: I, 123, footnote', 

work cited, II, 324 
Horses: I, 363, II, 179, 186, 187, 191, 

footnote, 199, footnote, 231, 236, 261, 

285; introduction, I, 278, footnote', 

lack, II, 233 

Hospitality: see Manners and customs 
Hough, Franklin B: work cited, II, 


Hough, Walter: quoted in footnotes on 
following pages, I, 39, 75, 77, 115, 
332, II, 17, 149, 185, 218-219, 228- 
229, 229-230; work cited, 324 

Hoy, P. R: work cited, II, 324 

Hrdlicka, A: quoted, I, 371, footnote, 
II, 262-263 J work cited, 309 

Hudson (Husson) Bay: I, 60, footnote, 
165, footnote, 224, footnote, 273, 
footnote, 307, 364, footnote, II, 278, 

Hudson Bay Company: I, 108, foot- 
note, 208, footnote, 246, footnote, II, 




Hudson River: I, 364, footnote, II, 341 
Hulbert, Archer B : work cited, II, 324 
Huma [Houraas], (Choctaw tribe) : 
treatment of captives, I, 169, foot- 
Hunter, John Dunn: works cited, II, 


Hunting: see Economic conditions: in- 
dustries and occupations 

Huron [Huron de Petun, Tobacco Hu- 
rons, Wyandot, Wyandotts], (con- 
federation of four Iroquoian tribes) : 
I, 15, 26, 148, 149, 267, 270, 281, 
322, II, 184, 1 8 8, and in footnotes 
on following pages, I, 47, 54, 88, 139, 
144, 165, 224, 282, 339, II, 47, 184, 
189; brief account, I, 257, 258, foot- 
note', location, II, 355; migrations, 
I, 159-190; characteristics, 154, 283; 
annuity, II, 181, footnote', marriage 
customs, I, 65, footnote', economic 
conditions, I, 76, footnote, 283; es- 
teem flesh of dogs, 53, footnote', gov- 
ernment, 145, footnote; conspiracy, 
257, footnote; treachery, 260, 262, 
footnote ; policy, II, 44, 47-49 ; myths, 

I, 36, footnote, 40, footnote; gifts to, 

II, 53; missionary to, 171, footnote; 
abandon Chequamegon, I, 191, foot- 
note; do not attend council, 225 and 
footnote; keeper of council fire, II, 
189, footnote; accept tomahawk, I, 
233, 234; attempt to discontinue 
war, 252; overcome with fear, II, 
45. Relations with Algonkin, I, 
191; Dakota, 161, footnote, 167-168, 
366, II, 32-33; English, I, 250, foot- 
note, 261, II, 22; French, I, 177, 251, 
254, 257, footnote, 366; Iroquois, 
152, 157-158, 190. i92-*93 256, II, 
28, 47-48, 91-92, 109, 132; Miami 
I, 256; Seneca, 241, footnote; Sioux, 
163, 166, 181-182; 187, 188 

Huron Island: I, 151, 315 

IDAHO: II, 199, footnote 
Illinois [Illinoet, Illinoetz, Islinois, 
Linneway, Ninneway], (confedera- 

tion of Algonquian tribes) : I, 258, 
260, 261, 270, 291, 306, 316, 321, 
365, 371, II, 36, 54, 65, 71, 72, 197, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 
I, 42, 48, 59, 66, 118, 144, 153, 156, 
169, 171, 224, 261, 262, 292, 294, 317, 
321, 336, 371, II, 36, 66; account of, 
I, 295-296, footnote; tribes compos- 
ing, 154-155, footnote; location, II, 
355; territory occupied by, 199-201; 
customs, I, 65, footnote, 66, footnote, 
83, footnote; superstitions, 60, foot- 
note; industries, 76, footnote; abun- 
dant wood, 124; annuity, II, 181, 
footnote; Iroquois attack, I, 154-157; 
raids, 155, footnote; attack Iroquois, 
155-157; honor calumet, 182, foot- 
note; alliance against, II, 184, 201; 
treatment of captives, 202; defeat 
Outagamis, I, 258, footnote; kill 
French, 259 ; vengeance on, 295-296 ; 
vengeance on Puans, 299-300; ac- 
company expedition, 348 ; use buf- 
falo, 367, footnote; Iroquois against, 

Illinois (state) : I, 16, 316, 353, II, 137, 
211, 312, 313, 325, 329, 334, 355, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 

I, 155, 295, 301, 302, 316, 329, 351, 

II, 119, 141, 142, 150, 211, 280; La 
Salle County, I, 296, footnote. Cit- 
ies-Belleville, II, 340; Cahokia, 
200, 201 ; Fort Armstrong, 302 ; 
Fort Chartres, 312; Kaskaskia, I, 
296, footnote, II, 200, 201, 312; Lit- 
tle Rock, 203; Maramech Hill, 344; 
Rock Island, I, 14, II, 320; Peoria, 
I, 301, footnote, II, 244, footnote; 
Quincy, 244, footnote; St. Phillip, 
200; Sycamore, I, 21; Utica, 353, 
footnote; see Chicago 

Illinois River: I, 155, footnote, 296, 
footnote, 353, II, 181, footnote, 201, 

Illinois State Historical Society: Li- 
brary Collections, II, 325 ; Transac- 
tions, II, 325 

Imakinagos (spirits) : I, 287 




Immigrants: tribes from New York, 

I, 289, footnote ; see Migrations 
Implements, tools, utensils: I, 77, foot- 
note, 106, 321, 338, 354, 355, II, 206, 
footnote, 207, footnote, 209, 285 ; 
for making fire, I, 38, footnote', used 
as sacrifice, 61, footnote; of pottery, 
323, 323-324, footnote; of stone, II, 
199, footnote; enumerated, 216; ar- 
rowpoints, I, 287, footnote; arrows, 
129; awl, 77, 96, 160, 163, 174, 327, 
footnote, 330, 332, footnote, 368, II, 
185, footnote; axes, I, 160, footnote; 
bells, 305, footnote, II, 32, 33 ; bod- 
kin, I, 77, 293, 318, 330; bow and 
arrow, 37, 78, 114, see Weapons; 
bowl, II, 229-230, footnote; fire- 
steel, I, 326; guns, 114, 129, see 
Weapons; hatchets, 159, 160, 287, 
footnote, 318, 322, 332, 364, II, 25; 
hoe, 151, 152, footnote; ice-chisel, I, 
114; kettle, 172, 174, 330, 332, 359, 
360, 362, 365, II, 17, 20, 56, 57, 78, 
82, 99, 102, 112, 127, 128, 176; 
knives, I, 159, 160, 163, 174, 318, 
322, 330, 368, II, 100, 219; ladles, 
230, footnote; lances, I, 287, foot- 
note; lancet, II, 219; needles, I, 325, 
footnote, 332, footnote; nets, 276, 
footnote, 286, 287, 304 and footnote; 
oven, 114, footnote, 118; pot, 369, 

II, 77 ; sled, I, 221 and footnote, 222, 
footnote; spoons, 229, 230, footnote; 
traps, 221, footnote 

Indiana: in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 270, 301, 302, 316, 317, II, 
279; Wabash County, I, 317, foot- 
note. Cities Fort Wayne, II, 150, 
footnote, 188, 199; Manitoulin, 355; 
Vincennes, 119, footnote, 201, 303 

Indian agents: I, 14 

Indiana Historical Society: Publica- 
tions, II, 316; mentioned, 318 

Indian corn: I, 109, 113, 173, 229, 
footnote, 280, 304, II, 64, 112, 130, 
152, footnote; served at feast, I, 53; 
destroyed, 203; as gift, 333; May 
named for, II, 116 

Indian Territory: II, 294, 331, and in 
footnotes on following pages, I, 257, 
278, 292, 301, 303, 317, II, 36, 199 

Industrial conditions: see Economic 
Conditions: Industries and occupa- 

Ingersoll, Ernest: II, 186, footnote; 
work cited, 327 

International Review: II, 326 

Interracial relations: I, 108, footnote, 
147-148, 149-150, footnote, 156, foot- 
note, 178, 232, 259, footnote, 352; 
English, French and Iroquois, II, 
35-36, 59. English and various 
tribes, II, 188; Hurons, II, 22; Otta- 
wa and Iroquois, 95-96; Skidi, 85. 
French and Indians, I, 263, 292, 
footnote, 294, footnote, 308, II, 254; 
Algonkins, I, 306; Iroquois, 158, 
footnote, 261, footnote, 306-307; Mi- 
ami, 332; Ottawa, 158-159, 293, II, 
44, 53 ; Potawatomi, I, 302-303, foot- 
note, 333; Shawnee, 336, footnote; 
Winnebago, 336, footnote. United 
States and various tribes, I, 292, 
footnote; Pawnee, 125, footnote. 
Whites -and Winnebago, I, 288, 
footnote. See English; French; 
United States 

Intertribal relations: I, 109 and foot- 
note, 124, footnote, 139, 140-141, 149- 
157, 260-261, 268-271, 277, II, 66- 
67, 142 ; disregarded, I, 144, foot- 
note; hostilities, 108, footnote; in- 
termarriage, 301 ; laws of commerce, 
174, footnote; result of trade, 316; 
between Algonkins and Iroquois, 
146-148, 306 ; Algonkins and Pota- 
watomi, 149, footnote; Assiniboin 
and Cree, 108, footnote; Cherokee 
and Shawnee, 335, footnote; Chip- 
pewa and Dakota, 277-278 ; Chippe- 
wa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Wy- 
andotts, II, 189, footnote; Dakota 
and Miami, 112; Dakota, Foxes, 
and Sauk, in ; Delaware and Shaw- 
nee, I, 335-336, footnote; Foxes and 
Iroquois, 349 ; Foxes, Kickapoo, and 




Mascoutens, 329, footnote; Foxes, 
Kickapoo, and Miami, II, 118; Fox- 
es and Sauk, I, 291-292, footnote, 
II, 184, 232-233, 251; Foxes and 
Sioux, 183 ; Foxes, Sioux, and Win- 
nebago, I, 288, footnote; Huron and 
Iroquois, 148, 254; Huron and Ot- 
tawa against Iroquois, II, 132-134; 
Huron and Ottawa, I, 282, footnote; 
Huron, Ottawa, and Sioux, 161-163 J 
Huron and Sauk, II, in; Iroquois 
and Missisauga, I, 279, footnote; 
Mascoutens and others, 370-372; 
Menominee and Winnebago, 293 ; 
Ottawa and allies, 188; Sauk and 
Potawatomi, 303 ; Shawnee and oth- 
er tribes, 336, footnote; see Alli- 
ance; Councils; War; also name 
of tribes treated at length 

Iowa [Ayoe's, Ihowais], (Siouan 
tribe) : I, 27, 162, footnote, 277, 
footnote, 182, footnote, II, 31, 32, 
82, 88, 145, 199, footnote, 204, 205, 
113; sprung from Winnebago, I, 
288, footnote; location, 124, foot- 
note; characteristics, 369, II, 15; 
warriors described, 356; fuel, I, 124- 
125 ; deputies visit French, 367-368 ; 
described, 367-368, footnote; French 
visit, 368; against Foxes and Mas- 
coutens, II, 112 

Iowa (state) : I, 16, II, 310, 321, 337, 
355, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 289, 292, 294, 295^ 367, 
II, 193, 211. Cities -Dubuque, II, 
66, footnote; Keokuk, 153, footnote, 
193, footnote; Tama City, I, 292, 
footnote, 294 

Iowa [Ayoe's, Ihowai, Ihoway] River: 

I, 159, 292, footnote, II, 146, 147, 
199, footnote, 202, 233, 356 

Iowa State Historical Society: Annals, 

II, 327 

Iroquets (Algonquian tribe) : I, 42, 

Iroquois [Iroquoues, Irroquois, Min- 

goes], (Five Nations) : I, 15, 26, 

148, 260, 266, 267, 293, 321, 348, 
365, II, 54, 64, 74, 126, 184, 188, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 
I, 47, 65, 142, I47> 149, 261, 279, 302, 
324, 335, 339, 371, H, 69, 135, 152, 
172 ; early location, I, 42 ; clans, II, 
269; government, I, 145, footnote; 
chieftaincy, II, 163, footnote; chief 
honored, I, 350; League, 240-241, 
footnote; status, 174, footnote; adop- 
tion, 85, footnote; marriage, 64, 65, 
footnote, 66, footnote; belief in 
flood, 40, footnote; dreams, 51, foot- 
note; feast, 62, footnote, 338-339; 
white dog ceremony, 61, footnote; 
social organization, II, 259; New 
Year's custom, 272; trade, I, 175- 

176, II, 253; cultivate soil, I, 43; 
hunting expedition, 43-45; steal ca- 
noe, 175; annuity, II, 181, footnote; 
hostility, 136; conspiracy, I, 257, 
footnote; treachery, 350-351; feared, 
175; common enemy, 231-232, II, 89- 
90, 250 ; supremacy, I, 46-47 ; in- 
crease strength, 150; raids, 150-153, 
227, 231, II, 42-43 and footnote, 254; 
rumor of attack, 107; .incursion, 
184; defeated, I, 181, II, 81, 88; 
captives, 253 ; delighted at trouble, 
I, 342; visit Sault Ste. Marie, 178- 
179; plan attack, 179; attacked, 
179-182; mission, 224, footnote; De- 
nonville's campaign against, 243- 
252; general peace discussed, 342; 
break peace, 354; desire peace, II, 
35-36; tribes against, II, 85; work 
on, cited, 335. Relations with 
English, I, 352, II, 95-96; French, 

I, X 55, footnote, 190-192, 199-203, 
232-252, 261, footnote, II, 20, 45, 60, 
254; Algonkins^ I, 43, footnote, 46, 

177, 190-203, 306; Amikwa, 63, 
footnote; Chippewa, 280-281, 335, 

II, 90; Foxes, 251; Huron, I, 157- 
158, 171, footnote, 192-193, 254, 256- 
257, II, 109, 132; Illinois, I, 156, 
350, 370; Miami, II, 13-16, 97; Ot- 




tawa, I, 211-214, 253, 256-257, II, 
95-96, 109, no; Potawatomi, I, 314, 
334; Sauk, II, 133; Shawnee, I, 

349, 350 
Irwin, Matthew: II, 151, footnote 

JACKSON COUNTY (Wis.) : I, 289, foot- 
James, Alton James: work cited, II, 


James, Edwin: II, 344, 345 

James, George Wharton: work cited, 
H, 327 

James, J. A: II, 313 

Jenks, Albert E: I, 103, footnote, II, 
207, footnote ; work cited, 309, 327 

Jesuit Relations: I, 17, 31, footnote. 
Following references are to footnotes, 
I, 31. Of 1626-1, 47, 87. Of 1633- 
I, 36, 40, 51, 76. Of 1634-1, 36, 37, 
40, 47, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59, 76, 89, 106, 
107, 129, 132, 135, 136, 146. Of 
1635-1, 40, 41, 58. Of 1636-1, 
36, 40, 47, 51, 54, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89, 
101, 136, 141. Of 1637-1, 37, 40, 
59, 89, 139, 146. Of 1639-1, 67, 
74, 83, 89, 101. Of 1640-1, 67, 
149, 162, 302, 306. Of 1642-1, 51, 
57, 58, 59, 67, 74, 85, 88, 142, 161. 
Of 1643-1, 67. Of 1644-1, 85. 
Of 1646-1, 40, 54, 74, 85, 226. Of 
1648-1, 47, 51, 59, 136, 141, 146, 
153, 154. Of 1650-1, 176. Of 
1652-1, 69. Of 1654-1, 165. Of 
1656-1, 51, 57, 158, 162. Of 1657- 
l, 74. Of 1658-1, 154, 162, 165, 
306, 316. Of 1660 I, 47, 66, 161, 
165, II, 250. Of i66l-l, 50, 165. 
Of 1662-1, 51. Of 1663-1, 165, 
181, II, 249. Of 1664-1, 66, 165. 
Of 1666-1, 198, 217. Of 1667- 
I, 47, 48, 51, 60, 149, 154, 155, 156, 
161, 162, 165, 182, 190, 281, II, 249, 
250, 251. Of 1669-1, 85. Of 
1670-1, 36, 37, 47, 48, 51, 63, 65, 
67, 74, 109, 143, 149, 154, 162, 165, 
169, 208, II, 251, 252. Of 1671 

I, 48, 51, 146, 149, 153, 154, 155, 
156, 162, 164, 222, 223, 225, 304, II, 
252. Of 1672-1, 48, 51, 132, 164, 
226, Of 1673-1, 51, 60, 135, 154, 
222. Of 1674-1, 48, 54, 60, 132, 
161. Of 1676-1, 129, 150, 162. Of 

1679-1, 210. Of 1682-1, 154. 

Jesuit Relations and allied documents'. 
the references are to footnotes, I, 32, 
42, 48, 50, 57, 59, 60, 67, 69, 8 1, 93, 
103, 114, 155, 163, 171, 205, 222, 225, 
270, 288, 290, 304, 323, 350, 366, II, 
170; work cited, 327; scope of work, 

Jesuits: I, 41, footnote, 42, footnote, 
295, footnote, 357, 371, footnote, II, 
24, 25, 39, 57; missionaries, I, 15, 
16; convert Adario, 253, footnote', 
prevent conspiracy, 254; mission, 
270, footnote, 278, footnote', know 
of Dakota villages, 278, footnote', 
aid captives, II, 36-37; unable to 
pacify Hurons, 45 ; call council, 49- 
50; compelled to aid Foxes, 55; un- 
able to stop Ottawa, 74; aid La 
Potherie, 135, footnote', require aid 
from associates, 249-251; attempt to 
hold Indians to French alliance, 
254; convert Potawatomi, 293. Spe- 
cial mention Claude Jean Allouez, 
I, 16, 48, footnote, 60, footnote, 129, 
footnote, 132, footnote, 149, foot- 
note, 156, footnote, 165, footnote, 
182, footnote, 224 and footnote, 270, 
footnote, 329, footnote, 343, II, 16; 
Andre, I, 102-103, X 5o, footnote, 225, 
footnote-, Beschefer, 48, footnote, 
154, footnote', Claude Dablon, 16, 
223, footnote, 224 and footnote; 
Dreuillette, 157, footnote, 224 and 
footnote; Galligan, II, 293; Gar- 
reau, I, 157, footnote; Gravier, 40, 
footnote, 59, footnote, 60, footnote, 
89, footnote; Hennepin, 278, foot- 
note; Louis Joliet, 16, 30, footnote, 
42, footnote, 211, footnote, 224, foot- 
note, 348, 367, footnote, II, 135, 255; 




Lallemand, I, 176 and footnote, 177 ; 
Joseph J. Marest, 48, 119, footnote, 
144, footnote, 156, footnote, 244, foot- 
note; Jacques Marquette, 16, 116, 
footnote, 118-119, footnote, 211, foot- 
note, 224 and footnote, 329, footnote; 
Rene Mesnard, 157, footnote, 171- 
173 ; Millet, 54, footnote ; Poisson, 
52-53, footnote; Quickemborne, 124, 
footnote; Ragueneau, 176, footnote; 
Rasles, 59, footnote; Jacques Eus- 
tache le Sueur, 185, footnote; The- 
baud, 155, footnote; Vivier, 124, 
footnote; Henry I. Westropp, II, 
284; see Charlevoix, Pierre de; 
Tailhan, Jules 

Johns Hopkins University Studies: II, 
151, footnote, 347 

Johnson, Elias: work cited, II, 328 

Johnson, John W: II, 177 

Johnston, Sir Wm: II, 188 

Joliet [Jolliet], Louis (Jesuit) : I, 16, 
30, footnote, 42, footnote, 211, foot- 
note, 224, footnote, II, 135, footnote, 
255; quoted, 367, footnote; voyage 
of discovery, I, 348 

Jones, Arthur E., S. J : work cited, II, 


Jones, Rev. Peter: work cited, II, 328 
Jones, William: I, 360, footnote; quot- 
ed, 292, footnote, II, 157, footnote, 
190-191, footnote, 193, footnote, 241, 
footnote; work cited, 305, 328 
Jordan, David S: I, 275, footnote 
Jouskeha (son of Ataentsic) : I, 40, 

footnote, II, 271 
Jugglers: see Medicine-men 

KAHKEWAQUONABY (Ojibwa chief) : 
II, 328 

Kalamazoo [Muramik, Maramek] 
River (Mich.): I, 316, footnote; II, 
85 and footnote, 88, 103, 120, foot- 

Kamalastigouia [Kaministiquoia], 
(post) : I, 232, 234 

Kanakuk (Kickapoo reformer) : II, 

273 ; account, 280, footnote ; teach- 
ings, 280-281 

Kankakee River: II, 119, footnote 

Kansa [Kansas, Kansez], (Siouan 
tribe) : I, 278, footnote, II, 36, 74, 
107, footnote, 108, 109, 199, 234 

Kansas: II, 284, 287, 331; and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 46, 149, 
226, 258, 281, 292, 294, 301, 303, 316, 
367, II, 189, 193, 200, 273, 280. 
Cities Argentine, II, 274, footnote; 
Horton, 193, footnote; Kansas City, 
200, footnote; Leavenworth, I, 124, 

Kansas River: II, 36, footnote, 287 

Kansas State Historical Society: II, 
3 X 3> 33 1 * Transactions, 328 

Kaskaskia (tribe of Illinois confeder- 
acy) : I, 155, footnote, 295, footnote, 
296, footnote, II, 200, 203, 204; mis- 
sion founded, I, 224, footnote; re- 
ceive annuity, II, 181, footnote 

Katarakouy: fort at, I, 258 and foot- 

Keane, Augustus H: work cited, II, 
320, 328 

Kearney, Stephen W: II, 335 

Keating, William H: work cited, II, 


Kees-ko-qui: band of Sauk warriors, 
II, 192; membership determined, 
Keinouche (division of Ottawas) : I, 

282, footnote 
Kekionga (Miami village) : I, 316, 


Kellog, Louise P: work cited, II, 351 
Kelton, Dwight H: work cited, II, 329 
Kentucky: I, 46, footnote. City - 

Louisville, II, 146, footnote 
Kentucky River: I, 336, footnote 
Keokuk [Keeocuck, Keokuck], (Sauk 
chief): II, 156-157, 193* 211, foot- 
note; information furnished by, 236- 
237; account, 193, footnote; causes 
dissentions, I, 292, footnote; illus- 
tration, II, 159 




Keokuk, Moses (son of preceding) : II, 
193, footnote 

Keweenaw Pt. (Mich.) : I, 279, foot- 

Kickapoo [Kickabous, Kicapoos, Kik- 
abouc, Kikabous, Kikapou], (tribe 
of Algonquian group) : I, 171, 223, 
245, 268, 317, 321, 344, 350, 365, 370, 
II, 20, 65, 71, 74, 89, 126, 144, 153, 

154, 183, 203-204, 287, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 124, 

155, 294, 296, 329, 371, II, 119, 211, 
278 ; account, I, 301, footnote ; court- 
ship, II, 165-167; refuse to hear en- 
voy, I, 234; against French, II, 17- 
18; march against Iroquois, 78; 
Foxes share gifts with, 125; U.S. 
enemy, 141, footnote] chiefs, 156; 
manner of raising war party, 157- 
158; receive annuity, 181, footnote; 
object to sell land, 204; alliance 
with Sauk and Fox, 233 ; prophet, 

Kickapoo River: I, 301, footnote 
Kikirinous (chief of Mascoutens) : 

entertains Perrot, I, 370 
Kilatika [Kilataks], (tribe) : II, 67 
Kilistinon : see Cree 
King Philip's War: I, 364, footnote 
Kingsford, Wm: work cited, II, 329 
Kingston (Ont.) : I, 42, footnote 
Kinnaman, J. O: II, 304 
Kinzie, John H: II, 244, footnote, 312, 


Kinzie, Juliette: work cited, II, 329 

Kiowa (Siouan tribe) : I, 277, foot- 
note, II, 171, footnote, 257, 282 

Kishkakon [Kiskakon, Kiskaouets], 
(bear gens of Ottawa) : I, 165, foot- 
note, 189 and footnote, 281, 282, 

Kishko a (social group of Sauk) : II, 
191, footnote 

Kitchigami [Ketchegamins, Kitchi- 
gamich], (tribe) : I, 155, footnote 

Kohl, J. G: work cited, II, 329 

Kremers, E: I, 21 

Kutenai (tribe) : II, 266 

(gov. of Canada) : I, 26, 244, foot- 
note, 356, 357, 363, II, 253 

La Boule, J. S: work cited, II, 337 

Labrador: I, 171, footnote, 173, foot- 
note, 241, footnote, II, 328 

Lacombe, : Diet. Lang. Cris, I, 108, 

La Durantaye, M. de: I, 239, 244, 
footnote, 250, 252, II, 44, 254, 255; 
relieves La Valtrie, I, 243-244; to 
command Ottawa, 232; arrests Eng- 
lish traders, 250; advises Frontenac 
of Ottawa movements, II, 45 ; un- 
able to pacify Hurons, 45 

Lafitau, Joseph Frangois: work cited, 
II, 329, ,and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 31, 39, 66, 69, 76, 88, 
92, 98, 233 

La Forest, Guillaume de: I, 351 and 

Lahontan, Armand Louis de: II, 47, 
footnote, 135, footnote; work cited, 


Lake Buadelower (Minn.) : II, 356 
Lake Champlain: I, 217, footnote 
Lake Erie [Erien] : I, 46, 237, II, 2o r 
95, 132, 303, 346, 356, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 122, 
146, 226, 237, 240, 257, 276, 279, 280, 
281, 302, II, 150 
La Flesche, Francis: work cited, II, 


Lake Frontenac: see Lake Ontario 

Lake Huron: I, 16, 25, 62, 109, no, 
221, 233, 251, 275, 277, 279, 287, 307, 
346, II, 20, 60, 95, 303, 355, 356, and 
in footnotes on following pages, I, 
43. 63, 109, 113, 148, 149, 153, 237, 
279, 281, 302, II, 150, 184 

Lake Koshkonong (Wis) : I, 116, foot- 

Lake Michigan [Mecheygan, Lake of 
the Illinois] : I, 172, 287, 288, 303, 
351, II, 146, 203, 215, 339, 356, and 




in footnotes on following pages, I, 

63, 113, 122, 129, 149, 150, 153, 155, 

268, 281, 290, 291, 302, 316, 329, 349, 

367, II, 150, 199, 278 
Lake Nipigon [Alimibegong] : I, 60, 

footnote, II, 356 
Lake Nipissing [Nepicing, Nepissing] : 

I, 62, 210, 339 and footnote, 340, II, 

Lake of Two Mountains: I, 157 and 

footnote, 207 
Lake Oneida: II, 356 
Lake Ontario [Lake Frontenac] : I, 46, 

146, 226, 232, 240, 251, II, 107, no, 

and in footnotes on following pages, 

I, 42, 46, 148, 153, 276, 350, II, no 
Lake Pepin [Bon Secours] : I, 163, 

footnote, II, 339 

Lake Puckaway: II, 227, footnote 
Lake St. Clair: I, 303, footnote 
Lake St. Louis: I, 214 
Lake St. Peter: I, 194, footnote 
Lake Seneca: II, 356 
Lake Simcoe: I, 257, footnote, II, 355 
Lake Superior: I, 25, 74, 108, 109, 165, 
179, 232, 233, 275, 277, 279, 307, 346, 
348, 351, II, 76, 321, 329, 339, 347, 
355, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 60, 63, 109, 122, 153, 165, 
171, 174, 224, 246, 275, 279, 282, 295, 

II, 28 

Lake Winnebago: I, 288, footnote, 294, 
footnote, 329, footnote, II, 252, 355 

Lake Winnipeg: I, 122, footnote, 277, 
footnote, 364, footnote 

Lallemand [1'Allemand], Father (mis- 
sionary to Hurons) : I, 89, footnote, 
176 and footnote, 177 

La Motte (fort) : I, 200 

La Motte [Mothe], M. de: I, 217, 
footnote-, settles trouble, 217-220 

Land cessions: I, 291, footnote, II, 
108, footnote, 181, footnote, 193, 
footnote, 280, footnote, 341 ; to U.S., 
I, 289, 292, 301, footnote', of Iowa 
tribe, 367, footnote 

Langlade, Charles: work on, cited, II, 
337, 35 

La Petite Racine: II, 53, 95; carries 
news of Iroquois raid to tribe, 44- 
45; sent as ambassador to Iroquois, 

Lapham, Increase A: I, 150, footnote', 
works cited, II, 330, 343 

La Potherie, Claude Charles le Roy, 
Sieur de Bacqueville de: I, 21, II, 
249, 341, and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 31, 47, 95, 149, 168, 
182, 270, 282, 360, 367, II, 66; brief 
account, I, 273 ; submits Ms., II, 134, 
footnote', plan of work, 135, foot- 
note', attends feast, I, 338-339. His- 
toire de I'Amerique septentrionale, 
vol. 2, I, 273-11, 136; cited, I, 13, 
16, II, 250, 252, 253, 255, 301, and 
in footnotes on following pages, I, 
42, 47. 53, 58, 66, 69, 74, 83, 88, 92, 
99, 101, 103, 106, 124, 147, 153, 154, 
155, 182, 222, 223, 225, 228, 230, 233, 
238, 243, 244, 250, 262, 264, 269; 
scope of work, I, 16; data furnished 
by Perrot, 262-263 

La Reynard [L'Reynard], Joseph: II, 

Larimer, Mrs. S. L: work cited, II, 

La Ronde, J. T. de: Narrative, II, 350 

Larpenteur, Charles: II, 151, footnote, 


La Salle, Robert Cavelier de: I, 16, 
211, 243, 308, 315, 348, 354, 364-365, 
II, 13, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 30, 211, 243, 246, 296, II, 
119; tries to stop illicit trading, I, 
230, footnote', gives present, 350; 
doings, 351; ignorant of plot, 353 
Lasley, Mrs. Mary (daughter of Black 

Hawk) : II, 304 
La Sueur, Pierre C: II, 136 
La Valtrie, M. de: I, 244 
Lawe and Grignon papers: II, 350 
Lawson, Publius V: I, 289, footnote; 

work cited, II, 351 
Le Baron (Huron chief) : II, 107 
Le Borgne (chief of Algonkins) : 176, 
footnote', inspires fear, I, 177; treat- 




ment of missionary, 177; arrested, 


Le Brochet (Ottawa chief) : I, 340 
Leclaire, Antoine: II, 307 
Le Clercq, : Relation de Gaspesie, 

I, 50 

Lee, Guy C: II, 345 

Lee, John T: work cited, II, 311, 351 

Leech Lake (Minn.) : II, 224, footnote 

Le Froid (Indian) : I, 168 

Legler, Henry E: II, 337 

Le Gobien, C: II, 357 

Leipzig (Germany) : I, 23 

Le Jeune, : I, 222, 288, footnote 

Leland Stanford University Publica- 
tions, II, 345 

Lemoine, J. M: Ornitkologie du Can- 
ada, I, 114 

Le Moyne [Moine], Charles, sieur de 
Longueil: captured, I, 197-198 and 
footnote; freed, 198 

Le Moyne, Jean Baptiste, sieur de 
Bienville, I, 198, footnote 

Le Moyne, Pierre, sieur d'Iberville: I, 
198, footnote, 273, footnote 

Le Pesant [Ottawa chief] : I, 257, foot- 

Le Rat (Huron) : II, 136 

Leroy-Beaulieu: work cited, I, 27 

Le Sueur, Jacques Eustache (Jesuit 
missionary) : I, 185, footnote 

Le Sueur, Pierre: I, 244, footnote; 
work cited, II, 330 

Le Talon [Outoutaga, Jean le Blanc], j 
(Ottawa chief) : I, 340, II, 136 

Lettres edifiantes: II, 305, 357, and in 
footnotes on following pages, I, 31, 
32, 36, 47, 53, 59, 60, 66, 76, 83, 89, 
119, 124, 144, 146, 155, 162, 169, 223 

Leupp, Francis E: I, 21; work cited, 

II, 330 

Lewis, J. O: work cited, II, 357 
Lewis, Meriwether: I, 278, footnote, 

II, 146, footnote 
Leyte (Philippine Island) : II, 202, 


Libby, O. G: II, 59, footnote, 351 
Lignery, de: II, 350 

Lillian, Sister, S. H. N: I, 21 
Lincoln, Benj : work cited, II, 330 
Lindsay, Crawford: I, no, footnote, 
quoted, 77, footnote, 103, footnote, 
308, footnote 

Liquor, intoxicating: II, 237, footnote; 
I 259, footnote, 204, 208, 208-210, 
footnote, 229, 250, II, 22-23, 33, 105; 
whiskey, 155, 178, 211, footnote, 
214; weaken Illinois, I, 296, foot- 
note; to stimulate trade, II, 150, 
footnote; Shawnee prophet de- 
nounces, 273, footnote; forbidden, 
280 and footnote; see Vices in- 
Little Rock (Potawatomi village) : II, 


Little Turtle (Miami village) : II, 355 
Little Wolf River: I, 317, footnote 
Lockwood, James H: work cited, II, 


Lodges: see Economic conditions 

London Times: quoted, I, 218, footnote 

Long, John: I, 277, footnote, II, 199, 
footnote; Voyages, I, 209, footnote, 
II, 330, 346 

Long, Stephen H: II, 329 

Long Island (Wis.) : II, 76, footnote 

Long Point [Longue Pointe] : I, 237, 
238, footnote 

Louis XIV: I, 198, footnote 

Louisiana: I, 25, and in footnotes on 
following pages, 76, 122, 198, 246, 
256. City - New Orleans, II, 199, 

Loups: see Mahican, Skidi 

Louvigny, M. de la Porte (comman- 
dant at Mackinac) : I, 256 and foot- 
note, 266, 267, footnote, 268, 272, II, 
46, 74, 75, 85, 91, 256; succeeds Du- 
rantaye, 45; recalled, I, 256 

Lowie, Robert H : quoted, I, 65 ; work 
cited, II, 305 

Lude, M. de: I, 232, 250; induces 
Perrot to persuade Indians to go on 
war-path, 234 

Lundy, John P: work cited, II, 330 

Luth (Lhut), Greysolon du: brief ac- 




count, II, 28; refuses to settle 
trouble, 28 ; visits Foxes, 29 
Lynx: I, 114 and footnote 

McCov, REV. ISAAC: works cited, II, 


McGee, W J: work cited, II, 309, 345 
McGuire, Joseph D: I, 361, footnote ; 

quoted, I, 104-105, footnote, II, 200, 

footnote ; work cited, 331, 343 
Machiche [Ouabmachis] River: I, 194, 

Mach-i-Man-i-to (Evil Spirit) : II, 

Mclntosh, M. E: work on, cited, II, 


McKenney, Thomas L: II, 156, foot- 
note] works cited, 331-332 

McKenzie, Fayette A: work cited, II, 

Mackinac [Makinac, Michilimacinac, 
Michilimakinak, Michillimackinac, 
Michillimakinak, Missilimakinac] : 
I, 148, 221, 232, 234, 245, 249-250, 
253, 254, 256, 276, 282, 350, 351, 352, 
357, II, 21, 27, 36, 39, 40, 44, 45, 75, 
78, 85, 91, 92, 109, 118, 122, 132, 134, 
253, 254, 255, 281, 308, 321, 334, 349, 
356, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 36, 164, 189, 225, 244, 250, 
257, 267; source of name, 287; Ot- 
tawas live at, 188; Marquette at, 
224, footnote; traders visit, 229, 
footnote ; place of Michapous, 283; 
view, 285; smoke seen at, 334; 
Louvigni arrives at, II, 46-47; 
Jesuits call council, 49-50; arrival 
of French, 54; French ordered to, 
65 ; Dakota leave, 74 

Mackinac [Makinaw, Michillimakin- 
ac] Island: I, 148, footnote, II, 150, 
footnote, 190 

McLaughlin, James: work cited, II, 

McMaster, John B: work cited, II, 332 

Madeleine Island: II, 77, footnote 

Mahican [Loups], (Algonquian tribe) : 

I 336, footnote, 364; account, 364, 

Main Poque (Potawatomi juggler) : 
II, 203; account, 203, footnote ; 
heads war against Osage, 204; 
Potawatomi join, 278 ; influence, 278, 

Maine: I, 224, footnote, 328, footnote t 
II, 54, footnote, 55, footnote 

Mair, Charles: work cited, II, 332 

Mallery, Garrick: I, 325, footnote; 
work cited, II, 309, 332 

Maloumines: see Menominee 

Man: II, 338 

Mandan (Siouan group) : I, 171, foot- 
note, 278, footnote, 323, footnote 

Manilion (place for burning cap- 
tives) : II, 39 

Manistique [Oulamanistik] River: I, 
314 and footnote 

Manito [manido, manitou, munito, 
munitoo, orenda, wakanda] : I, 50, 
footnote, 60, footnote, 61, footnote, 
287, II, 194, 203, footnote, 221, 224, 
footnote, 264, 267; feast to, I, 227, 
footnote; term defined, 284, foot- 
note; Miami offer to shut up, 332; 
beliefs concerning, II, 222-223 an d 
footnote; Kitchi Manito, 291, 292; 
see Mach-i-Man-i-to; Great Spirit 

Manitoba: I, 107, footnote, 108, foot- 

Manitoulin Island [Isle des Outaouas, 
Manitoualine, Manitouline, Mani- 
toaletz, Ondataouaouat] : I, 63, foot- 
note, 149, footnote, 153, footnote, 
164, footnote, 188, 221, 281, footnote, 
282, footnote 

Manners and customs: in general I, 
58, footnote; designate selves as 
"men," II, 113; conceal, 146; when 
defeated in play, I, 95-96 ; of show- 
ing respect, 196; menstrual period, 
170-172; childbirth, I, 48 and foot- 
note; remove hair from body, II, 
235; military reception, 22; of 
Sioux, I, 160-162. Adoption I, 




320, footnote, II, 162, 196, 197; of 
bands, 320, footnote; of captives, 37- 
38, footnote; of conquered tribes, I, 
241, footnote; at death of child, II, 
293; of white boy, 189, footnote; 
status of adopted, 213 ; to supply 
place of dead, I, 84-85, 85, footnote; 
encouraged to increase population, 
II, 237; increases strength, I, 227; 
to replenish gens, II, 37-38, footnote. 
Adornment I, 315, 324-325, 363, II, 
235 and footnote; love of, I, 142; 
love of color, 337-338, footnote; of 
adopted, 84-85; of dying, 78; of 
women, 71; of warriors, II, 356- 
357; mourners avoid, 70, 73, 82, 
footnote; beads, 331 and footnote; 
feathers, 51, footnote; paint, 52 and 
footnote; ornaments, 282; quill em- 
broidery, 327-328, footnote; tattoo- 
ing* 3 2 5 a d footnote; as sacrifice, 
61, footnote; of calumet, 182, foot- 
note, 326 ; of cradle, 77 ; at games, 
94. Hospitality I, 132-138, 291, 
340; of lowas, 369. Puberty II, 
171, footnote, 172, footnote, 237, 
footnote, 267 ; significance of dreams, 

I, 52, footnote. See Burial and 
mourning ; Courtship ; Divorce ; 

Feasts; Marriage; Vengeance; Vices 

Mantouek [Mantouechs], (tribe) : 306, 
footnote; characteristics, I, 306 

Manypenny, George W: work cited, 

Marathon County (Wis.) : I, 289, foot- 

Marechal, N: II, 357 

Marest, Gabriel (Jesuit) : I, 48, foot- 
note, 119, footnote, 144, footnote, 156, 
footnote, 162, footnote, 366, footnote 

Marest, Father Joseph J: I, 244, foot- 

Margry, Pierre (historian) : I, 30 and 
footnote, 211, footnote, 256, footnote, 

II, 120, footnote; work cited, 333 
Marin [or Morand, Marrin], (half 

breed?): II, 216, 217, footnote 

Marin, Joseph: II, 216-217, footnote 
Marin, Pierre Paul, sieur: II, 216, 


Marmots, whistling: I, 49, footnote 
Marquette, Jacques (Jesuit) : I, 16, II, 
249, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 30, 116, 118-119, 149. *50, 
*54 I 55> X 5 6 l6 9 *82, 211, 222, 226, 
258, 290, 296, 316, II, 36, 107; brief 
account, I, 224-225, footnote; signs 
paper, 224; does not sign paper, 
225 ; voyage of discovery, 348 ; 
work on, cited, II, 348 
Marriage: I, 64-78, II, 187, 214-216; 
within clan, forbidden, I, 65, foot- 
note ; ceremony, 68-69 ! abstain from 
intercourse, 69 and footnote ; serving 
for wife, II, 212, 214; run away, 
214; purchase of wife, 214; customs 
among Algonkins, I, 68-70; among 
Sauk and Foxes, II, 165-167; among 
Potawatomi, 167-168; various tribes, 
Marsh, Rev. Cutting: work cited, II, 


Marston, Morrell, U.S.A: I, 14, 17, 
360, II, 142, footnote, 148, footnote, 
182 and footnote; Letter to Dr. J. 
Morse, 138-182, 302; scope of work, 


Martens: I, 102, 109, 113 

Martial law: see Government: mili- 

Martin, Horace F: work cited, II, 333 

Martin, Morgan L: II, 321 

Maryland: II, 177, footnote 

Mas-co (Sauk chief) : II, 155, 174, 
215; questioned, 141 

Mascoutens [Masco, Mascota, Masco- 
tins, Mascouetechs, Mushkodainsug, 
Maskoutechs, Maskoutens], (Algon- 
quian tribes) : I, 26, 27, 171, 223, 
245, 3oi, 317, 32i, 322, 344, 350, 364, 
365, 370, II, 20, 64, 65, 66, 71, 72, 73, 
99, 112, 201, 252, and in footnotes 
on following Pages, I, 108, 155, 269, 
302, 316, II, 119; location, 356; ac- 




count, I, 329-330, footnote; char- 
acteristics, 330, footnote; cruelty, II, 
202 ; conduct, 82 ; commit murder, 
26; invite Perrot to visit, 61 ; Perrot 
visits, 64; take Perrot captive, 83; 
attempt to seduce Perrot, 88 ; try to 
make recompense, 89 ; plot against 
Perrot, 103; seek vengeance on Da- 
kota, 97; Dakota and Miami swear 
to destroy, 114; plot against French, 
17-18, 54; Miami desire war against, 
58 ; attack Sauk and Foxes, 202-203 > 
tribes opposed to, 112 
Mason, Edward G: works cited, II, 


Mason, Otis T: quoted, in footnotes on 
following pages, I, 80, 171, 174, 221, 
222, 276, 331-332, Hi *49> 199-200; 
works cited, II, 305, 333, 343 

Massachusetts: I, 364, footnote. Cit- 
ies -Boston, I, 261, footnote, II, 241, 
footnote ; Salem, 304 

Massachusetts Historical Society: Col- 
lections, II, 330 

Massachusetts Missionary Magazine: 

II, 304 

Massacre: plot, I, 257, footnote, II, 54; 
Indians desire to, French, I, 253, 
footnote, 353; by Ottawa, 258-259 
and footnote; among Hurons, 268; 
Sioux, 289, footnote ; of Illinois, 296 ; 
of Mundua [Mantouek], 306; of 
captives threatened, II, 99 ; in vil- 
lage of Lachine, 254 
Mateomek (divinity) : I, 62 
Matson, N: works cited, II, 333-334 
Matthew, Irwin: seeMcKenney, Thos. 

L., II, 332 

Maumee River: I, 316, footnote 
Maximilian, Prince of Wied-Neu- 

wied: II, 199, footnote, 347 
Meade, G. G: Report of Survey of 

Northern Lakes, I, 150, footnote 
Medicine: II, 218-219, 218, footnote; 
eating of mescal and peyote, 281- 
283 ; Grand Medicine Society, 224, 

Medicine bag [sack] : see Pouch 
Medicine-men [jugglers, shamans] : I, 
49, II, 71, 80, 86 and footnote; in- 
terpret dreams, I, 47 ; ceremony at 
naming of child, 76-77; at death- 
bed, 78 ; function at feast, II, 86-88 ; 
instructed by buffaloes, I, 123, foot- 
note; prophesies, 314; Foxes con- 
sult, II, 68 ; ceremonies over sick, 
219; cure disease, 268; duties and 
functions, 68-69, footnote; object to 
introduction of Christianity, 224, 
footnote; Shawnee prophet de- 
nounces, 273, footnote; instruments, 

I, 50, footnote 

Medicine-tube: I, 50, footnote 
Meeker, Moses: II, 59, footnote; work 

cited, 350 

Menard [Mesnard], Pierre Rene (mis- 
sionary to Ottawa) : I, 157 and foot- 
note, II, 249, 312; brief account, I, 
171, footnote; abandoned, 171-172; 
lost, 172-173 ; work on, cited, II, 337, 

Mengakonkia [Mangakekis, Manga- 
kokis], (Miami division) : II, 67, 

Menominee [Malhominis, Maloumines, 
Maloumins, Menomini, Minnomin- 
nie], (Algonquian tribe) : I, 27, 293, 

II, 20, 107, 225, 229, 250, 259, and 
in footnotes on following pages, I, 
48, 103, 165, 238, 289, 291, 292, 294, 
301, II, 17, 69, 241; location, 355; 
characteristics, I, 291, footnote, 304; 
sun-worshipers, 60, footnote; eco- 
nomical conditions, 303-304; chief, 
II, 157, footnote; traditions show 
outside influence, I, 41, footnote; at- 
tend council, 223 ; manner of indi- 
cating ownership of crops, II, 207, 

Menominee River: I, 291, footnote, II, 


Merrell, Henry: Narrative, II, 350 
Merriam, C. Hart: I, no, footnote; 

quoted, 114, footnote, 305, footnote 




Mesa Verde: I, 325, footnote 

Mescal-eaters (Winnebago) : II, 281- 
283 ; opposition to religion, 297-298 

Mescaleros [Miskarora], (Mexican 
tribe) : II, 282 

Messou (or Creator) : I, 37, footnote, 
40, footnote 

Metal: introduction, I, 318, footnote} 
copper, 173, footnote, 174, footnote, 
348, II, 199, footnote', iron, I, 160, 
307, 312, 318, footnote, 326, 355, II, 
96, footnote, 250; lead, I, 259, foot- 
note, II, 59 and footnote, 74, 102, 
152, footnote, 153 

Methodist Quarterly Review: II, 326 

Metzdorf, Rev. Wm: II, 284; article, 

Meule, M. de: sent to replace M. 
du Chesneau, I, 231 

Mexico: I, 25, 337, II, 37, 257, 268, 
282, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 122, 133, 169, 221, 301, 
305, 318, 324, 325, 371, II, 116, 151, 
156, 166, 281. Cities Chihuahua, 
I, 301, footnote', Mexico City, II, 


Miami [Metousceprinioueks, Oumi- 
amis], (Algonquian tribe) : I, 26, 
27, 223, 260, 261, 267, 268, 270, 271, 
301, 316, 321, 329, 344, 350, 364, 
H, 64, 65, 71, 72, 188, 252, 254, 259, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 
I, 48, 155, 269, 301, 329, 335, 336, 
371, II, 229, 279; account, I, 316, 
footnote; locations, II, 355; migra- 
tion, 254; characteristics, I, 317, 
footnote, 322; punish illegal sepa- 
ration, 65, footnote] power of chief, 
146, footnote; chiefs massacred, 258 
and footnote; receive annuity, II, 
181, footnote; bear-feast, I, 132, 
footnote; Crane clan, 270, footnote; 
conspiracy, 257, footnote, II, 54, 67; 
routed, 113; go to Chicago, I, 370; 
regret not entering alliance, II, 26; 
accused of murder, 27; tribes op- 
posed to, 112; on war-path, 126- 

127. Relations with English, II, 
81 ; French, I, 259, 322, 365, II, 13, 
97, 120, 126, 130; Perrot, I, 327, 
344-345, 365, II, 13-15, 56, 57, 66, 
85; Dakota, 97-98, 101, 111-112, 
114, 117, 118, 129, 131; Foxes, 118, 
123; Huron, I, 256, II, 132; Iro- 
quois, 13-16, 132; Ottawa, 125; Pot- 
awatomi, I, 322; Shawnee, 349 

Miami [Miamie] River: I, 155, foot- 
note, 316, footnote, II, 188, 200, 201 

Michabou: see Great Hare; Nanabozho 

Michigamea [Michigamians, Mitchi- 
gamias], (Illinois tribe) : I, 155, 
footnote, 295, footnote, 296, footnote, 
II, 200 

Michigan: I, 16, II, 278, 287, 293, 
307, 347, 355, 356, and in footnotes 
on following pages, I, 149, 153, 165, 
257, 282, 291, 302, 303, II, 150, 189, 
280; French posts, I, 27; School- 
craft County, 314, footnote. Cities 
Benton Harbor, II, 304; Browns- 
town, 188, 233; Harbor Springs, 
288; Keweenaw Pt, I, 279, foot- 
note; Mackinaw, 281, footnote, II, 
139, 140, footnote, 184, footnote, 
303; Saginaw, 146 and footnote; St. 
Ignace, 47, footnote; see Detroit; 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical So- 
ciety: Collections and researches, II, 

3io, 334 

Michillimackinac: see Mackinac 
Michillimackinac Parish: Register, II, 


Michipissy: see Great Panther 

Micmac [Mikmak], (Algonquian 
tribe): I, 197 

Mide-wiwin [Grand Medicine Socie- 
ty] : II, 224-225, 224, footnote 

Migrations: I, 294, footnote; com- 
pelled by U.S., 289, footnote; Cad- 
doan family, 125, footnote; Ameri- 
can, II, 211, footnote; of Assiniboin, 
I, 364, footnote; of Chippewa, 153, 
footnote, 159; of Foxes, 294, foot- 




note, II, 146-147, 184, 251 ; Hurons, 

I, 159-190; Illinois, 155, footnote; 
Iowa, 367, footnote ; Kaskaskia, 296, 
footnote] Kickapoo, 301, footnote, 

II, 280, footnote; Mascoutens, I, 
329; Miami, 316, footnote, II, 254; 
Missisauga, I, 159; Nepissing, 339, 
footnote] Osage, II, 36, footnote] 
Oto, 199, footnote] Ottawa, I, 159- 
190, 281-282, footnote] Peoria, 296, 
footnote] Potawatomi, 149, footnote, 
302-303, II, 287; Puans, I, 299; 
Sauk, II, 146-147, 184; Shawnee, 
I> 335-336, footnote] Tionontati, II, 
184, footnote] Wyandotts, 189, foot- 
note] of buffalo, I, 122, footnote, II, 
200, footnote] of deer, 200, footnote 

Mille Lacs: I, 277, footnote 

Millet, Father: I, 54, footnote 

Milwaukee (Potawatomi village) : II, 

Milwaukee [Melwakee] River: I, 301, 
footnote, 302, footnote, 303, foot- 
note, 329, footnote, II, 181, footnote 

Minnesota: I, 16, II, 96, 219, 308, 328, 
329, 334, 355, 356, and in footnotes 
on following pages, I, 81, 103, 150, 
174, 277, 289, 367, II, 224; history 
cited, 336. Cities Duluth, II, 28, 
footnote] Maine, 287; Mille Lac, 
356; Pipestone, 96; Red Wing, I, 
163, footnote 

Minnesota Historical Society: II, 308, 
347, 348; Collections, 334, 336; Doc- 
uments, 334 

Missionaries: I, 15, 16, 25, 148, 171- 
173, 224, II, 25, 72, 121, 249, 250, 
284, 293, 307, 333, 342; and in foot- 
notes on folloiving pages, I, 40, 41, 
42, 48, 81, 109, 155-156, 185, 290, 
295, 296, 306, 339, II, 38, 180; re- 
count superstitions, I, 47, footnote] 
deplore courtship customs, 67, foot- 
note] assigned, 157; compute num- 
ber of Sioux, 162, footnote] to Hu- 
rons, 176 and footnote] torture, 177; 
save Iroquois, 193 ; biographical 

notes, 224, footnote] convert Adario, 
253, footnote] know of Dakota vil- 
lages, 278, footnote] blamed for 
epidemic, 354; visit Hurons, II, 
49; Shaker, 274; easy work among 
Sioux, 284; train Indians, 286; pub- 
lish paper, 288; traces of first, 292; 
writings, 319-320; from Society of 
Friends, 323 ; value of reports, 327- 
328; biographical sketches cited, 
336; works by, 340; see Jesuits 

Missionary Herald: II, 304 

Missions de Quebec: quoted, I, 136, 
footnote] cited, 156, footnote, 208, 

Missions: II, 253 ; Perrot saves, I, 354; 
Perrot gives monstrance, II, 57, 
footnote] Potawatomi, I, 278, foot- 

Missisauga [Missisakis], (Algonquian 
tribe) : I, 275, 279, II, 46, 241, foot- 
note] brief account, I, 279, footnote] 
location, 153, footnote] characteris- 
tics, 154, footnote] method of fish- 
ing, 276; defeat Iroquois, 153, 154, 
footnote] abandon enterprise, 211; 
tomahawk sent to, 233; believe 
Nipissing, 340-341 

Mississippi (state) : I, 122, footnote, 
198, footnote, 277, footnote 

Mississippi [Louisianna, Missisipi] 
River: I, 16, 17, 26, 165, 166, 277, 
308, 321, 354, 356, 365, 366, II, 16, 
26, 34, 65, 71, 102, 129, 136, 147, 

148, 153, 182, 199, 202, 205, 213, 
233, 253, 261, 263, 278, 287, 303, 
311, 315, 321, 330, 333, 334, 335. 
336, 346, 347* 355. 356, and in foot- 
notes on folloiving pages, I, 65, 124, 

149, 153, 155, 162, 163, 169, 171, 
244, 245, 257, 268, 270, 277, 281, 
288, 289, 292, 295, 296, 302, 303, 
336, 364, 367, II, 30, 48, 59, 142, 

150, 156, 166, 211, 226, 244; dis- 
covery, I, 30, footnote, 42, footnote, 
211, footnote, 224, footnote, 246, 
footnote, 348 and footnote 




Mississippi Valley: I, 25, 159, and in 
footnotes on following pages, 50, 
66, 146, 169, 185, 246, 323, 324, 325, 

Missouri (Siouan tribe) : II, 200, and 
in footnotes on following pages, I, 
156, 171, 277, 367, II, 108, 199 

Missouri (state) : II, 234, 280, 281, 
33> 355, and in footnotes on fol- 
lowing Pages, I, 292, 295, 301, 367, 
II, 119, 146. Cities Belle Fon- 
taine, II, 150, footnote-, St. Louis, 
I, 117, footnote, 292, footnote, II, 
137, 146, 177, footnote, 181, foot- 
note, 203, 244, 245, footnote, 313, 

Missouri River: II, 142, 147, 148, 199, 
205, 233, 234, 278, 335, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 117, 
124, 160, 171, 277, 364, 367, II, 36, 
199, 279, 292 

Missouri River Valley: II, 313 

Missouri State Historical Society: II, 
342; Documents, 334 

Moccasins: used as food, I, 229, foot- 
note', peculiar to tribe, 328, foot- 
note', gift to Perrot, II, 73 

Mohawk [Agniers, Aniez, Annieron- 
non], (tribe of Iroquois confeder- 
ation) : I, 199, and in footnotes on 
following pages, 47, 157, 181, 199, 
240, 371, II, 156; location, 356; 
courage, I, 147, footnote', demand 
peace, 200; French and allies wage 
war against, 202-203 beg for peace, 
203; disclose treachery, 254; warn 
Seneca, 255 

Mohawk River: II, 188 

Mohegan (Algonquian tribe) : adopt 
Pequot, II, 37-38, footnote 

Moingwena [Mouingoiiena], (Illinois 
tribe) : I, 155, footnote, 295, foot- 

Mo-ne-to-mack (Sauk chief) : II, 155 

Monroe, James: I, 14 

Montagnais (Athapascan group) : I, 
197, 222, footnote, 281, footnote, II, 

257; location, 356; myths, I, 36-37, 
footnote; creation belief, 40, foot- 
note; abhor flesh of dogs, 53, foot- 
note; bear feast, 131-132, footnote 

Montana: I, 81, footnote, 364, foot- 
note, II, 199, footnote; Missoula 
County, I, 123, footnote 

Months: named from animals and 
fish: II, 115-116 

Montreal (Que.) : I, 25, 42, 157, 158, 
188, 198, 201, 254, 261, 307, 309, 
310, 313, 315, 317, 333, 334, 337, 343, 

35i, 357, II, 25, 42, 45, 46, 75, 79, 
89, 96, 104, 106, 107, 109, no, 136, 
174, 251, 253, 254, 310, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 42, 148, 
165, 171, 229, 238, 253, 259, II, 135; 
Mohawks settle in, I, 203 ; Ottawa 
go to, 210; Ottawa reach, 214; jur- 
isdiction, 215; trade, 228; trip 
planned to, 336-339; ravaged by 
Iroquois, II, 254 

Mooney, James: quoted, II, 272-273, 

and in footnotes on following pages, 

I, 43, 108, 270, 279-280, 282, 291, 

294, 296, 303, 316-317, 327-328, 330, 

339, 364, II, 26-27, 54-55, 77, "9- 

120, 156-157, 166, 184, 273-274, 278- 

279, 281-282; work cited, 309, 335 

Moore, Clarence B: I, 324, footnote 

Moorehead, Warren K: works cited, 


Moose: I, 102, no, footnote, 113 and 
footnote, 203, 280; origin of man, 
37; as game, 44; form yards, 44, 
footnote; method of hunting, 107- 
108 ; great number killed, 221 ; Oc- 
tober named for, II, 116 

Morgan, F. P: II, 335 

Morgan, Lewis H: II, 161, footnote, 
191, footnote; work cited, 335, 343 

Morris, Thomas: Journal, II, 346 

Morse, Jedidiah: I, 14, II, 176, 181, 
footnote, 182 and footnote, 302; 
quoted, 177, footnote; letter of Mor- 
rell Marston to, 138-182; outline of 
work, 139-140, footnote 




Morse, R. F: work cited, II, 350 
Mortuary customs: see Burial and 


Mothe-Cadillac [Motte], Antoine de 
la: I, 256, 257, and footnote ; brief 
account, 256, footnote 
Mound-builders: I, 305, footnote 
Mounds: II, 199, footnote, 304, 335, 

Mousonee [Monsonis], (Chippewa 

phratry) : attend council, I, 224 
Muc-co-pawn (Fox Indian) : II, 211 
Mud Lake (Wis.) : I, 116, footnote 
Muir, Dr. : II, 153 and footnote 
Musical instruments: I, 329; drum, 
84, 86, 91, 92, 311, II, 87, 158, 169, 
222, 230, 231, 282, 292; resembling 
flageolet I, 50, footnote ; flute, II, 
222; gourd rattle, I, 86, 91, 92, II, 
89, 102, 169, 282; rattle, 169 
Mus-ke-ta-bah (Sauk chief) : II, 154- 


Muskhogean family: I, 65, footnote 
Muskrat: creation myth, I, 35; source 

of man, 40, footnote 
Myths: see Beliefs and superstitions 

NA-CAL-A-QUOIK (Sauk chief) : II, 157 
Nadouaichs (tribe) : I, 292-293 
Nadouaissioux: see Dakota 
Nakaidoklini (Apache) : II, 273 
Nanabozho [Manabozho, Messou, 
Michabo, Michabous, Michapous], 
(deity): I, 337, II, 266, 272; ac- 
count of belief, I, 283, 283-287, 
footnote ; see Great Hare 
Nan-nah-que (Sauk chief) : II, 154- 


Nansouakoiiet [Nansoaskoiiet], (Otta- 
wa chief) : II, 22, 107-108 

Nanticoke (Algonquian tribe) : I, 335, 

Narraganset (Algonquian tribe) : 
adopt Pequots, II, 37, footnote 

Nassauaketon [Nansouaketon, Nassa- 
waketon], (Ottawa division) : I, 281 

Natchez (tribe) : I, 169, footnote, 185, 

footnote, II, 226, footnote, 257 ; hon- 
ors to dead chief, I, 62, footnote', 
power of chief, I, 146, footnote, II, 
164, footnote 

Nation: II, 326 

National Intelligencer: II, 319 

Naturalization: I, 185 

Navaho (Athapascan tribe) : II, 168, 
footnote, 229, footnote, 257 

Nebraska: I, 124, footnote, 125, foot- 
note, 289, footnote, 292, footnote, 
367, footnote, II, 282, 298. City- 
Winnebago, II, 281 

Negaouichiriniouek (tribe) : I, 155, 

Negauquetl, Father (Potawatomi) : II, 

Neill, Edward D: II, 256; work cit- 
ed, 334, 336, 360 

Nets: beaver, used to locate Hurons, 

I, 167, II, 32-33 

Neutrals [Neuters], (confederation of 

Iroquoian tribes): I, 240, footnote', 

location, II, 356; subjugated by 

Seneca, I, 241, footnote 

Neveu, Gustave de: work cited, II, 


Neville, A. C: work cited, II, 351 
New England: I, 38, footnote, II, 82, 

185, footnote 

Newfoundland: I, 38, footnote 

New France: I, 26, 145, II, 249, 251, 

252, 253, 312, and in footnotes on 

following pages, I, 36, 47, 66, 124, 

154, 169, 197, 211, 222, 253, 269, 

II, 135; defence, I, 198 

New Hampshire: I, 267, footnote 

New Jersey: II, 355 

New Mexico: I, 124, footnote, 323, 
footnote, 363, footnote, 364, II, 152, 
footnote, 200, footnote 

New York (state) : II, 323, 355, 356, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 
I, 226, 240, 241, 280, 289, 316, 324, 
332, II, no, in, 139, 230; reser- 
vations, I, 240, footnote-, Ononda- 
ga County, II, 356; Ontario Coun- 




ty, I, 240, footnote. Cities Al- 
bany [Orange], I, 200, footnote, 259, 
footnote, 261, footnote; Buffalo, II, 
149, footnote, 177; Naples, I, 240, 
footnote; New York City, 123, foot- 
note, 261, footnote, II, 177, footnote, 

New York State Historical Society, 
II, 313 

New York State Museum: Bulletins, 
II, 307 

Niagara: I, 122, footnote, 153, foot- 
note, 239, 242, 251, 351, 353, II, 1 6, 
20, 26 

Nicaragua: II, 170, footnote 

Nicolas, : II, 302 

Nicolet [Nicollet], : I, 103, foot- 
note, 291, footnote 

Nicolet River: I, 194, 195, 196 

Nikikouek [Mikikouet], (Algonquian 
tribe) : I, 153 and footnote, 154,, 

Nipissing [Nepiciriniens, Nepissing, 
Nepissiniens], (Algonquian tribe) : 

I, 150, 173, 179, 197, 210, 281, foot- 
not e, 339, II, 47, 55; account, I, 
339, footnote; location, II, 356; 
characteristics, I, 339, footnote; 
creation belief, 62-63 j attend coun- 
cil, 224; Iroquois plan raid, 231; 
method of fishing, 276; try to pre- 
vent tribes from going to Montreal, 
340-341; aid French, II, 51; march 
against Iroquois, 78 ; make gifts to 
French, 79 

Noirolle [de Lerolle], M. de (nephew 
of M. de Tracy) : captive, I, 200 

Nordenskjold, G: I, 325, footnote 

Noro [Porcupine], (Fox chief): II, 
136, 255 

North America: I, 25, II, 208, 265, 
268, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 80, 123, 173, 306, 323, 

II, 86, 171, 172 

North American Review: II, 311, 321, 

326, 335 
North Carolina: I, 46, footnote, 81, 

footnote, 267, footnote, 277, footnote, 
278, footnote, 308, footnote 

North Dakota: I, 81, footnote, II, 355 

North Dakota State Historical Socie- 
ty: Collections, II, 336 

Northern Missionary Society: II, 139, 

North Sea: I, 25 

Nottawasaga Bay: II, 184, footnote 

Nova Scotia: I, 348 

Nuttall, Thomas: Journal, II, 346 

O-CHEK-KA: illlustration, II, 295 

Odanah (mission) : II, 336 

Ogg, Frederick A: work cited, II, 336 

Ohio: II, 356, and in footnotes on fol- 
lowing pages, I, 46, 240, 281, 316, 
335, II, 189, 273; Shawnee driven 
from, 323. Cities Ashtabula, II, 
304; Chilicothe, 188; Greenville, 
273, footnote, 274; Sandusky, 150, 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical So- 
ciety: Quarterly, II, 336 

Ohio River: II, 199, 201, 315, 328, 
333, 346, and in footnotes on fol- 
lowing pages, I, 155, 278, 336, II, 
36, 107; Tecumseh attempts to fix 
as boundary between two races, 279, 

Ohio State Archeological and Histor- 
ical Society, II, 345 

Ohio Valley: I, 185, footnote, 226, 
footnote, 316, footnote 

Ojibwa: see Chippewa 

Oka: I, 241, footnote 

Oklahoma: II, 282, 287, 294, and in 
footnotes on following pages, I, 125, 
258, 281, 282, 292, 294, 296, 301, 
367, II, 119 

Omaha [Maha], (Siouan tribe): II, 
199, 205, 282, and in footnotes on 
following pages, I, 185, 278, 292, 
367, II, 36, 107, 224; clans, 269; 
lodges, I, 162, footnote; social sys- 
tem, II, 258 

Oneida [Anoyes, Onneyouts], (tribe 




of Iroquois confederation) : I, 47, 
footnote, 181, footnote, II, 307; lo- 
cation, 356; demand peace, I, 200 

Onkimaoiiassam (Fox chief): I, 361; 
gives up slave, 362 

Onondago [Onnontaguais, Onontague, 
Onontagues, Onontaguez], (one of 
Iroquois Five Nations]: I, 47, foot- 
note, 148, 199, II, 356; account, 
no-ui, footnote-, French plan to 
destroy village, I, 232 ; censure Hu- 
rons, II, iio-in 

Onondaga County (N.Y.) : II, 356 

Onondaga Lake: II, no, footnote 

Onontio [Ononthio], (name applied 
by savages to French governor) : I, 
196, 200, footnote, 268, 270, 312, 
313, 3i6, 334, 341, 346, 350, 352, 
357, 365, II, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 25, 
29, 30, 34, 36, 40, 4*1 50, 52, 54, 58, 
59, 64, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 89, 91, 
95, 96, 97, 99, loo, 101, 102, 109, 
no, 114, 128, 132; protects sav- 
ages, I, 266-267; power, II, 50-51 

Ontario (prov.) : I, 303, footnote, 332, 
footnote', Grand River Reservation, 
240, footnote. Cities Chatham, II, 
279, footnote', Grand River, in, 
footnote ; Kingston [Kataracoui, 
Katarakoui], I, 226-227, footnote, 
350, footnote; Nepissing, 43; Otta- 
wa, 42, footnote; Port Arthur, 232, 

Ontonagon (Chippewa village) : II, 


Oregon: I, 150, footnote 

Orenda: see Manito 

Ornaments: see Manners and customs: 

Osage [Ozage], (Siouan tribe) : I, 
156, footnote, 162, footnote, 278, 
footnote, II, 74, 107, 108, 203, foot- 
note, 211, footnote', account, 36, 
footnote, 107-108, footnote; Illinois 
march against, 36; alliance against, 
184; Sauk and Foxes against, 204- 
205; alliance with Sauk and Foxes, 

Osage River: II, 36, footnote, 107, 
footnote, 108, footnote, 233 

Osh-cush: band of Sauk warriors, II, 
192; membership determined, 193- 

Oshkash a (social group of Sauk) : II, 
191, footnote 

Oshkosh ( Menominee chief) : II, 157, 

Otis, El well S: work cited, II, 336 

Oto [Otto], (Siouan tribe of Chiwere 
group) : I, 1 1 6, footnote, 277, foot- 
note, 367, footnote, II, 199, 205, 282; 
traditions, 199, footnote 

Ottawa [Outaouak, Outaouas, Outaou- 
aise, Ooutaoiias], (Algonquian 
tribe) : I, 27, 157, 179, 260, 266, 268, 
271, 281, 350, II, 16, 154, 184, 188, 
190, 201, 203, 204, 254, 287, and in 
footnotes on following Pages, I, 43, 
142, 171, 291, 301, 302, 329, 371, II, 
47, 189, 197, 278 ; brief account, I, 
281-282, footnote; tribal significance 
of name, 37, footnote; location, 148, 
II, 356; migrations, I, 159-190; 
characteristics, 282, footnote; lack 
courage, 154; lack religion, 48; 
creation myth, 31-36, 36, footnote; 
traditions show outside influence, 
41, footnote; invoke Michipissy, 60, 
footnote; sacrifice dogs, 60, foot- 
note; practices cannibalism, 188; 
treachery, 258-263, 262, footnote, 
II, 51-53 ; break law of hospitality, 

I, 144; marriage, 64, II, 167; mar- 
riage relations, I, 66, footnote; bur- 
ial and mourning customs, 78-83 ; 
receive annuity, II, 181, footnote; 
trade, I, 229, footnote; death of 
famous chief, II, 107-108 ; Ottawa 
fleet, I, 210 and footnote; conspir- 
acy, II, 60, 6 1 ; refuse to hear en- 
voy, I, 233-234; fail to attend coun- 
cil, 225 and footnote; plan attack, 

II, 74-75 ; abandon attack, 75-78 ; 
war customs, 161-162; captives, I, 
182, II, 39; resolve to go on war- 
path, I, 250; continue war, 252; at- 




tempt to discontinue war, 252; 
abandon missionary, 172; taken for 
Iroquois, 334; at Chequamegon, 
173 ; abandon Chequamegon, 191, 
footnote', Montreal, 210-214, 339- 
341 ; proposed harangue to, 268- 
272. Relations with English, I, 
250, footnote, II, 90-91, 95-96; 
French, I, 158, 224, 232, 251, II, 46- 
47, 54, 109; Perrot, I, 234-237, 357, 
II, 45-46; Foxes, 112, 122-124, 125; 
Huron, I, 283, II, 132-133; Iro- 
quois, I, 151-152, 175-176, 211-214, 
231, 256, II, 22-25, 36, 49, 90-92, 
95-96, 106, 109, no, 132-133, 253; 
Mascoutens, 112; Miami, 125-127, 
131; Nipissing, I, 340; Potawatomi, 
II, 21-22; Sioux, I, 188, 189; Win- 
nebago [Pauns], 293 

Ottawa [Outaoiias, river of the Outa- 
ouaks] River: I, 43 and footnote, 
148, 151, 157, 203, 204, 210, 281, 
footnote, II, 106 

Otter: I, 113, 203; fails to aid in 
creation, 33; insignia of family, 347 

Ouabangue (Chippewa) : II, 136 

Ouagikougaiganea (Miami chief) : or- 
ders feast, II, 86 

Ouenemek [Potawatomi chief] : I, 270 

Ouiatanon (Miami village) : I, 316, 

Ouinipegs: see Winnebago 

Ounanguisse [Ounanguice], (Pota- 
watomi chief) : II, 136, 255 

Oviedo, : Historia de Indias, I, 223, 

Owen, Mary Alicia: I, 294, footnote, 
295, footnote, 360, footnote', work 
cited, II, 337 

Owl: beliefs regarding souls of dead, 
II, 208 

Oxen: II, 179 

PACIFIC OCEAN: I, 174, footnote, 336, 

Pah-moi-tah-mah (Kickapoo chief) : 

II, 156 
Panoplist, The: II, 304 

Panthers: I, 114 and footnote-, Indiana 
pray to, 49; clan name, II, 191 

Paquette, Moses: work cited, II, 351 

Paris (France) : I, 23, 30, footnote, 
171, footnote, II, 301, 302, 330, 357 

Parkman, Francis: II, 256; works cit- 
ed, 337 

Parkman Club of Milwaukee: Publi- 
cations, I, 172, footnote, II, 344; 
Papers, 337, 344 

Paroquets: I, 115 

Partridges: I, 102; clan name, II, 163, 

Patouillet, L: II, 357 

Patterson, J. B: II, 307 

Pawating (Chippewa village) : II, 


Pawnee [Panis, Panismaha, Panys], 
(confederacy of Caddoan family) : 
I, 61, footnote, 238, footnote, 277, 
footnote, II, 224, footnote, 265, 266, 
268; lodges, I, 162, footnote; fuel, 
124-125 ; relations with U.S., 125, 
footnote; receive calumet from sun, 
186; many reduced to slavery, 190, 
footnote; alliance against, II, 184; 
Sauk and Foxes desire war with, 
198, 199; systematizes religious be- 
liefs, 270 

Peabody Museum: Papers, II, 319 
Pecan (Kickapoo chief) : II, 156 
Pecheco: illustration, II, 289 
Peet, Stephen D: II, 304; work cited, 


Pekans: I, 113 

Pelee Island: I, 245-246, footnote 
Pelicans: I, 114 and footnote 
Pelts: see Skins 
Penn, Wm. (pseud.) : II, 319 
Pennsylvania : I, 46, footnote, 226, 

footnote, 240, footnote, 334, footnote, 

335, footnote, II, 355, 356. City - 

Philadelphia, 308 
Pennsylvania Historical Society: II, 


Pennsylvania Monthly: II, 326 
Penobscot (Abnaki tribe) : II, 55, 





Peoria [Peouaroua], (Illinois tribe) : 
II, 201, and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 155, 295, 296, 301, 
317, II, 119; location, 356; no be- 
lief in immortality, I, 89, footnote; 
village attacked, II, 203 

Pepikokia [Pepikokis], (Algonquian 
tribe): II, 67, 119, 120, footnote; 
account, 120, footnote 

Pequot (Algonquian tribe) : adopted 
by Narraganset and Mohegan, II, 
37-38, footnote 

Pequot War: II, 37, footnote 

Perrot [Perot, Metaminens], Nicolas: 

I, 16, 18, 21, 114, 149, 158, 165, 356, 

II, 68, 75, 112, 130, 247, 337, 341, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 
I, 40, 41, 42, 50, 51, 58, 65, 71, 76, 
77, 94, 95, 98, 101, 102, 113, 114, 
116, 118, 119, 124, 136, 142, 143, 
144, 146, 148, 153, 154, 157, 160, 
161, 163, 164, 168, 169, 176, 182, 

190, 197, 200, 208, 211, 222, 225, 
226, 237, 238, 257, 259, 262, 263, 

269-270, 316; account of life, II, 
249-256; life among Indians, I, 15; 
called Metaminens, 321 ; character- 
istics, 27; suspicious of Indians, 260; 
residence, 26; knowledge of sav- 
ages, 308 ; status among, 309 ; re- 
garded as Spirit, 310; honors paid, 
310, 326-330, 344-346, 368-370; cal- 
umet presented to, 27, 309, 311, 313, 
325-330, 368, 369; Perrot oilers, II, 
34, 72, 98, 99, 359; refuses war 
calumet, 101 ; sustains great loss 
through fire, 25; permit to trade, 
I, 228-229 an d footnote, 233 ; saves 
mission, 354; presents monstrance 
to mission, II, 57, footnote; com- 
panion to missionary, 249-250; au- 
tograph letter, I, 33 ; aids soldier, 
217-220; commissioned to act as in- 
terpreter, 220-221; calls council, 
222; signs paper of possession^ 224; 
induces tribes to go on war-path, 
234; wins through policy, 241-242; 

takes formal possession, 244, foot- 
note; fort, 245 and footnote, 247; 
outwits spies, 246-250; pacifies hos- 
tile tribes, 244, footnote; receives 
orders, 245; offers to act as media- 
tor, 311; calms savage, 321; cures 
sick man, 345-346; takes expedi- 
tion west, 357; orders chiefs to vis- 
it fort, II, 18-19; turns tribes from 
purpose, 18-20; called to save cap- 
tives, 39; ordered to announce ar- 
rival of Frontenac, 45; to win 
tribes to French alliance, 45-135, 
254; informed of plot, 54-55. Me- 
moirs I, 13, 14, 223, footnote, II, 
302, 357 ; translation, I, 23-272 ; scope 
of work, 15; object, 27-28; value, 
28-29; La Potherie uses, 13, 262- 
263, footnote, II, 135, footnote. Re- 
lations with - Chippewa, I, 358- 
363; Dakota, II, 31, 97-98, 111-112, 
117; Foxes, I, 358-360, II, 55-56, 61- 

63, 115; Hurons, I, 252; Iowa, 368- 
370; Iroquois, II, 51-53, 60, 250; 
Mascoutens, I, 322-333, 370, II, 60, 

64, 65, 83-84, 103; Miami, I, 245, 
322-333, 365, II, 17, 66, 118-119, 

123, I, 210-214, 2I9-22O, 221, 234- 

237, 252, 266-268, 343, 347, 357- 
358, II, 40, 75-78; Potawatomi, I, 
315-316; Sioux, 243-244 

Perry, G. W: quoted, I, 279, footnote 

Peru: I, 307 

Petite Racine (Ottawa chief) : II, 41 

Peyote (used by mescal-eaters) : II, 
281-282 and footnote 

Pheasants: I, 114 

Philippine Islands: II, 202, footnote ; 
Leyte, 202, footnote; Luzon, 328; 
Samar, 202, footnote 

Phillips, W. A: work cited, II, 343 

Philology: cause of different lan- 
guages, II, 174; avoid use of Eng- 
lish, 291 ; native priest speaks sev- 
eral languages, 294; language of 
Potawatomi, 287-288 ; common 
names, 203, footnote, 219, footnote, 




227, footnote, 22$, 229 and foot- 
note, 233, footnote, 259; proper 
names, I, 288-289, footnote, II, 154, 
155, 156, 157, footnote, 167-168, 
footnote, 240 and footnote', vocabu- 
lary, 154, 240-244; possessive forms, 
243; distinction of gender, 239- 
240; number, 240 
Phratry: described, I, 320, footnote 
Piankashaw [Peouanguichias, Peoii- 
anguishias, Piankeshaw, Pianki- 
shaws, Piouanguichias, Poiiankiki- 
as], (tribe) : I, 296, footnote, 317, 
footnote, 329, footnote, II, 67 and 
footnote, 119, 128, 129, 201, 203; ac- 
count, 119-120; receive annuity, 181, 

Piankaskaw (Miami village) : II, 355 
Pictography: I, 338, footnote, II, 238, 
footnote; tattooing, I, 325 and foot- 
note, II, 207, footnote ; hieroglyphics, 
use, 238; symbolism, 238, footnote; 
drawings on sacred gourd rattle, 
282; sign language, 313 
Pigeons: I, 114, 304; passenger, 305, 


Pike, Warburton: I, 222, footnote 
Pike, Zubulon M: II, 205 and foot- 

Pilling, J. C: work cited, II, 309 
Pine Creek: I, 302, footnote 
Pioneers: slaughter of passenger pig- 
eon, I, 305, footnote 
Pirimon (Potawatomi chief) : I, 270 
Piskaret (Algonkin) : kills many Iro- 

quois, I, 194-196; murdered, 196 
Pitezel, John H: work cited, II, 338 
Pittman, Philip: work cited, II, 338 
Platte River: I, 124, footnote, 125, 
footnote, II, 198, 199, footnote, II, 
229, footnote 

Point de Saint-Esprit: I, 190, footnote 
Poisson, Father: quoted, I, 52-53, foot- 
Pokagon, Simon (Potawatomi chief) : 

works cited, II, 338 
Polygamy: I, 65, footnote, 66, foot- 

note, 72-73, II, 167, 207, 214; en- 
couraged, 237; forbidden, 274, 280; 
of Main Poque, 203, footnote; 
among Missisauga, I, 153-154, 
footnote; Potawatomi, 303, foot- 
note; Sioux, 161, footnote 
Polynesia: I, 51, footnote; Polynesian, 

II, 264 

Ponca (Siouan tribe) : I, 278, foot- 
note, 367, footnote, II, 36, footnote, 
107, footnote 

Pond, G. H: work cited, II, 334 
Pond, Samuel W: work cited, II, 334 
Pontchartrain, Comte de: I, 228, foot- 
note, 273, footnote; document ad- 
dressed to, 208, footnote 
Pontiac: I, 253, footnote, 281, foot- 
note, II, 273 ; murder, I, 296, foot- 
note; conspiracy, work on, cited, 337 
Poole, D. C: work cited, II, 338 
Pope (prophet) : II, 273 
Population: see Economic conditions 
Porcupine: quills, I, 327, footnote 
Portages: I, 229, footnote 
Post, Charles F: Journals, II, 346 
Potawatomi [Pottawatomi, Pottawati- 
mies, Pouteouatamis, Pouteouate- 
mis], (Algonquian tribe) : I, 18, 27, 
149, 188, 270, 291, 301, 312, 317, 
319, 348, II, 16, 20, 30, 83, 107, 
134, 142, 154, 184, 188, 190, 201, 
204, 247, 259, 284, and in footnotes 
on following pages, 124, 155, 165, 
281, 291, 294, 296, 301, 306, 329, 
II, 184, 197, 211, 278, 279; account, 
I, 302-303, footnote, II, 287-297, lo- 
cation, 356; characteristics, I, 149, 
footnote, 301-303, II, 288-297; gen- 
erosity, 207, footnote', jealousy, I, 
333 ; purchase of wife, II, 167; cere- 
mony in naming children, 167-168 ; 
manner of raising war party, 161- 
162; war customs, 162; receive an- 
nuity, 181, footnote; trade, I, 313- 
314, II, 251; chief taken captive, 
84; follow teachings of Kanakuk, 
280, footnote', leave teachings, 278; 




join Main Poque, 278 ; attend coun- 
cil, I, 223; dissuade Tetinchoua 
from voyage, 223 ; mission, 278, 
footnote; fear trouble, 342; give 
Perrot escort, 344; Perrot first to 
visit, II, 250. Relations with 
French, I, 322, 333, II, 60; Iro- 
quois, I, 314, 334, II, 24-25; Me- 
nominee, I, 310; Miami, 322, 346; 
Ottawa, II, 21-22 

Pottawatomi [Huron, Pottawatomie] 
Island: Ottawas locate on, I, 149 
and footnote 

Pottery: see Economic Conditions: in- 
dustries and occupations manufac- 

Pouch: I, 105, 129, II, 185, footnote, 
231; contents, I, 332; offered on al- 
tar, 332. Medicine I, 77, II, 86, 
195; contents, I, 50-51, 50, foot- 
note ; forbidden, II, 277; Indian 
killed for retaining, 278; carried to 
war, 162. War \, 50 and foot- 
note, II, 73 

Powell, John W: works cited, II, 309, 

Powhatan: II, 351 

Prairie Band (of Potawatomi) : I, 
303, footnote 

Prairie de la Magdeleine [Made- 
leine]: I, 201; battle fought at, II, 
81, 82 

Prentiss, D. W: II, 335 

Presbyterian Church: publications 
cited, II, 338-339 

Presbyterian Quarterly and Prince- 
ton Review. II, 326 

Presents: see Gifts 

Prophet, Shawnee: see Tenskwatawa 

Prophets: see Religion 

Protestant Episcopal Church: II, 
307; Board of Missions, 339 

Puans: see Winnebago 

Puberty: see Children 

Pueblos: I, 81, footnote, 114, footnote, 
305, footnote, II, 257 

Punishment: fear, II, 163; unjust, I, 
264 ; of insolent chief, 178 ; of 

Sinagos, 190; of children, II, 165, 
212; of soldier, I, 218 and footnote ; 
of thieves, II, 90; for crime, I, 
145-146, footnote', for neglect of 
duty, II, 186, 187; for adultery, 167, 
214; for disobedience, 280, 281; for 
breaking hunting laws, I, 120, II, 
164; for illegal traffic, I, 27, foot- 
note', needed, 230-231; husband's 
right, II, 277 ; inflicted on man for 
leaving wife, I, 64; on wife for 
leaving husband, 65 and footnote; 
to propitiate supernatural powers, 
II, 268 ; for abandoning mission- 
ary, I, 175; by Gt. Spirit, II, 58; 
capital, I, 137, 141, 158 and foot- 
note, 202, 206-207, 307, II, 278 

QUAILS: I, 114 

Quakers: Society of Friends, II, 323 
Quapaw (Siouan tribe) : I, 62, foot- 
note, 1 1 6, footnote, 278, footnote, 
II, 36, footnote, 107, footnote 
Quarante-Sols (Huron) : II, 136 
Quebec (city) : I, 15, 2$, 26, 158, 175, 
192, 194, 201, 282, II, 50, 82, 136, 
240, 253, and in footnotes on fol- 
lowing pages, I, 30, 116, 158, 176, 
224, 229, 243, 256, 308, II, 217; 
Flemish bastard in, I, 203, trade 
with savages, 228, footnote; tribes 
assemble at, 342; Frontenac arrives, 
II, 254 

Quebec (prov.) : cities Lachine, I, 
25, II, 42, footnote; Lorette, I, 257, 
footnote; Oka, 339, footnote; Otta- 
wa, 43, footnote; St. Francis, 364, 
footnote; see Montreal, Quebec 

Querbeuf, Y. M. M. T. de: II, 357 
Quill embroidery: see Manners and 
customs', adornment 

RABBITS: I, 102 

Raccoons: I, 114 

Raclos, Madeleine (wife of Nicolas 

Perrot) : II, 252 
Radin, Paul: I, 289, footnote; work 




cited, II, 306, 357; furnishes ad- 
denda, 355-357 

Radisson, Peter Esprit: I, 168, foot- 
note, II, 339, 350 

Ragueneau, Paul (missionary to Hu- 
rons) : I, 141, footnote, 176, foot- 

Ramsey, Alexander: work cited, II, 


Rasles, Father: I, 47, footnote, 59, 

Rat, The [Kondiaronk], (chief of Pe- 
tun Hurons) : brief account, I, 252- 
253, footnote ; proposes destruction 
of Ottawa tribes, 252-253 ; accused 
of plot, 254 

Ratzel, Friedrich: work cited, II, 339 

Rau, Charles: work cited, II, 339, 343 

Raudot, Jacques: II, 134, footnote, 257, 

Rave, John: II, 283 

Rebok, Horace M: work cited, II, 339 

Recollects: I, 350, footnote 

Red Banks (Winnebago village) : II, 

Red Carp (family) : I, 319, 320 

Red River: I, 107, footnote, 108, foot- 
note, 109, footnote, 122, footnote, II, 

Relation de la mission de Notre Dame: 
quoted, I, 89, footnote 

Relations inedites: I, 48, footnote 

Religion: Indians lack, I, 47-48, 
footnote", lacking among Sioux, 161, 
footnote; lack of ancestor worship, 
62, footnote-, beliefs, II, 264-272; 
belief in immortality, I, 89-92, 295, 
II, 266; prophets, 270, 272-281, 303; 
duty of chief, 163-164, footnote; ob- 
serve Jewish customs, I, 47-48 and 
footnote ; religious rites during hunt, 
123, footnote; smoking, 361, foot- 
note; duty to eat captives, 371, foot- 
note; ceremony, II, 86, footnote, 194- 
195, 267-270, 291-292 ; mescal eaters, 
281-283, 297-298; prayers, 278; 
prayer-sticks, 280 and footnote; sa- 
cred articles of clan, 207, footnote; 

sacred use of rattle, 169, footnote; 
calumet, I, 182-185; religious aspect 
of totem, II, 260; taboo, 170-172, 
footnote; Potawatomi well disposed 
to Christianity, I, 303, footnote; 
number of baptisms, 224, footnote; 
holy mass, 234; converts tenacious 
to faith, II, 291 ; among Sauk and 
Foxes, 222-225; of Miami, I, 332; 
early Sioux, II, 284; sacred and 
secret societies, 223-225, 223-224, 
footnote, 257. Sacrifices II, 267- 
268; to Great Spirit, I, 299-300; to 
dead, 81 and footnote; significance 
and mode, 60-61, footnote; reasons 
for, 62, footnote; use of calumet, 182, 
footnote; articles used as, 61, foot- 
note; mutilations practiced, 61, foot- 
note; of dogs, 60 and footnote, II, 
87, 158, 234, 272, 292; of tobacco, I, 
63, 182, footnote. See Beliefs and 
superstitions; Medicine-men 

Renards: see Foxes 

Reservations, Indian: II, 152, footnote, 
237, footnote, 282, 294; in Dakotas, 

I, 278, footnote; Indiana, 317, foot- 
note; Indian Territory, II, 36, foot- 
note; Kansas, I, 292, footnote, 303, 
footnote, 367, footnote, II, 119, foot- 
note, 287, 292; Minnesota, 312; 
Montana, I, 278, footnote, Nebraska, 
278, footnote; Oklahoma, II, 287; 
Wisconsin, I, 291, footnote, II, 287, 
312; Alleghany, I, 240; Cattarau- 
gus, 240; Tonawanda, 240; Grand 
River, 240, footnote; Kickapoo on, 
301, footnote; Omaha, 289, footnote; 
Onondaga, II, in, footnote; Osage, 
108, footnote 

Revolutionary War: I, 288, footnote, 

II, 180, footnote, 188, 287 
Reynolds, John: works cited, II, 340 
Rice, wild: I, 161, footnote, 166, 167, 

168, footnote, 305-306, II, 33, 191, 

footnote, 207, footnote 
Rice Lake (Wis.) : 1, 116, footnote 
Richelieu [Sorel] River: I, 192 
Riggs, Stephen R: work cited, II, 334 




Ringed Perch: name of Sauk clan, II, 

Rio Grande River: I, 122, footnote, 

305, footnote, II, 281, footnote 
Risher, D. W: II, 340 
River des Peres: II, 280 
River des Prairies: I, 158 
Robertson, James A: II, 202, footnote 
Robes : see Skins 

Robinson, Doane: work cited, II, 340 
Rock River (111.) : I, 292, 329, footnote, 

367, footnote, II, 147, 153, 193, 199, 

202, 204, 211, 233 
Rocky Mts: II, 333, and in footnotes on 

following pages, I, 103, no, 117, 

122, 160, 171, 277, 328 
Roddy, Thomas R: II, 247, 284; 

articles, 281-283, 298 
Rome (Italy) : Indian ordained priest, 

II, 294 
Roosevelt, Theodore: work cited, II, 


Rouen (France) : II, 301 

Roy, J. Edmund: I, 273, footnote, II, 

Royal Society of Canada: I, 273, foot- 
note, II, 301, 340; Proceedings, 332, 

Royce, C. C: work cited, II, 309, 340- 


Rush, Benjamin: work cited, II, 341 
Russia: I, 133 
Ruttenber, E. M : work cited, II, 341 

SABLE (Ottawa group) : I, 282, foot- 

Saco River: I, 364, footnote 

Sacs: see Sauk 

Saginaw [Saguinan, Sankinon] Bay: 
I, 148, 149, footnote, 164, footnote, 
291, footnote, II, 244, footnote 

Saguenay: I, 197 

St. Anthony [Saint Antoine], (post) : 
I, 244, footnote 

St. Croix Falls: I, 294, footnote 

Sainte-Croix River: I, 163, footnote, 
166, 244, footnote, II, 229, footnote 

St. Francis (Menominee village) : II, 

St. Francois [Francis] Xavier Mis- 
sion: I, 243, footnote, II, 253; Per- 
rot presents monstrance, 57, footnote 

St. Frangois River: I, 195, 221 

St. Joseph (Jesuit mission) : I, 349, 
footnote, II, 255 

Saint Joseph River: I, 256 and foot- 
note, 302, footnote, 316, footnote, 348, 
353, II, 13, 81, 85, 88, 103, 112, 114, 
119, footnote, 121, 122, 132, 134, 254 

St. Lawrence River: I, 25, 26, 148, 184, 
II, 254, 255, 333, 355, and in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 42, 47, 
66, 157, 161, 171, 174, 185, 194, 224, 
308, II, 28, in 

St. Lawrence Valley: I, 185, footnote 

Saint Lusson, Sieur de: I, 221; signs 
paper of possession, 224, 225, foot- 

Saint Martin, M. de: II, 252 

St. Mary's River: I, 109, 189, footnote; 
rapids, in 

St. Maurice River: II, 356 

St. Michael (Wis.) : Potawatomi mis- 
sion at, I, 278, footnote, 306, foot- 

St. Michael (Menominee village) : II, 

Saint Peter [Peters, Pierre] River: I, 
166, 244, footnote, II, 184 

St. Regis: I, 241, footnote 

Sandusky (Huron village) : II, 355 

Sangamon River: I, 301, footnote 

Santa Rosa Mts: I, 301, footnote 

Santee Sioux: location, II, 356 

Saponi (Siouan tribe) : I, 277, foot- 

Sara [Cheraw], (Siouan tribe) : I, 277, 

Saskatchewan River: I, 108, footnote, 
122, footnote, 364, footnote, II, 199, 

Sauk [Ousakis, Sacs, Sacks, Sakis, Sa- 
quis, Saukie], (tribe) : I, 14, 17, 188, 
270, 291, 301, 319, 320, 321, 336, II, 




61, 83, 91, 107, 144, 153, 154, 183, 
251, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 124, 238, 296, 303, II, 17, 
59> *97> 2O 3> 2 78 ; derivation of 
name, I, 291, footnote ; account, II, 
190-191, footnote ; division into 
tribes, 163 ; division into bands, 156 
and footnote', names of various 
clans, 190-191 ; location, I, 291, 
footnote, II, 147-148, 356; character- 
istics, I, 303, II, 187; suspicious 
of questions, 140-141 ; traditions 
show outside influence, I, 41, foot- 
note', customs in general, II, 225- 
228; manner of procuring a wife, 
165-167; of raising war party, 157- 
158; disposition of captives, 162; 
martial law, 163-164; chiefs, 157; 
described, 153-154; government by 
chiefs, 186; warrior bands, 192-194; 
warriors described, 356; brave 
meets with accident, 57; lodge, de- 
scribed, 191, footnote', hunting, 233- 
234; annuities, 181-182 and foot- 
note', find traces of missionary, I, 
172; attend council, 223; member 
desires war, 355; recommended at- 
titude of government toward, II, 
141, footnote', vocabulary and gram- 
matical forms, 154; battle, 202; ad- 
vised to make peace, 205. Relations 
'with French, II, 60, 97 ; Chippewa, 
183; Dakota, in; Foxes, 113-114, 
122-123; Iroquois, no, 133; Ottawa, 

Sault Ste. Marie: I, 43, footnote, 178- 
179, 276, footnote, 302, footnote, 306, 
footnote, 354, II, 40, 355; Chippewa 
at, I, 109, footnote', Perrot summons 
chiefs, 222 ; Jesuit mission, 224, foot- 
note', council, 225, footnote', general 
assembly, 343 

Sauteurs: see Chippewa 

Saxon [Sog-o-nosh, Sasenaugh] : II, 
240, footnote 

Scalping: I, 195, II, 26 and footnote] 
see Dances, scalp 

Schoolcraft, Henry R: I, 39, footnote, 
166, 318, 356; works cited, 341-342 

Schultz, J. W: work cited, II, 342 

Scioto River: I, 316, footnote, 336, foot- 

Scotland: II, 139, footnote. City - 
Edinburgh, 153 

Scull, Gideon D: II, 339 

Sea: name of Sauk clan, II, 191, foot- 

Seasons : II, 220 ; method of reckoning, 
etc., 116-117, footnote-, feasts and 
other rites dependant upon, I, 62, 

Secret Societies : see Religion 

Seelye, L. E: see Eggleston, Edward, 
II, 318 

Seignelay, Marquis de: I, 250, foot- 
note, 259, footnote-, quoted, 243, foot- 

Seneca [Sonnontoans, Tsonnontouans, 
Tsonontouans], (Iroquoian tribe) : 

I, 47, footnote, 148, 199, 240, 260, 
280, footnote, II, 23, 58, in, foot- 
note, 134, 161, footnote, 335; mean- 
ing and scope of name, I, 240, foot- 
note', location, II, 356; political his- 
tory, I, 240, footnote', name of 
various bands, 240, footnote', Cones- 
toga join, 226 ; Perrot to go against, 
245 ; ruin Hurons 241, footnote ; 
French and allies advance toward, 
251; warned, 255; French and va- 
rious tribes to go against, II, 16; 
adopt Tuscarora, 37, footnote', Otta- 
wa to send message to, 44 

Seneca Lake: I, 240, footnote 
Serpent: pray to, I, 49 ; device of Wea, 

II, 120, footnote 

Shakers (religious sect) : II, 270 
Shaman: I, 54, footnote, 133, footnote, 

II, 171, footnote, 208, 224, footnote, 

267 ; see Medicine-men 
Sharp, Mrs. Abigail G: work cited, II, 


Shaubena [Potawatomi chief]: II, 334 
Shaugawaumikong [Chagouamigon], 




(Chippewa village) : II, 76 and 

Shaw, John: quoted, II, 177, footnote ; 
Narrative, 350 

Shawano County (Wis.) : I, 289, foot- 
note, 291, footnote 

Shawnee [Chaouanons, Chaouanons, 
Shawanoes], (tribe) : I, 46, 301, foot- 
note, II, 183, 229, footnote, 233, 259, 
279, footnote, 188, 323 ; account, I, 
335, footnote; location, II, 356; Iro- 
quois at war with, I, 226-227 ; Iro- 
quois cause to evacuate, 146 ; Chip- 
pewa raid, 335; settle near Pota- 
watomi, 348 ; give Iroquois captives 
to Miami, 349 ; cause of separation 
from Sauk, II, 142-145 ; leading na- 
tion at council fire, 190; driven from 
Ohio, 323 

Shawnee prophet: see I 'enskwatawa 

Shea, John G: II, 312, 313, 323, 330; 
works cited, 342, 350 

Sherman, Gen. W. T: II, 316 

Sibley, Henry H: II, 334, 335 


Simon, : Noticias historiales, etc., I, 
143, footnote 

Sinago [Cinago, Cinagots], (Ottawa 
subtribe) : I, 281, 282, footnote, II, 
51; refuse to hear envoy, I, 234; 
speech addressed to{ II, 76-78 

Sinagos (Ottawa chief) : accompanies 
Sioux captive home, I, 182; Sioux 
sing calumet to, 182, 186; receives 
Sioux chief, 188 ; influenced by Otta- 
wa gift, 188 ; punished for treach- 
ery, 190 

Sinclair, A. T: work cited, II, 306 

Siouan family: brief account, I, 277, 
footnote; location, 277-278, footnote; 
division into groups, 278, footnote 

Sioux [Nadouessi, Scioux] : see Dakota 

Sisseton [Scissiton], (Dakota tribe) : 

II, 184 

Skidi [Loups] : II, 25, 59, 82, 88 ; mar- 
riage, I, 64; marriage relations, 66, 
footnote; trade with English, II, 81; 

taken captive, 85 ; dissuade Miama 
from joining Perrot, I, 245; per- 
suade tribes to desist from going 
against Iroquois, II, 20 
Skins: I, 114, 283, II, 185, footnote, 
277; good quality, I, 114; women 
dress, 75, II, 166 and footnote, 217; 
process of making robes, 149, foot- 
note; painted, I, 52-53, footnote; 
bought with brandy, 209, footnote; 
increased demand, 174, footnote; 
thrown away, 176 ; coureur de bois 
covet, 264; as gift, 76, 134, 333, 346; 
trade, 228-229 an d footnote; value, 
108-109, 203, 259, footnote, II, 151, 
166, footnote; as sacrifice, I, 60; 
uses, 50, footnote, 75, footnote, 104, 
footnote, 123, footnote, 161, footnote, 
166, footnote, 171, footnote, 205 and 
footnote. Enumerated bear, II, 86, 
98, 151 ; beaver, I, 230, footnote, 259 ; 
footnote, 307, 332) 336, 343, II, 18, 20, 
25, 26, 30, 56, 57, 61, 62, 83, 89, 150, 
151, 166, footnote; birds, I, 50-51; 
buffalo, 50, 368, II, 166, footnote, 173 ; 
deer, I, 60, II, 151, 166, footnote ; 
elk, I, 60, II, 166, footnote; marten, 
I, 108-109, II, 231; mink, 151, 231; 
moose, I, 60; muskrat, II, 151; otter, 

I, 50, footnote, 337, II, 87, 150, 231; 
ox, I, 326; rabbit, 50, footnote; 
snakes, 51, II, 87; wildcat, 151 

Slavery: II, 37-38, footnote; captives 
reduced to, I, 190, footnote, 306, II, 
48, footnote; aid to women, 217, 
footnote; woman rescued from, 114; 
savages fear French will reduce 
them to, I, 351-352; Ottawa fear 
being reduced to, II, 24; Sioux pre- 
fers death to, 31. Slaves I, 333, 

II, 17, 92, 99, 131; English sell In- 
dians, I, 267 and footnote; buying 
and selling of slaves, II, 197; earn 
freedom, 197; Iowa woman and 
children, 89; Iroquois, 47; Osage, 
108 ; Miami escape, 26 ; daughter of 
Chippewa chief held as, I, 358-362; 




tattooing to distinguish, 325, foot- 
note; in after-world, II, 173; treat- 
ment, 83; returned, I, 190, II, 54; 
Foxes plan to return Dakota, 117; 
French seek to redeem, 97 ; status, 
38, footnote; see Captives 
Smith, Capt. John: I, 119, footnote 
Smith, Erminnie A: II, 342 
Smith, Gen. Thomas A: Letters, etc., 

II, 342 

Smith, Harlan I: work cited, II, 305 
Smith, John Y: work cited, II, 350 
Smithsonian Institution: publications, 

II, 343 

Smohalla (founder of Shaker sect of 
Pacific coast) : II, 270, 273 

Snakes: skins in medicine pouch, I, 51 ; 
Indians fear, II, 228 

Society for propagating Christian 
knowledge: II, 139, footnote 

Sokoki (tribe) : I, 365, II, 14, 20, 25, 
55, footnote; account, I, 364, foot- 
note; appease French, 366 

Sommervogel, : Bibliotheque de la 
Compagnie de Jesus, cited, I, 30, 

Songs: of alliance, II, 31; calumet, I, 
182-186, 313, 327-328, 329, 369-370, 
II, 31, 78, 100 ; dance, 161, footnote; 
death, I, 59, 79, II, 14, 84, 93, 99; 
medicine, 277; peace, I, 196; war, 
55-58, 338, 339, II, 120, 195; of cap- 
tives, I, 158, II, 39; of mothers, I, 
77-78 ; medicine-man, 77 ; mourning, 
79; of slaves, II, 37, 47; of cere- 
mony, I, 325, footnote; in sacrifice, 
61, footnote; at feast, 127, footnote, 
337-339; to personal divinity, 52-53; 
during adoption ceremony, 84; sa- 
cred, II, 282; personal ownership, 

I, 57, II, 207, footnote; collections, 

II, 310, 315, 316, 320 

Sorel, M. de (commander-in-chief ) : 

I, 201 

Sorel River: I, 195 
Soto, Hernando de: I, 223, footnote 
South America: I, 51, footnote 

South Carolina: I, 46, footnote, 81, foot- 
note, 267, footnote, 277, footnote, 278, 
footnote, 335, II, 356 

South Dakota: I, 81, footnote, 289, 
footnote ; Pine Ridge agency, II, 284, 
286. City Pierre, I, 289, footnote 

South Dakota Historical Society: II, 
340; Collections, 343 

South Dakotan: II, 340 

Southern States: I, 324, footnote, II, 
152, footnote 

Spain: I, 25 

Spaniards: I, 364, II, 199, footnote, 277 

Speeches: of Frontenac, I, 269, foot- 
note; of Perrot, 3 11-31 3, 330, 354- 

355, 359, II, 40, 58-59, 72-73, 76-78, 
98-99 ; of Frenchman, 23 ; of Indian, 
I, 49-50, 139-140; of Fox chief, II, 
61-62; of Miami, 13-15, 58; pro- 
posed to Ottawa, I, 268-272 ; of Win- 
nebago orator, 208-209, footnote 
Spencer, F. C: I, 325, footnote 
Spofford, Ainsworth R: II, 305 
Squier, E. G: work cited, II, 343, 344 
Starkey, Dan B: work cited, II, 337 
Starr, Frederick: work cited, II, 344 
Stearns, Robert E. C: II, 185, footnote; 

work cited, 344 

Stejneger, Leonhard: I, 114, footnote 
Stevens, Frank E: I, 21, II, 348; work 

cited, 344 

Stevenson, J: I, 325, footnote 
Stevenson, M. C: I, 325, footnote 
Steward, John F: work cited, II, 344 
Stickney, Gardner P: I, 21, 104, foot- 
note, II, 256 ; work cited, 337, 344 
Stites, Sara H : work cited, II, 344 
Stockbridge (tribe of Mahican con- 
federacy) : II, 306, 333 ; mission to, 


Stone: primitive uses, I, 318, footnote 
Stout, Arlow B: I, 97, footnote, 116, 
footnote, 117, footnote, 118, footnote 
Straits of Mackinaw: I, 291, footnote 
Strang, W. B : II, 200, footnote 
Stratagem: spies make pretext of trad- 
ing, I, 245; of Le Baron, II, 132; 




of French, 33; of Ottawa, 54; of 
Sioux, I, 1 68; see Treachery 

Strong, M. M: work cited, II, 350 

Stucki, Rev. J: II, 284; article, 297-298 

Sturgeon: tribal name, II, 163, 190, 191, 

Sturgeon: I, 60, footnote, 90, 280, 304, 
305, 314; insignia of family, 347 

Sturtevant, Lewis: work cited, II, 344 

Stuve, Bernard: see Davidson, Alex- 

Sucker, tribal name, II, 163 

Sun: recognized as divinity, I, 48; 
worshipped, 60 and footnote, 163, 
185, footnote, II, 291 ; feast to, I, 76; 
calumet gift from, 186 

Surgery: II, 219 

Susquehanna River: I, 336, footnote, 
II, in, footnote, 355 

Swan: name of Sauk clan, II, 191 and 
footnote', name of Fox clan, 192 

Swans: I, 114 and footnote 

Swanton, John R: quoted in footnotes, 

I, 62, 277-278, II, 47-49, 68-69, 107- 
108, 108, 167-168, 169, 172, 211, 257- 


Sweat-house: I, 133, footnote, 139 
Sweating:!, 132-133 and footnote 

TABOO [tabu]: II, 170-172, footnote, 


Tahartakout (Iroquois) : II, 136 
Tailhan, Jules, S. J: I, 18, 23, 27, foot- 
note, 76, footnote, 117, footnote, 118, 
footnote, 167, footnote, 198, footnote, 

II, 247, 249, 302; quoted in foot- 
notes on following pages, I, 31, 37, 
40-41, 42, 46, 47-48, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 
59-60, 63, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 74, 76, 
83, 85, 87, 89, 92, 99, 101, 103, 106- 
107, 109, 113, 114, 116, 119, 124, 125, 
127, 129, 132, 133, 136, 139, 141, 142, 
H3, 144, I45-H6, 147, H8, 150, 153. 
*54 JSS-iS^, *57 158, i59- I 6o, 162, 
163, 164-165, 168, 169, 170-171, 176, 
181, 182, 190-191, 194, 200, 208-210, 

211, 214, 217, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 

228-229, 232, 233, 237, 238, 242, 243, 
243-244, 245, 246, 250, 252-253, 256, 
257, 258, 258-259, 261-262, 262-263, 
264, 267, 268, 269, 269-270, 271; 

brief account, 30, footnote', preface 
to Perrot's Memoirs, 25-30 ; editorial 
value of work, 15-16; treatment of 
Memoirs, 29 ; tribute to scholarship, 
31, footnote 

Taliaferro, Lawrence: II, 334 

Talon [Jason], (chief) : II, 80, 81 

Talon, M. de: I, 222, footnote', ar- 
rives in Quebec, 220; desires to take 
possession of Ottawa country, 343 ; 
desires discovery of Southern Sea, 

Tamaroa [Tamarois, Tamarohas, 
Tamorois], (tribe of Illinois confed- 
eracy) : I, 155, footnote, 295, foot- 
note, II, 200-201 

Tanner, John: captured and adopted, 
II, 37, footnote', work on, 344 

Tasse, Joseph: work cited, II, 350 

Tattooing: see Pictography 

Tavibo (Paiute) : II, 273 

Tawiscaron (son of Ataentsic) : I, 40, 
footnote, II, 271, 272 

Taylor, Edward L: work cited, II, 345 

Taylor County (Wis.) : I, 268, foot- 

Tchakabesch (mythical character) : I, 
37, footnote 

Tecumseh [Tecumtha, Tikamthi], 
(Shawnee chief): I, 288, footnote, 
301, footnote, II, 273, footnote, 274, 
306, 350; opposed to whites, 278- 
279; account, 278-279, footnote ; 
documents relating to, 345 

Teharonhiawagon [Te'horo n 'hiawa'k'- 
ho n ], Iroquois deity) : I, 284, foot- 
note, II, 271-272 

Tekaneot (Iroquois) : II, 136 

Tennessee: I, 335, footnote, II, 356. 
City Nashville, I, 336, footnote 

Tennessee River: I, 336, footnote 

Tenskwatawa [The Prophet], (brother 
of Tecumseh) : I, 288, footnote, II, 




270, 273-281 ; account, 273-274, foot- 
note ; extent of influence, 278 ; regu- 
lations, 274-278 ; illustration, 275 

Terry, F. T: work cited, II, 337 

Tetes de Boule [Gens de Terre] : be- 
lieve Nipissing, I, 340-341 

Tetinchoua (chief of Miami) : I, 223 
and footnote 

Teton Sioux (division of Dakotas) : 
location, II, 356 

Texas: I, 122, footnote, 211, footnote, 
243, 301, footnote, II, 282 

Thames River (Ont.) : II, 279, foot- 

Thebaud, Father: I, 155, footnote 

Therapeutic Gazette: II, 335 

Thomas, Cyrus: quoted in footnotes 
on following pages, I, 43, 82, 108, 
279-280, 288, 291, 294, 296, 316-317, 
330, 364, 367-368, II, 54-55, 116- 
117, 151-152; work cited, 309, 343 

Thomas, Wm. I : work cited, II, 345 

Three Rivers (Que.) : I, 42, 148, foot- 
note, 151, 157, 158, 165, footnote, 
176, 192, 194, 339, footnote, II, 80; 
missionary at, I, 171, footnote', trade 
with savages, 228 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold: I, 21, II, 59, 
footnote, 321, 323, 329, 349, 351; 
works cited, 146, footnote, 328, 330, 

Thunder: tribal name, II, 163, 191 
and footnote, 192 

Thunder Bay (Chippewa village) : I, 
148, 149, footnote, II, 355 

Tionontati [Tionnontate Hurons], 
(tribe) : I, 27 ; later known as Wyan- 
dot, II, 184, footnote 

Tioskatin (Sioux chief) : II, 136 

Tippecanoe: account, II, 279, foot- 
note', battle, I, 288, footnote, II, 273, 
279, footnote 

Tippecanoe River: II, 273, 279, foot- 

Tobacco: I, 74, II, 19, 76, 161, 182, 
195; consoler, I, 137; cultivation, II, 
184, footnote', sent from one nation 

to another, 238-239; kept near grave 
of dead, 209 ; significance of smok- 
ing, I, 361, footnote; used in feast, 
49; in fast, 51; ceremonial use, 182- 
183, footnote, 309; used in invoca- 
tion, 60; offering, II, 223, 228; sac- 
rifice, I, 61, footnote, 62 and foot- 
note; as gift, I, 196, 238, footnote, 
321, 362, 363, 365, II, 19, 50, 52, 57, 
60, 77, loo, 112, 170; consecrated, 
170; name given to tribe, I, 257, 

Tokala (character in book) : II, 287 

Tomahawk: see Weapons 

Tonty, Henry de: I, 243, footnote, 250, 
351, footnote; work on, cited, II, 337 

Toronto [Taronto], (Ont.) : I, 43 

Torture: self-inflicted, I, 51, footnote; 
see Captives 

Totem: I, 320, footnote, II, 259-260, 
269; clans own distinctive, 257; so- 
cial aspect, 260 

Tounika: see Tunica 

Tracy, M. de: I, 147 and footnote, 
198, 200, 306; receives ambassador, 

Trade: see Economic Conditions 

Trading companies: I, 27, footnote; 
see Hudson Bay Company 

Transportation: I, 351, II, 199, foot- 
note; among Siouan tribes, 278, 
footnote ; by water, 228-229, footnote 

Treachery: I, 262, footnote, 267, 359, 
II, 255 ; of various tribes against 
French, 17-18; of Chippewa, I, 358; 
Foxes, 245-249 ; Hurons, 252-257, 
283; Iroquois, 191, 196, 35O35 1 . 
354; Kickapoo, 245-249; Mascou- 
tens, 245-249 ; Menominee, 306 ; Mi- 
ami, II, 130; Ottawa, I, 152-153, 
258-263, 262, footnote, II, 51-53; 
Winnebago, 295-299 ; of freed cap- 
tive, I, 187; regarding calumet, 186; 
cause, 259, footnote; punishment ad- 
ministered, 190 

Treaties: I, 241, footnote, II, 96, foot- 
note, 142, footnote, 327; of 1804, I, 

4 o8 



292, footnote, II, 181-182, footnote, 
193, footnote, 211, footnote', Chica- 
go, I, 281, footnote', Fond du Lac, 
II, 331; Greenville, 349; Butte des 
Morts, I, 289, footnote, II, 157, foot- 
note ; Utrecht, 301 ; with Chippewa, 
347; between Sioux and Chippewa, 
205 ; between Iroquois and Algon- 
kin, I, 191, 194; between Ottawa 
and Iroquois, 152; merchants dis- 
regard, 261 

Tripe de roche: I, 102-103, IO2 > foot- 

Trout: name of Sauk clan, II, 191, 

Trout: I, 282, footnote', September 
named for, II, 116 

Tsimshian (most important division 
of Chimmesyan family) : II, 265 

Tunica [Tounika] : I, 76, footnote 

Turkey (birds) : I, 114, II, 291 ; trans- 
migration of souls into, 175 

Turner, A. J: work cited, II, 351 

Turner, F. J: II, 151, footnote 

Turner, Frederick J: I, 21; works 
cited, II, 347, 351 

Turquoise: I, 363 and footnote 

Turtle: in creation myth, I, 40, foot- 

Turtle Mountains: II, 355 

Tuscarora: II, in, footnote', adoption 
by Seneca, 37, footnote 

Tutelo (Siouan tribe) : I, 277, footnote, 
278, footnote 

Ty-ee-ma (Sauk chief) : II, 154 

Tylor, Edward B: quoted, I, 60-61, 
footnote ; work cited, II, 347 

UNITED STATES: II, 179, 218, 274, 302, 
305, and in footnotes on following 
pages, I, 39, 75, no, 114, 171, 233, 
289, 294, 301, 303, II, 26, 108, 139, 
166, 199, 228, 229, 230, 241, 279, 280, 
281 ; compels migration, I, 289, foot- 
note; pays annuities, II, 181, foot- 
note; fraudulent possession of terri- 
tory, I, 155-156, footnote; aids Mar- 

gry> 30> footnote; prohibits sale of 
liquor, II, 150, footnote; helps In- 
dians, I, 20; suggestions for ad- 
vancement of Indians, II, 179-180; 
attempts to be fair to Indians, 297; 
pottery, I, 323, footnote; number of 
buffalo in, 123, footnote; quashes In- 
dian war, II, 184; opposed to war, 
199; compels peace, 204; attempts 
peace between Sioux and Chippewa, 
205 ; relations with Pawnees, I, 125, 
footnote; recommended attitude to- 
ward Sauk, II, 141, footnote; De- 
partment of Interior, 347 ; see Black 
Hawk War, Lands ceded 

United States Catholic Historical 
Magazine: II, 149, footnote 

United States National Museum Pro- 
ceedings: I, 275, footnote; Reports, 

II, 349 
Upham, Warren: work cited, II, 304, 


VACA, CABEZA DE: I, 122, footnote 

Van Quickemborne, Father: quoted, I, 
124, footnote 

Vaudreuil, Marquis de: I, 257, foot- 
note, 262, footnote, 266, II, 255 

Vengeance: I, 138, 142-144, 146, 269, 
270, 271, 333, II, 89; desired, I, 
359; promised, II, 41, 50; duty, I, 
320, footnote; to arrest, 139; forbid- 
den, 312; delayed, II, 99; laid aside, 
I, 137; taken, 137; calumet arrests, 
186; torture, 142-143, footnote; de- 
mand, 140-141 ; for crime, 146, foot- 
note; for assassination, II, 65; de- 
sired for massacre of Illinois, I, 299 ; 
for murder of Pontiac, 296, footnote; 
on French, II, 112; Mascoutens 
seek, 97; Dakota fears, 118; Hurons 
plan, I, 166; Iroquois on Algonkins, 
46; Miami and Dakota plan, II, 
103 ; Miami plan on French, 13, 120, 
126; Ottawa desire, I, 357; of Pota- 
watomi, 310; Winnebago take, 295- 
296, 299-300 




Vermillion [Vermilion] River: II, 119, 
footnote, 120, footnote 

Verwyst, Chrysostomus : works cited, 
II, 347, 35i 

Vices: ambition, I, 141-142, 263-268; 
bribery, 144, footnote ; exaggeration, 
II, 286 ; gambling, I, 96, 97, 99-102, 
102, footnote, II, 231; intemperance, 

I, 204, 208, 208-209, footnote, 229, 
footnote, 251, 267, 291, footnote, 296, 
footnote, II, 201, 203, footnote, 218, 
237, footnote, 255, 274, 286, 288, 297, 
314; quarrels, I, 136-137, 319-321, 

II, 288; self-interest, I, 144-145; 
vainglory, 141-142, 143, 263-268 

Villiers [Villeraye], M. de: I, 231, 

II, 253 

Vireton: I, 38, footnote 

Virginia: II, 229, and in footnotes on 
following pages, I, 46, 81, 226, 262, 
267, 277, 278, 328, II, 189, 240. 
City _ Charlottesville, II, 146, foot- 

Vivier, Father: I, 124, footnote 

WAA-CAL-LA-QUA-UC (Sauk leader) : 

II, i93 

Wabash River: II, 199, 201, 204, and 
in footnotes on following pages, I, 
301, 302, 316, 329, II, 119, 120, 279 

Wab-be-we-sian (Sauk Indian) : II, 


Wabosso (Potawatomi mythical be- 
ing) : I, 284, footnote 

Wah-bal-lo [Waa-pa-laa, Wah-bal-lo, 
Wapello, Waupella], (Fox chief): 
II, 155; questioned, 142; illustra- 
tion, 143 

Wakanda: see Manito 

Wake, C. Staniland: II, 304 

Wakefield, John A: work cited, II, 

Walker, Francis A: II, 348 

Walker, J. R: work cited, II, 305 

Walpole Island (Ottawa village) : I, 
303, footnote, II, 356 

Wampum: I, 152, footnote, 174, foot- 

note > 33i, footnote, II, 231; belts, 95, 

161, 162, 185, 188, 189, footnote, 196, 
205, 237, 238-239 

Wapsipinica River: II, 148 and foot- 

War: I, 59, 279, 281, footnote, 336, foot- 
note; customs, II, 125, 157-158, 161- 

162, 192-204, 335; preparation, 157- 
158, 161-162, 194-195; feasts, I, 50- 
59; sacrifices, 62, footnote; rumors, 
124, footnote; affected by omens, II, 
226, footnote; bad omens, I, 237-238 ; 
influence of dreams, 51, footnote; 
military reception, II, 22 ; celebra- 
tion of victory, 158-161; war party 
described, 356-357; leadership, 258; 
defence on march, I, 125 ; avoided, 
II, 280; causes, I, 45-46, 65, 137, 140, 
144, II, 198; desired, 198; com- 
mencement, I, 41-47; encampment, 
II, 195-196; impossible to make 
peace, 204-205; tomahawk, symbol 
of, I, 233, 234; French may expect, 
260; Frenchman prevents, 355-356; 
Indian, 268-271, 281, footnote, 316, 
footnote; Creek, II, 273, footnote; 
between Sioux, Chippewa, and 
Foxes, I, 244, footnote; Huron plan 
against Sioux, 166; desired with Iro- 
quois, 231, 232; refuse to make with 
Iroquois, 231, 233; with Iroquois, 
discontinued, 242; with Iroquois, 
232-243, 262, footnote, II, 91, 102, 
108, 136, 254-255; between Iroquois 
and Algonkin, I, 47, footnote, 190- 
203; between Chippewa and Iro- 
quois, 180-181, 280-281; between 
Iroquois and Illinois, 154-157, 269, 
footnote; between Iroquois and Mi- 
ami, II, 54; between Iroquois and 
Ottawa, I, 151-152; between Iro- 
quois, Conestoga, and Shawnee, 226- 
232; Sauk and Fox, II, 183-184, 204- 
205 ; between Illinois and Foxes, I, 
227; frequent Fox, 288, footnote, 
294, footnote; Foxes fear, 362; fre- 
quent among Menominee, 292, foot- 




note] Seneca slow to abolish, 240, 
footnote] Illinois refrain from, 350- 
351; Ottawa plan against Sioux, 
188-189 ; Ottawa continue, 252, II, 
36; Ottawa persuaded, I, 250; be- 
tween Potawatomi and Menominee, 
310; between Sioux and Cree, 170; 
see Black Hawk War, Conspiracy, 

War of 1812: II, 336, 342, 350, 351, 
and in footnotes on following pages, 

I, 288, 3OI, 316, II, 151, 189, 211, 
245, 273, 279 

Warren, Wm. H: work cited, II, 334, 

Washington, D.C: I, 225, footnote, 
289, footnote, II, 193, footnote, 198, 
footnote, 281, footnote 

Washington, George: II, 150, footnote 

Waupaca County (Wis.) : I, 317, foot- 

Wea [Oiiaouiartanons, Oiiaouyarta- 
nons], (Miami subtribe) : I, 296, 
footnote, 316, footnote, 317, footnote, 

II, 67 and footnote, 119, footnote, 
120, footnote, 129, 130, 201; receive 
annuity, 181, footnote 

Wealth: see Economic conditions 
Weapons: I, 311, II, 62, 73, 206, foot- 
note, 207, footnote, 209, 221, 261; 
deprived of, I, 120; placed on 
graves, 89 ; left with dead, 81 ; bow 
and arrows, no, 138, 161, footnote, 
180, 281, 321, 325, 344, II, 17, foot- 
note, 20, 58, 77, 133, 164, 277; buck- 
lers, I, 126; clubs, 126, 181, 191, 
194, 195, 209, footnote, 259, footnote, 

3*9, 325, 344, 345, 365, II, 17 and 
footnote, 20, 21, 29, 35, 37, 58, 64, 67, 
85, 102, 118, 122, 133, 356; dagger, 
I, 352, II, 63 ; guns, I, 97, no, 163, 
189, 214, 238, 239, 246, 249, 259, 
footnote, 277, footnote, 307, 311, 312, 
315, 330, 334, 342, 344, 345, H, 18, 
19, 27, 28, 50, 56, 60, 89, 164, 176, 
196, 203, footnote, 227, 236, 356; 
hatchet, I, 293, 307, 312, 319, 338, 

365, II, 16, 36, 55, 64, 77, 89, 91, 173 ; 
knives, I, 209, footnote, 293, 307, 
II, 77, 93, 173, 356; lance, 17, foot- 
note, 357; quivers, I, 344; spears, 
II, 356; sword, I, 214, 217, 342, 354, 
II, 55; tomahawk, I, 233 and foot- 
note, 234, 239, 281, II, 180, footnote, 

Webb, J. Watson: work cited, II, 348 
Webster, Hutton: work cited, II, 348 
Weiser, Conrad: Journal, II, 346 
Wentworth, Thomas P : II, 306 
West Indies: I, 259, footnote, 324, foot- 
note, II, 38, footnote 
Westropp, Henry I : II, 284 ; article on 

Sioux, 284-286 

White, E. E: work cited, II, 348 
Whitefish: I, 179, 275, footnote, 276, 
282, footnote, 304; October named 
for, II, 116 

Whites: see Americans; British; Euro- 
peans; French; Interracial relations 
Whittlesey, Charles: work cited, II, 

343, 350 

Wight, W. W: work cited, II, 337 
Wild-cats: I, 113 

Wilkinson, James: II, 279, footnote 
Williams, Eleazer: work on, cited, II, 


Williams, John R: II, 310 
Williamson, Thomas S: II, 340 
Willoughby, C. C: work cited, II, 305 
Wilson, Daniel: work cited, II, 348 
Wilson, Frazer E: work cited, II, 349 
Wilson, Thomas: works cited, II, 343, 


Winnebago [Ho-tcan-ga-ra, Ochun- 
gara, Otchagra, Ouenibegons, Ouini- 
pegous, Ouinipigou, Ouinipegs], 
(Siouan tribe) : I, 18, 288, 306, 310, 
312, 317, 366, II, 20, 76, 78, 82, 83, 
229, 247, and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 50, 89, 149, 162, 165, 
277, 278, 302, 303, 321, 367, 371, II, 
199, 2ii ; source of name, I, 288- 
289, footnote; location, II, 356; 
characteristics, I, 293, 300-301, II, 




297, 298 ; traditions show outside 
influence, I, 41, footnote ; attend 
council, 223 ; take unjust vengeance, 
295-296 ; illustration of wigwams, 
297; migrate to island, 299; chiefs 
plot to save French, II, 54-55, 56; 
wish to avenge Perrot, 85 ; inter- 
tribal troubles, I, 293-295 ; remarks 
of orator, 209-210, footnote ; consent 
to general assembly, 343 ; account of 
mescal-eaters, II, 281-283 

Winnebago County (Wis.) : I, 323, 

Winsor, Justin: works cited, II, 349 

Wirth, : II, 302 

Wisconsin [Ouisconching, Ouisken- 
sing, Ouiskonch] : I, 16, 119, 200, II, 
59, 123, 250, 287, 292, 293, 306, 307, 
337, 355, and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 81, 103, 117, 149, 155, 
165, 171, 225, 257, 268, 279, 281, 288, 
289, 292, 295, 301, 302, 303, 316, 329, 
364, II, 120, 151, 217; French posts, 
I,2 7 . 

CITIES -Bayfield, II, 77, footnote] 
Beloit, 304; Berlin, I, 323, foot- 
note- Black River Falls, II, 284, 
298; Corning, I, 323, footnote; De- 
pere, II, 57, footnote, 356 ; La Pointe, 
77, footnote, 293 ; Madison, I, 21, II, 
57, footnote; Manawa, I, 317, foot- 
note', Menasha, 294, footnote; Mil- 
waukee [Milwahkee], 21, 150, foot- 
note, II, 146 and footnote; Mukwa, 
I> 3*7, footnote; Neenah, 294, foot- 
note; New London, 317, footnote; 
Oneida, 21 ; Oshkosh, II, 157, foot- 
note; Portage, 30; Prairie du Chien, 
I, 294, footnote, II, 147, 177 and foot- 
note, 205, 321 ; Rushford, I, 323, 
footnote; St. Francis, II, 284; St. 
Michael, I, 278, footnote; Trem- 
pealeau, 246, footnote, II, 70, foot- 

COUNTIES - Adams, I, 289, foot- 
note; Ashland, 279, footnote, II, 
76, footnote; Bayfield, I, 279, foot- 

note; Columbia, 323, footnote; 
Douglas, 279, footnote; Green Lake, 
323, footnote, II, 227, footnote; Jack- 
son, I, 289, footnote ; Marathon, 289, 
footnote; Shawano, 289, footnote, 
291, footnote; Waupaca, 317, foot- 
note; Winnebago, 323, footnote 

Wisconsin Archeologist: I, 289, foot- 
note, II, 152, footnote 

Wisconsin [Ouisconching, Ouisconk, 
Ouiskonche] River: I, 115, 244, foot- 
note, 245, footnote, 277, footnote, 294, 
footnote, II, 30, 34, 60, 66, 117, 123, 
146, 201, 202, 303, 356 

Wisconsin State Historical Museum: 
I, 50, footnote 

Wisconsin State Historical Society: I, 
14, II, 245, 308, 313, 320, 333, 334, 
345, 349; Collections, II, 245, 293, 
302, 306, 321, 332, 333, 334, 346, 347, 
349-350, and in footnotes on follow- 
ing pages, I, 21, 89, 168, 185, 246, 
289, 323, II, 47, 57, 59, 66, 142, 151, 
152, 153, 177, 2ii ; Proceedings, 35, 
152, footnote, 311; Transactions, I, 
279, footnote 

Wissler, Clark: work cited, II, 305 

Witherell, B. P. H : Reminiscences, II, 


Wolf: tribal name, II, 163, 191 and 
footnote, 192 

Wolf River: I, 291, footnote, 294, foot- 
note, II, 252 

Wolves: I, 114 

Women: creation belief, I, 39; duties, 
40, 70, 75-76, II, 151, 152, footnote, 
152-153, 164, 165, 212, 217 and foot- 
note, 236; prerogatives, 217, foot- 
note, 218; conduct toward girls at 
puberty, 172, footnote; customs fol- 
lowing marriage, 166 ; special cus- 
toms, 170-172; sterility, 216; fer- 
tility, 37, footnote, 237, footnote, 
286; child bearing, 216; customs re- 
garding widows, 207 ; rights, I, 320, 
footnote; privileges, II, 259; con- 
duct, 288; descent through, I, 320, 



footnote ; property belongs to, II, 
261; status, 32, 215, 217, footnote ; 
modesty of Sioux, 284; potters, I, 
324, footnote ; embroider, 327, foot- 
note ; punish sentinels for neglect of 
duty, II, 186, 187; kill captives, 202; 
play dice, I, 102; slaves become 
free through marriage, II, 197; pro- 
tected on march, I, 125 ; Huron 
warns Iroquois, 153; Winnebago, 
299-300; see Courts hip, Marriage 

Wood, John J : work cited, II, 351 

Wood, Norman B: work cited, II, 351 

Woodbridge, Wm:II, 310 

Woodchucks: I, 49, footnote 

Wovoka [Jack Wilson], (Paiute pro- 
phet of ghost dance) : II, 273 

Wyandot: see Hurons 
Wyoming Valley: I, 336, footnote 

YANKTON [Yancton], (Dakota group) : 
II, 184 

Yanktonai [Yankton Sioux], (Dakota 
subtribe) : I, 364, footnote', location, 
H, 356 

Yarrow, H. C: work cited, I, 82, foot- 
note, II, 352 

Young, Egerton R: work cited, II, 352 

Yucatan: I, 324, footnote, II, 268 


Zuni (tribe) : II, 229, footnote